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Study Guide

by: Jim Notetaker

Study Guide SPC 2608

Jim Notetaker

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This is the study guide from the book Public Speaking: An audience-centered approach. These will provide your success both in the midterm and in the final exams
Public Speaking
Ronald Spinka
Study Guide
audience, Public, speaking
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jim Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPC 2608 at University of South Florida taught by Ronald Spinka in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 3 Key Terms Free Speech- Legally protected speech or speech acts Ethics- Values, beliefs, and moral principles that people use to determine right and wrong First Amendment- The U.S. amendment that protects individual rights and guarantees free speech Speech Act- A behavior that is viewed as a non-verbal communication and is protected and limited as verbal speech (i.e. flag burning) Ethical Speech- Speech that is responsible and honest Accommodation-Sensitivity to others feelings needs or interests Plagiarizing- Presenting someone’s words or ideas as one’s own Patchwriting- Failing to give credit for phrases from another source Oral Citation- Spoken presentation of source information Written Citation- Print presentation of source information Credibility- An audience’s perception of a speaker as competent, knowledgeable, and trustworthy Overview Free speech has been criticized, amended, and defended throughout history. Since being first included in the Bill of rights in 1791 the ability has been changed many times over the years either giving more power to speech or restricting it with “clear and present danger”. It has however always had the boundaries of increased ethics to have a speaker that is sensitive, tolerant, clear and knowledgeable. The goal of public speaking is to be clear and ethical to the audience, as long as you are trying to inform or persuade. Being ethical also includes honesty, and not plagiarizing, by either crediting a source with a citation or provided true facts that are prove with sources. The more ethical you are as a public speaker the more the audience will see you and being creditable or the speaker’s believability and the more believable you are as speaker the better you’ll be at proving your point, or convincing your belief Chapter 4 Key Terms Reasoning- drawing a conclusion from the evidence within the logical framework of the argument. Rhetoric- using symbols to create a message and ultimately achieve a goal. Notes listening - a complex process of selecting, attending to, understanding, remembering, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages. select- selecting a sound is to single out a message from a group of messages. Attend- attending a sound is to focus on that sound. understand- understanding is to; make meaning out of what we experience. remembering- this is the process of recalling information. responding- this is the last step in listening and this step is when you respond with behavior to what you have heard. prejudice- pre convinced opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience. Overview Types of listening include: Listening for pleasure- TV, MOVIES, ETC Listening to empathize- “to feel what the speaker is feeling” Steps: stop- stops what you are doing look- makes eye contact listen- pays attention to both the details and major ideas of the message imagine- visualize how you would feel if you had experienced what the speaker has check- check your understanding of the message by asking questions Listening to evaluate- this is when you make judgments and create an opinion about what you just heard in the message Listening for information-this is school/ educational purposes…you do this when you want to retain information and learn about the message. **listening for major ideas** Become and active listener Re-start Rephrase Repeat Listen Ethically Be sensitive and tolerant of differences Make clear your expectations and feedback Critical listening -this is the process of listening to a message for the purpose of identifying the quality, value, and appropriateness of the content in the message. ****to be a good listener you should separate facts from inferences, and always evaluate the quality of the evidence. **** CHAPTER 6: Developing Your Speech VOCAB: General Purpose­ a motive for giving a certain speech (informative, persuasive, motivational,  entertainment, etc.) Specific Purpose­ What audience should get out of a speech after they have listened to it. Behavioral Objective­ Conforming speaking tone and subject to audience’s preference.  Central Idea­ A summary of a speech in a single sentence. Declarative Sentence­ A solid sentence using correct grammar and syntax as opposed to a  segment of a sentence or a phrase. Main Ideas­ subsets of the central idea of your speech (i.e..: body paragraphs of an essay) Blueprint­ The main point of your speech with an outline of the main ideas. SUMMARY: The first step of preparing speech are: 1. Select and narrow your topic 2. Determine your purpose 3. Develop your central idea 4. Generate your main idea 1. Select and narrow your topic (A)Guidelines for selecting a topic: a) Consider the audience ­Be relevant to the interests and expectations of listeners ­Take into account the knowledge that listeners already have about the topic ­Important to listeners b) Consider the Occasion ­Be appropriate to occasion c) Consider yourself ­Reflect personal experience ­Familiarity ­Curiosity (B) Strategies for selecting a topic a) Brainstorming b) Listening and Reading for Topic Ideas c) Scanning Web Directories 2. Determine Your Purpose (A) General Purpose a) Speaking to inform ­ to share information with audience b) Speaking to persuade ­ to change or reinforce an audience's convictions ­ Urge some sort of action c) Speaking to entertain ­ to get the audience to relax, smile, and generally enjoy themselves (B) Specific Purpose a) Use words that refer to observable or measurable behavior b) Be limited to a single idea c) Reflect the needs, interests, expectations, and level of knowledge of  audience 3. Develop your central idea (A) a complete declarative sentence (B) direct, specific language (C) a single idea (D) an audience­centered idea 4. Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas (A) Finding Logical Divisions (B) Establishing Reasons (C) Tracing Specific Steps CHAPTER 8: Organizing and Outlining Your Speech VOCAB: Topical Organization­ Placing topics and phrases in logical order so the audience understands and learns from the speech. Primacy­ The most relevant and persuasive main idea at the beginning of the speech. (Primacy effect: Humans tend to remember the first thing they observed or learned) Recency­ Ending the speech with another strong main idea so that the listeners get the most  out of the speech. (Recency effect: Humans tend to also remember the last thing they observed  or learned. Often we remember the first presentation in class and then the last presentation and  the ones in the middle are usually blurred together unless they were particularly unique or  interesting.) Complexity­ Starting main ideas simply and then gradually talking about more difficult or  interesting subjects. Chronological Organization­ Putting events/topics in order of the time it happened or took place. Spatial Organization­ Using direction and location to place main ideas in a speech Cause­and­Effect Organization­ Putting events in chronological order if they caused another  event to happen. Problem­Solution Organization­ Placing main ideas in an order of having the problem first and then revealing the solution. Soft Evidence­ Information given out in a speech received from one’s own viewpoint or  thoughts. Hard Evidence­ Actual facts or statistics SUMMARY: Organize your speech in a way that your audience understands your key points and clarifies  your topic ­Select and narrow your topic ­Determine your purpose ­Develop your central idea ­Generate your main ideas ­Gather supporting material ­Organize your speech ­Rehearse your speech ­Deliver your speech Organize your main ideas ­Organizing ideas topically ­natural divisions in your topic reflect topical organization ­primacy­ your most important point is given first ­recency­ your point discussed last the audience will remember most ­complexity­ main ideas discussed in order of simple to complicated ­Organizing ideas chronologically  ­organization by time or sequence ­Arranging ideas spatially ­organizing ideas based on location and definition ­Organizing ideas to show cause and effect ­central idea developed by talking about other points leading up to it ­Organizing ideas by problem solving ­emphasizing what the best way to solve a problem is  ­appropriate for persuasive speeches Acknowledging cultural differences in organization ­these ways of organizing speeches is not used in all cultures ­there are different patterns of thought and organization ­example:audiences in China determine main ideas using themes and messages Integrating your supporting material ­Once you’ve organized your main ideas, you can organize your supporting material ­Specificity­you may either end or lead with your specific information ­Complexity­organize from simple to complex information ­From soft to hard evidence ­Soft­opinion or inference ­Hard­factual examples ­Examples: ­illustration=soft ­expert testimony=soft ­statistic=hard Organizing your presentation for the ears of others: Signposting ­Signposts­organizational cues for audience’s ears ­Preview­telling your audience what you’re going to tell them later ­Initial preview­states what the main ideas of the speech will be ­Internal preview­various points throughout the speech ­Transitions­signal that the speaker is finished with the topic ­Verbal transition­repeating a key term from an earlier statement ­Examples­ ­Transition key word or phrase ­Repeating a key word ­Enumerating ­Non­verbal transition ­Change in facial expression ­Pause ­Altered vocal pitch ­Summaries­recap of what has been said ­Final summary­restates the main ideas of the speech ­Internal summary­in the middle of the speech, restates previous ideas ­Presentation aids­something to also emphasize the main points of the speech ­Example: Power point Outlining your speech ­Preparation outline­details of ideas and supporting material ­Speaking notes­shorter outline ­Developing your preparation outline ­Mapping/Clustering­shapes and arrows connecting your points and material ­Write your preparation outline in complete sentences, like what you are delivering in your  speech ­Will help you in rehearsing ­Use standard outline form ­From a glance you can see relationships among ideas, sub­points and material ­Use standard outline numbering ­roman numerals, letters, then numbers ­Use at least 2 subdivisions for each point ­Always indent ­Write and label your specific purpose at the top of your preparation outline ­Developing your speaking notes ­Choose your technology: Considering using a laptop versus note cards Chapter 7 : Gathering And Using Supporting Material Sources of Supporting Material Supporting for your speech can from a variety of sources including personal knowledge and  experience, the internet, online databases, traditional library holdings and interviews.  Personal knowledge and experience You are your best source, and you maybe the expert on the topic you are speaking about  or you might have experienced that you can share. Use of personal knowledge has the  advantage of heightening your credibility in the minds of your listeners. They will accord you with more respect as an authority when they realize you have first­hand knowledge  of a topic.  The Internet Understanding the World Wide Web, the internet’s primary delivery system; the tools for accessing it; and some of the types of information available on it can help make your  search for supporting material more productive.  1 .     Locating Internet Resources. Using specialize vertical search engines can help you narrow your search for  example: google scholar, indexes, and academic sources. Another strategy to  narrow search is a Boolean Search, it allows you to search particular words or  phrases which narrows down to the specific information that you need. These  strategies can help you narrow a list of hits from sometimes millions of sites, to a  more workable number.  2 .     Exploring Internet Resources. There are different websites with different domains. Each domain represents a  different kind of website examples include:  .com includes News, Entertainment, and commercial website. .Edu is educational  .gov is government  .org is organizations.  3 .     Evaluating Internet Resources Because the web was created based on free speech there isn’t a way of restricting  which causes logistical and ethical challenges to researchers.  There are 6 criteria  in evaluating examples include:  Accountability: who is responsible for the site? Accuracy: Is the Information correct? Objectivity: is the site free of bias? Timeliness: is the site current? Usability: Do the Layout and design of the site facilitate its used? Diversity: is the site inclusive?  Online Database They provide access to bibliographical information, abstract, and full text for a variety of  resources, including periodicals, newspapers, government documents and even books.  Online databases are restricted to the patrons of libraries that subscribe to them.  Traditional Library Holdings Despite the rapid development of Internet and Database resources, the more traditional  holdings of libraries, both paper and electronic remain rich sources of supporting  material.  Interviews If you have important questions to answer for your speech and you can think of someone  who can answer them you can consider ab interview. Before deciding to conduct an  interview be sure that your questions cannot be answered easily by looking at a web site  or reading a newspaper article or a book.  1 .     Preparing for the interview Determine your purpose Schedule the interview Plan your questions  2 .     Conducting the Interview Dress appropriately for the interview (conservative, business like clothes) Arrive for the interview a few minutes ahead of schedule As you conduct the interview, use the questions you have prepared as a guide but not  a rigid schedule.  3 .     Following up the Interview As soon as possible after the interview, read through your notes carefully and revise  any portion that may be illegible or unclear. If you recorded the interview, label the  recording with the date and interviewee’s name. Research Strategies  Develop a Preliminary Bibliography This is a list of promising resources, should be your first research goal. You will probably discover more resources than you actually look at or refer to in your speech; at this stage,  the bibliography simply serves as a menu of possibilities.  Locate resources  Assess the Usefulness of Resources  Take Notes Record any examples, statistics, opinions or other supporting material that might be  useful to your speech. If you copy a phrase, sentence or paragraph verbatim from a  source, be sure to put quotation marks around it. Record the source of the supporting  material.  Identify possible presentation aids In addition to discovering verbal supporting material in your sources, you may also find  charts, graphs, phtogr5aphs, or other potentially valuable visual material. Types of Supporting Material  Illustrations Relevant Stories  Descriptions and Explanations Statements that make clear how something is done or why it exists in its present form or  existed in a past form  Descriptions Word pictures  Definitions Concise explanations of a word or concept  Analogies Comparisons between two things  Statistics Numbers that summarize data or examples  Opinions Testimony or quotations from someone else The Best Supporting Material How do you decide what decide what to use and what to eliminate? The following  considerations can help you make that final cut.  Magnitude. The larger the numbers the more convincing your statistics.  Proximity The best supporting material is whatever is the most relevant to your listeners, or the  closet to home.  Concreteness If you need to discuss abstract ideas, explain them with concrete examples and specific  statistics  Variety A mix of illustrations, opinions, definitions and statistics is much more interesting and  convincing than the exclusive use of any one type of supporting material. Humor Audiences usually appreciate a touch of humour Suitability Your final decision about whether to use a certain piece of supporting material will  depend on its suitability to you, your speech, the occasion and your audience. Chapter 9. Introducing and Concluding Your Speech Your introduction and conclusion can sometimes determine the outcome of your speech. Purposes of the introduction: - Get the audience’s attention  ­by using the methods mentioned below    - Give the audience a reason to listen ­by trying to create a link, an empathy with/in your audience so that they feel like related - Introduce the subject ­by giving your central idea of your speech - Establish your credibilit y ­by talking about your credentials, how reliable you are - Preview your main ideas ­by telling what you will be telling them throughout your speech. Effective Introductions - Illustrations or anecdotes - Startling facts or statistics - Quotations - Humor - Questions - Reference to historical events - References to recent events - Personal references - References to the occasion - References to the preceding speeches Non­effective ways of introducing a speech - Beginning a speech with “Ok, ah…”  - Apologizing or making excuses at the beginning of the speech for not being prepared - Beginning a speech with “Hello, my speech is on…” Purposes of conclusions:  - Summarize the speech  - Provide closure Effective Conclusions: - Methods used for introductions  - Reference to the introduction - Inspirational appeals or challenges Non­effective Conclusions: - Saying “In conclusion” - Ending a speech with “Thank you” - Ending a speech with “Are there any questions?” Chapter 12 & 13 Group Notes Key Terms­ Chapter 12 Presentation aid­ An object that can be seen by the audience, such as a video, image,  chart, etc. to help communicate an idea. Visual rhetoric­ The use of a visual aid or visual aids to make the speech effective  overall. Model­ A smaller object meant to represent another in object. Graph­ A image that represents mathematical or statistical data. Bar graph­ A graph that uses bars at different lengths to represent date. Pie graph­ A graph that divides parts of a circle to show percentages of a whole. Line graph­ A graph the uses lines represent to data and its relationship to other data. Picture graph­ A graph that uses images to represent the data. Chart­ Summarizes information through words, numbers, or images. Overview of Chapter 12 Presentation aids can be used to enhance the audience’s experience of a speech.  They  can be used to increase the audience’s understanding. Research shows that you only remember  10 percent of what you read, but 50 percent of what you read and hear at the same time. The use  of an aid helps the listener organizing ideas. The visual aids allow the listener to visualize the  main ideas of the speech. The use of presentation aids can gain the audience’s attention. Like  including song lyrics that relate to the presentation. They can also be used to show sequence of  events, like when presenting a recipe prepare a live demonstration to show the order of steps.  Presentation aids can come in two physical forms, three dimensional and three  dimensional. Three dimensional includes things like models and people. While two dimensional  includes things like images, charts, and etc.  Computer­Generated presentation aids should follow guidelines. They should be made up of  simple text with common fonts, the font and color should be chosen carefully, and the visuals  should be used when rehearsing the presentation. Audiovisual aids should include  complimentary information. The pictures should fit along with the music in the background.  When you use a presentation aid of any type make sure to make eye contact with the  audience and not the aid. When you use an aid make sure to reference it in your presentation and  do not pass it around the audience. If you use a handout make sure to only highlight the main  points of the presentation. Key Terms­ Chapter 13  Speech to inform­ A speech that has the intent to educate the audience on new  information, ideas, or concepts.  Pedagogy­ The art and science of teaching children.  Andragogy­ The art and science of teaching adults. Chapter 12 & 13 Group Notes  Word picture­ A description that uses words to create imagery.  Chronological­ presents information in a time sequenced order usually from past to  present.  Topical  Spatial  Complexity Overview of Chapter 13 There are five types of informative speeches. Object speeches present information about  things that are tangible and can be touched. The information is typically presented in topical,  spatial, chronological manner. The second type is procedure speeches; they describe how  something works or a process. They present information in a chronological, complexity, or  topical form. People speeches describe people whether they are famous or are of personal  acquaintance. Event speeches describe an event in the past or the future. They are presented in a  chronological, spatial, or topical manner. The final type of informative speech is the idea speech. This speech presents concepts or theories that are considered abstract. The format is topical or  complexity. There are five strategies to enhance the audiences understanding. Step one is to clearly  define ideas. The second is to use the techniques of andragogy. The third is to clarify anything  that may be unclear or complex to the listeners. The fourth is to use descriptions effectively. The  final strategy is to combine the words in the presentation and visual opportunities to appeal to the audience. Think ethically and critically. Asses your audience and simplify any ideas that may be  complex and then identify an approach that would be appropriate for the audience.  To maintain the audiences interest, follow four important principles. The first is to  motivate your audience to listen. The second is to tell a story that keeps your audience focused.  The third principle is to present information that relates to your listeners. Finally surprise your  audience with the unexpected. Being redundant helps your readers remember what your speech  is about. 


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Refund Policy


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