PSY 210 Social Psychology Final Review Guide
PSY 210 Social Psychology Final Review Guide PSY 210
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Kaufman on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 210 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Amy Schaffeur in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
SOCIAL PSYCH FINAL: REVIEW GUIDE CHPT 7: Persuasion What paths lead to persuasion? o Central route: occurs when people focus on the arguments (facts and information) and respond with favorable thoughts Better for important topics that audience knows well o Peripheral route: occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as speaker’s attractiveness Positive associations Most commercials: Old Spice examples (karate) Elements of persuasion: communicator, message content, channel, audience o Communicator Credibility: believability; in terms of both expertise and trustworthiness Attractiveness: appealing qualities Halo effect: beautiful people are good Sleeper effect: delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective; we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it “I heard somewhere that…” individual more persuaded by the message over time Research close up: Blascovich, Bailenson: studying social psychology in virtual social reality People liked and were persuaded by a person who echoed own expressions (similarities) o Message content Reason v Emotion Depend on audience o If thoughtful audience, use central route o If uninterested audience, use peripheral route Emotion o Good feelings cause more convincing o Arousing fear (George Bush commercial) To prevent bad habits- smoking Careful, this route can lead to cognitive dissonance: having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, attitudes Discrepancy: a credible source will elicit more change Especially for discrepant change Presentation 1 sided: with people who already agreed 2 sided: with people who disagreed o Need to support idea and need to negate their negative thoughts o More persuasive Primacy vs recency; who speaks first and who speaks last changes persuasiveness Primacy: 1 st o Primacy effect: those who speak first often have most influence o If presented back to back, we remember the first Recency: last o Recency effect: those who speak last have most influence [ less common then primacy effect ] o If presented with time delay, we remember the 2nd o Channel of communication: the way the message is received Active v Passive reception Active: reading o Want more active o Interesting Book: Gladwell’s Tipping Point Passive: watching TV Personal v Media influence Media; two step flow of communication: from leader to media to others (us) o More lifelike, more persuasive Personal: recommendations from someone we know persuades us Exposure effect: repetition breeds liking o Audience Effects of age Life cycle change: attitudes change as people grow older Generational change: attitudes do not change; older people hold onto attitudes they adopted when they were young o Cannot teach an old dog new tricks o Benington College: students from conservative backgrounds, a liberal college. 50 years later more liberal. o In summary Cults; o Characterized by: Distinct rituals and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or person Isolation from surrounding “evil” culture A charismatic leader o Indoctrination Quickly made active members “Love bombing” Voluntary or minimal contribution Isolation Target groups Under 25 At turning points o Other book notes Use group effect, foot-in-the-door phenomenon Resisting persuasion o Challenging beliefs o Develop counterarguments o Inoculation programs Attitude inoculation: exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available William McGuire: did study on people resisting manipulation and advertisers use this to diminish other companies Inoculating children against peer pressure and advertising Poison parasite; use cues from malboro add; “I miss my lung, Bob.” o Two elements; poisonous strong counterinformation and parasitic associative links between counter claims and rival position CHPT 8: Group Influence Group: perceive one another as “us” o Interact with or influence each other Social facilitation: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others o Social arousal o Enhance easy behavior o Impair difficult behavior o Evaluation apprehension: concern for how others are evaluating us Social loafing: tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts in a group towards a common goal, more so than when they are individually accountable o When you are boss, evaluate individual efforts within group Deindividuation: loss of sense of self, do things that we would not do alone o Foster responsiveness to group norms o Increased deindividuation Increased group size Physical anonymity Arousing and distracting activities o Diener and others: kids were more likely to take extra candy when they were in a group and when anonymous Group Polarization: group-produced enhancement of member’s pre-existing tendencies (groups intensify opinions) o Risky Shift case- used to think group polarization was this but we now know it is just pre-existing tendencies Stoner’s studies to see whether Helen should write a novel in terms of probability it will be successful Tested common hypothesis that groups are more cautious than individuals Showed group decisions being risky Opinions began converging; usually a lower riskier number than initial average o Conformity plays a role- two group influences Informational influence Normative influence Social comparison Pluralistic ignorance: look to other people in dangerous situation (bystander effect) o Seen in prejudice groups; Myers (racial discussions) o Schools, communities, terrorist organizations, internet Groupthink: a group agrees with a decision with no evaluation o Social psychologist Irving Janus uses groupthink toth explain good and bad group decisions of the 20 century American presidents o Titanic, Pearl Harbor, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Vietnam War, Challenger explosion Challenger Disaster 1986 O-ring malfunction Worries about O-rings had circulated for months before hand; groupthink to launch o Symptoms of groupthink Overestimate might and right Illusion of invulnerability Unquestioned belief in group’s morality Close-minded Rationalization; collective justification Stereotyped view of the opponent Conformity Self censorship; to avoid uncomfortable disagreement Illusion of unanimity; agreement of all people involved Mindguards: some members protect the group from information that would call into question the effectiveness of its decisions o Protection against groupthink Be impartial Devil’s advocate Occasionally subdivide group, then unite to air differences Welcome critiques from outside experts Before implicating call second chance meeting Group problem solving o African proverb: “if you want to go quickly, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.” o Brown and Paulus: identified 3 ways to enhance group brainstorming Combine group and individual brainstorming (group first) Brainwriting: have group write and read rather than speak and listen (no one-at-a-time) Pass a note than add an idea Electric brainstorming: on computer, more efficient Minority influence o Consistency o Self confidence o Defections from the majority Leadership: the process by which individuals mobilize and guide groups o Task leadership: leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals o Social leadership: leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support o Transformational leadership: leadership that, enabled by a leader’s vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence Motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the group’s mission Focus on: transformational community leadership Walt and Mildred Woodward in WWII Voiced opposition to Japanese internment o People not hostile about their return Honored for courage in book Snow Falling on Cedars CHPT 9: Prejudice Prejudice: a preconceived negative judgment about a group and its members o Discrimination: unjustified negative behavior towards a group and its members o Prejudice is a thought, discrimination is a behavior o Stereotype: a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people Generalizing about individuals in a group Prejudice can be; o Overt: explicit and conscious o Subtle: implicit and automatic Automatic: amygdala Controlled: frontal cortex Where does anger disappear: implicit judgment test Hugenberg and Bodenhausen People saw more anger in black faces longer than they saw anger in white faces higher scores in prejudice Sexism o Benevolent: positive Women more understanding and kind; Alice Eagley women are wonderful effect o Hostile: negative Sources of social prejudice: social inequalities, socialization, religion, institution o Social inequalities Unequal status and prejudice Social dominance orientation: a motivation to have ones group dominate other social groups “Absolute power corrupts absolutely” o Socialization; from other people Authoritarian personality: a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status harsh punishment, absolute enforcement of rules Authoritarian parent teaches kid not to get caught because I said so- emphasis on obedience Authoritative parent teaches kid why something is wrong Ethnocentric: believing in the superiority of ones own ethnic and cultural group, disdain for other groups o Religion and prejudice Correlation does not imply causation Depth of religious commitment Low commitment: more religious-more prejudice High commitment: more religious- less prejudice o Conformity Follow path of least resistance o Institutional supports: schools, government, media, banks In classroom; Motivational Sources of prejudice o Scapegoat theory: targets for displaced aggression Frustration-aggression Ie more lynchings occurred during the years with low cotton prices (economic frustration) o Realistic group conflict theory: the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources Competition and scarcity of resources lead to prejudice o Social identity: the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to who am I that comes from our group membership Tend to define ourselves from our groups Social identity theory We categorize; shortcut description We identify; associate ourselves with certain groups that are our ingroups; o Gain self esteem for status and belonging; positive self concept We compare; contrast our groups with other groups known as outgroups; o Favorable bias to own group: ingroup bias Increases with small number and threat Cognitive Sources of prejudice o Categorization o Outgroup homogeneity effect: perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than ingroup members They are alike, we are diverse o Own-race bias: the tendency for people to more accurately recognize the faces of their own race Also known as cross-race or other-race effect o Vanman found that facial muscles indicated more frowning when looking at outgroup (other race) even if they said they liked them o Stigma consciousness: expectation of being victimized by prejudice Distinctiveness feeds self consciousness Perceiving people who stand out Vivid cases: more available in memory, seldom represent larger group Is it a just world? o Just-world phenomenon: the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get Blame the victim Monday morning quarterback: judging people by their results Just world phenomenon discounts the uncontrollable factors that can derail good efforts by talented people Stereotype threat: disrupting concern that one will be negatively evaluated because of stereotype o Claude Steele gave hard math test to men and women Equal scores when not told anything Women scored worst when told that there was a gender difference Subtyping: accommodating individuals who deviate from ones stereotype by thinking of them as an exception to the rule o Supgrouping: doing so for a group CHPT 10: Aggression: Hurting Others Aggression: physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone o Hostile aggression: aggression that springs from anger whose goal is to injure Goal: to injure, an end in itself o Instrumental aggression: aggression that aims to injure with means to other end; to make a point Most terrorism Goal: something else Theories of aggression: biological, frustration, learned social behavior o Biological; instinctive (learned), evolutionary, neural, genetic, biochemical Neural: amygdala triggers anger, prefrontal cortex inhibits aggression Instinctive behavior: an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species Biochemical influences: alcohol, high testosterone, low serotonin, poor diet o Frustration-aggression theory: the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress Displacement: redirect aggression to a safer target other than source of frustration Frustration aggression theory REVISED: frustration causes anger that leads to aggression (build up of anger) Aggression theories describe HOSTILE aggression (not instrumental) o Relative deprivation: the perception that one is less well off than others when comparing; know what you are missing Aggression as learned social behavior o Observational learning; social learning theory: we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished Family, culture; tv, magazines, movies, videogames o Bandura’s experiment: Bobo dolls: after children watch male model attack doll, children attack; also play on rewarding and stuff Influences on aggression o Aversive incidents: pain, heat, attacks o Forms of arousal (anger) amplify one another; fight, fright, sexual arousal o Direct correlation between watching TV and aggressive acts Correlation does not imply causation, but we have experimental data that shows cause and effect Donnerstein: after viewing an aggressive erotic film, college men delivered stronger shocks than before especially to women Pornography; distorted perceptions of sexual reality and increased aggression against women TV and behavior: arousal, disinhibition, imitation TV and thinking: desensitization, social scripts, altered perceptions, cognitive priming, time drain o Anderson: video game violence Aggression in groups o Group-enhanced aggression Jaffe: showed that groups gave higher shocks Meir and Hinsz: groups gave and got more hot sauce o Diffusion of responsibility o Social contagion: groups magnify aggressive tendencies o Finding social identity in a gang o Group polarization Reducing aggression o Catharsis (letting it out in another way); not effective o Social learning approach CHPT 11: Attraction and Intimacy Proximity: geographical nearness; powerfully predicts liking Matching hypothesis: we tend to choose partners of similar levels of attractiveness (and other traits) Mere-exposure effect: tendency for new stimuli to be liked more so than after repeated exposure Physical attractiveness stereotype: the presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well Sternberg’s theory of Love: 7 possible loves o Only need to know consummate love Equity: the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it o Equitable outcomes don’t have to be equal Differences in attractiveness o Over time o Between cultures; YouTube examples; the Duchess, Monsoon Wedding Excitation Transfer: Art Aron suspended bridge study o Met woman on a bridge: liked her more o Met woman in classroom: liked her less o Sympathetic nervous system excites Attachment theory o Bowlby’s initial research: homeless people Determines that intimate attachments to other humans are hub to which humans life revolves around o Harlow’s experiment: Monkeys When baby monkeys presented with 2 fake, go to one that has fake fur and looks like mom rather than one that doesn’t look like mom but has bottle o Answorth’s research: children in waiting room Strange situation paradigm, reaction of child when mom comes back Three styles of attachment Secure attachment: attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy o Doesn’t mean baby is not upset, happy when return again Avoidant attachment: attachment marked by resistance to being close to others o Kid didn’t care or notice when mom left/returned Insecure attachment: attachments marked by anxiety and ambivalence o Crying so much, ambivalent; pissed when mom comes back o Hazan and Shaver’s research: childhood attachment transfers to adult romantic relationships Self-disclosure: revealing something about yourself to others o Women have more self disclosure than males Male widowers suffer more than females o Increasing intimacy, as with shared acitivites o Disclosure reciprocity: the tendency for one person’s intimacy of self disclosure to match that of a conversational partner o Snyder; developed self monitoring scale Low: psychiatric patients Medium/most effective: High: actors Anti-social personality disorder: good at self monitoring, manipulative people Empirically supported relationship research o Gottman Relationship Institute; “7 principles for making marriages work by Gottman” o Prep Inc; “fighting for your marriage” by Markman and Stanley CHPT 12: Don’t need to know much, just… - From an evolutionary standpoint, the whole goal is to reproduce; so were more likely to help people who are related to us and less likely to help strangers and other species - Bystander effect: more likely to help someone if you are by yourself but when you’re in a group you have to o Notive event o Interpret as emergency know what to do o Know you are the one who has to do it; in group often wait for someone else to act Pluralistic ignorance: look to other people in danger CHPT 13: Conflict and Peacemaking Why do we care who wins? o Ingroup bias o Evolution and survival of the fittest What creates conflict: social traps, competition, perceived injustice, misperception o Social traps: a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior The prisoner’s dilemma: DA knows two people are jointly guilty but only has enough evidence to convict them of lesser offense, so creates incentive for private confession o If one confesses, will convict that one of harsh sentence and other of complete immunity o If both confess, each will get moderate sentence o If neither confess, convicted of light sentence Over 2000 variations Most beneficial: neither confess Most likely: confess Tragedy of the Commons: the commons is any shared resource (air, water, energy sources, food supplies), and the tragedy is when individuals consume more than their share causing collapse Do what is good for me or for the group? o Misperception; mirror-image perceptions: reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict Both view themselves as moral and other as evil How can peace be achieved? o Contact, cooperation, and communication o Contact hypothesis: human contact will create peace Equal status contact: contact on an equal bases; necessary o Non-zero sum games: games in which outcomes do not need to some zero- does not need to be winner and loser With cooperation; both can win With competition; both can lose AKA mixed motive situations o Cooperation Enhanced by common external threats Enhanced by superordinate goals: a shared goal that necessitates cooperation Color war Sherif’s Robber’s Camp/Cave experiment: shows competition creates enemies o First week, separate camps (boyscouts) did cooperative activities and got along o Win lose competition created intense conflict (Rattlers and Eagles) Rugby reducing barriers in south Africa: Invictus Remember the Titans: equal status contact, superordinate goals Shelton and Richeson: cross-racial friendship Studied Princeton students Races thinking that they are more interested in a relationship then members of the other race Restrain friendships Jackie Robinson Rickey refused to desegregate PeeWee Reese putting arm around shoulder; OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING in movie with little boy o Statue in Brooklyn Superordinate goals; Stank yelling at Phillies coach, Stank saying to hit guy in head after cleated robinson Contact hypothesis; guy from Greys started to like him o Staying in house when wouldn’t let him Frustration hypothesis: batting the wall after Phillies manager yelled at him o After not being allowed into hotel “I want an apology from you” Jigsaw Classroom: break kids down into diverse groups, have them present a topic Each group member had piece of jigsaw Elliot Aronson research study Desegregation in schools in 1970s TX o Communication: bargaining, mediation, arbitration Bargaining: seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation People can work out on own Mediation: an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions Parties involved still have final say Arbitration: resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement Things so conflicting all you can do is present your side CHPT 14,15,16: Applying Social Psychology [in the Clinic, Court, and Sustainable Future] IN THE CLINIC o Psychological disorders and treatment: take abnormal psychology Depression Enhance happiness: exercise, sleep, close relationships, helping others, gratitude journal o Martin Seligman’s Learned Optimism or Authentic Happiness o Sameet Kumar’s The Mindful Path Through Worry and Rumination o Gretchen Rubin’s The Happiness Project o Gratitudechallenge.com o UM wellness center: exercise, cooking classes, meditation, massage o Volunteer: Butler Center; 305-284-GIVE, UC240 Loneliness Anxiety and shyness Health, illness, and death o About health and wellness: take stress management o From the speaker Schizophrenia Culturally Informed Therapy for Schizophrenia Education based on culture EE: Expressed Emotion; risk factor for exacerbation of illness EOI: emotionally overinvolved statement IN THE COURT o Elizabeth Loftus: demonstrate Misinformation Effect Misinformation effect: incorporating misinformation into one’s memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information Way you ask a question can lead to misinformation o How fast cars going when hit? Less accurate answer o How fast cars going when smashed? Remember broken glass; more accurate o Happens to children Loftus; people asked with wrong sign (misleading information) answered incorrectly more o Eyewitness testimony; Wells and Bradfeld Act more certain in testimony than they were at the crime Increased confidence with positive feedback; post identification feedback effect With repetition of question Video of jacket changing colors; don’t always do a good job at remembering things SUSTAINABLE FUTURE o Environmental crisis: exploding population, increased resource consumption National Geographic clip: 7 billion: predict 7 billion people by the end of 2011 o Drive hybrid vehicle: 50% parking rebate o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: after basic needs met, money does not increase happiness o National well being; Britain’s New Economic Foundation Experienced quality of life matters more than income o Presenter Society constructs the way people think about climate change Rational actor: maximize utility Dumb Shit “Know this for the test” - T-mobile changed look of spokesperson due to ad run against them - Sprayed with ammonia gas: empirical evidence o Poisoned parasite ad: virgin mobile commercial - Gottman Institute: all about relationships o Books, DVDs, research, therapy o 7 Principles to Make Marriage Work o 16 minute clip o 4 signs of apocalypse (near end); contempt o 5:1 ratio: for every 1 issue you have, have 5 things to counteract - Failure to thrive syndrome: infants with proper nutrition but without emotional attachment can die - Odd Animal Couples: video viewed in class o In Nature on PBS o What were animal pairings? Goat and blind horse Dog and cheetah: Busch gardens Deer and Dog: Kate and Pip Goose and turtle o Animals have personalities too:stable - Females who have stronger social bonds live longer - Temple Grandon: talked about emotions, autistic - Miami Holocaust Memorial commemorating Day of Broken Glass 75 thAnniversary - Cate Mutiny: how the Miami Hurricanes overturned the football establishment o One of the first schools with African American - Office of the Ombudperson: investigates and attempts to resolve complaints and problems between students and university employee or employer
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