RELS 2001 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
RELS 2001 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Rels 2001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zenia Mason on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Rels 2001 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Pedro E. Alvarado in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO WORLD RELIGIONS in Religious Studies at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
• Four functions of ritual o Orients participants to sacred space and time o Connects participants to divine o Connects participants to larger community o Includes the body as an instrument for religion • Three Kinds of ritual and examples of each o Calendar Ritual= daily (Shala), weekly (church), monthly (…), yearly (Hanukkah) o Life Cycle Rituals= Birth, coming of age (rite of passage), marriage, and death o Special Occasion Rituals= Ordination (designs a priest and allows them to teach the word of God. And Exorcism, baptism) • What role does baptism play in Christianity? o Because Jesus was baptized, it became the basis for getting closer to God, and cleansing sins o Every disciple of Jesus had to be baptized, as well as had to baptize others. o Those who had been baptized now had identified with Jesus, and formed a relationship with God o Mathew 3:1-17 Jesus was baptized (theophany, God appeared after the baptism) o Mathew 28:16-20 Jesus tells the disciples to baptize others o Mathew 6:1-11 identifies believers with Jesus • Cardozo article o Emic perspective because she’s a Jew; depicts her experience with the naming ritual, and describes the process o Key terms § Azhkenazic Jews- Jews who originated in Eastern Europe § Separdic Jews- Jews who are from the areas around the Mediterranean Sea; including Portugal, Spain, the Middle East, and North Africa § Diaspora Jews- Jews who were dispersed as a result of a foreign invader, i.e. Babylonian exile and WWII § Kiddush- Meal after a sacred event; or ushering in the Sabbeth § Seudat- a festive meal; usually following the fulfillment of a mitzvah (commandment) § Mohal- person performing the Brit (the circumciser) § Minyan- minimum number of people necessary for certain prayers § Sandek- assistant to Mohal o Naming Ritual § Life cycle ritual; ceremony held in a synagogue or at home for the naming of a girl/boy. The ritual occurs eight days after the child is born. o Brit/Bris § A Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony on the eighth day of a male infant’s life. • Hinduism o Puja- the act of showing reverence to a god, a spirit, or another aspect of the divine through invocations, prayers, songs, and rituals o Brahman- in the Upanishads (Indian sacred writings) the supreme existence or absolute reality o Atman- soul/self o Sruti- Apart of sacred texts; Sanskrit for “that which is heard” and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon (accepted text) of Hinduism o Smriti- “that which is remembered”, refers to a body of Hindu texts usually attributed to an author, traditionally written down but constantly revised o The Vedas- The Hindu Canons § Rigveda- Vedic Sanskrit Hymns § Yarjurveda-The veda of prose mantras; a compilation of ritual offering prayers that were said by priest while performing a ritual § Samaveda- The veda of melodies and chants § Atharvaveda- The “knowledge storehouse of Atharvaveda, the late addition to the Vedic scriptures of Hinduism o Bhagavad Gita- 700 verse Hindu scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata; dialogue between Pandava, Prince Arjuna, and his guide and charioteer Lord Krishna. Facing the duty as a warrior to fight a righteous was between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is counselled by Lord Krishna to “fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) and establish dharma. § Setting of Gita is in a battlefield; interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. § Call for selfless action inspired many indian leaders § Mahatma Gandhi referred to it as his “spiritual dictionary” o Samsara- the “Atman (soul/self)” comes back over and over again, “the cycle of life, death, and rebirth o Moksha-1 of 4 goals of Hinduism; liberation from the process of life, death, and rebirth; leading soul towards liberation/salvation o Karma- the things we do in this life shape the circumstances of future lives; the circustances of this life are the result of choices/actions we have performed in past lives o Dharma- 1 of 4 goals of Hinduism; one’s duty in this life o Varna- one’s social cast § Brahmin- priestly caste § Kshatriya- ruling caste and military elite (two lives, lived a previous life) § Vaisya- business caste; agriculture, laborers, traders, bankers, etc. § Shudra-servant caste (your first life) o Ashrama- one’s stage in life (child, householder, elderly) § One’s social duties comes from one’s caste and stage in life § Performing these properly is the basis of liberation o Artha- 1 of 4 goals of Hinduism; earning money honestly to provide for the family; acquiring wealth and power o Kama- 1 of 4 goals of Hinduism- pursuing love and pleasure only in marriage o Kamasutra- a book of aphorisms (sayings/proverbs) or a condensed manual about pursuing love pleasure in the context of marriage o Saktas- “Shakti” is power, energy- the active principle of the universe which is personified as a goddess. Every form of activity--- however it be named--- proceeds from primordial Shakti o Durga- “the inaccessible or”invincible”, one of the main forms of Shakti o Kali- “another form of Shakti whose earliest appearance is that of a destroyer principally of evil forces o Saivites- “Shiva’s path”, also known as Shivaism and Salvam, is one of the major branches of Hinduism; revering Shiva and the Supreme being o Vaishnavites- also called Vishmuism; its followers are called Vaishnavas, and it considers Vishnu as the Supreme Lord • Arnold Van Gennep- fore writer to Victor Turner o Rites of passage- A religious ceremony that has to do with transitions in life; rites which accompany every change of place, state, and social position and age o Three stages of initiation rites § Separation (preliminal)= the initiate is removed from the rest of the community § Transition (liminal)= the initiate leaves the community until the rites are completed § Re-Aggression (post liminal)= the initiate rejoins the community • Victor Turner- Scottish anthropologist for rites of passage; actually participated in rituals in Ndembu § Dealt with liminality, limen (threshold), and the communitas § Thought prilgramage was a form of liminality because the actual journey is the transformative process o Liminality § What it is- being “betwixt and between” no clear social status § Examples • Pilgrimage • Pledging a fraternity • Being in college (dependent to adult transition) • Military basic training (separated from society, not full soldier but also not civilian) o Communitas § What it is- a group of people who are all in the same liminal state § Complete contrast to structured society, as all social distinctions fall away § Involves a “common generic bond” • Father-Daughter Purity Ball & Pursuit of Teen Girl Purity – from Time Magazine o The father, daughter, and the community are the participants. The purity ball is celebrating daughters’ purity, and the covenant between God, the daughter, and the father. The covenant connects the father and daughter with god fulfilling the connection with the divine, they are participating in a ritual that is widely accepted by the community which fulfills the connection to the community, the religious dancing at the ball represents the body as an instrument for religion, and the ritual and ball as a whole orients the participant to sacred space and time. This is a life cycle ritual began by Randy and Lisa Wilson.
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