ANT 304, Exam 1 Study Guide
ANT 304, Exam 1 Study Guide ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zeba Khetani on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in Archaeology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapters 1-4 ANT 304 P. 3-5 Why Archaeology is Important 1. Most of humanity’s history is non-written b/c either writing wasn’t yet invented or oral traditions lived on a. Even written records are selective, they don’t tell all 2. Archaeology lets us ﬁnd data to compare to same & different time periods as well as geographical regions Survey and Excavation Methods 1. Research design- set of methods used 2. Finding and Recording Sites a. Pedestrian survey: surveying the land by standing and moving equidistantly i. Use shovel probe if there is vegetation P. 10-11 b. Excavating Sites i. Potential buried deposits are located and one or more is picked according to the research design ii. Set up a datum- x, y, z spatial coordinates are used to set up a grid 1. Use compass, transit (telescope), and total station 2. Stratigraphy- levels or layers of artifacts 3. The sediment around artifacts is known as layer, level, locus, spit iii. Micro fauna found through screening, wet screening P. 16-21 How Old is it? 1. Relative Dating Methods- no exact dates, just a sequence (older, younger) a. Stratigraphy i. Bottom is the oldest and top is the youngest b. Seriation i. Two artifacts are compared in style and type to calculate relative chronology c. Tools: stone à bronze à metal; not always accurate 2. Absolute dating methods- obtain calendar dates a. Dendrochronology- tree ring dating i. Most precise ii. Drawbacks: can only be used in small regions of the world and the sequence is not long (8,700-12,000 years in the past) b. Archaeomagnetism- earth’s magnetic ﬁeld changes over time c. Radiometric techniques use the half-life of radioactive elements; always use a standard deviation i. Radiocarbon Dating (C-14) 1. Uses organic samples: wood, shell, textiles 2. 400-50,000 years ago 3. Problems: radioactivity released during WWII causes an interference ii. Potassium-Argon dating 1. Can be used for millions of years ago b/c of the long half-life of potassium, which then transforms to argon 2. Used for inorganic materials such as rock, volcano P. 28-32 2. Used for inorganic materials such as rock, volcano P. 28-32 Who Owns the Past? 1. Archaeologists have a responsibility to preserve the sites (past) 2. Cultural heritage- the record of the ancestors of particular groups of people 3. Indigenous people and archaeologists clash on theories of the past. 4. Each state has a State Historic Prevention Ofﬁce a. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act i. Native Americans and Native Hawaiians can “claim” remains and other cultural objects and they will be returned to the appropriate group P. 37-39 A Word About Classiﬁcation 1. Taxonomy- classiﬁcation system containing different levels of categories a. Most inclusive group (broadest) à most speciﬁc group (narrowest) b. King Phillip Came Over for Good Sex: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Why is Bipedalism Important? 1. Bipedalism- walking on two legs 2. Sexual dimorphism- differences between males and females 3. Advantages of bipedalism a. Signals increased use of terrestrial habitats b. Freeing hands and arms allowed early people to make tools c. Better able to withstand heat stress by standing upwards d. Energy and efﬁciency advantages e. Constant visual awareness of surroundings P. 48-50 Tool Use and Manufacture 1. Oldest evidence of tools are stone ones, but people may have used tools long before stone that failed to be preserved due to their materials (wood, branches) 2. Stone tools a. Oldest evidence- 3.39 million years ago; bones that may have been shaped by stone tools b. Unsure if these bones were made by hominins using stone tools or simply picked because of their sharp edges c. 2-2.5 million years ago- stone tools (ﬂakes, cores) P. 62-63, 66 Early Waves of Out of Africa 1. 1.9 million years ago, Africa- Homo Erectus a. similar skeleton neck down b. different skull shape 2. Earliest movement out of Africa a. Dmanisi- Republic of Georgia b. Sangiran- Java, Indonesia c. Ubeidiya- Israel 3. Meanwhile back in Africa a. Acheulian- ﬂaked stone tool tradition found in Africa i. (Oldowan- ﬂaked stone tool tradition found in N American SW) b. Homo heidelbergensis i. Smaller brain size ii. Used Acheulian tools P. 72-75 Modern Humans, Neanderthals, and Homo ﬂoresiensis 1. Neanderthals- earliest form of humans a. Homo Neanderthalensis or homo sapiens Neanderthalensis? 2. Multiregional and recent single origin models (spectrum) a. Multiregionalism- all hominin populations were interconnected through the evolutionary process of gene ﬂow i. Hominins in the beginning mated with groups other than their own a. Multiregionalism- all hominin populations were interconnected through the evolutionary process of gene ﬂow i. Hominins in the beginning mated with groups other than their own who then mated with other groups, and onward. ii. The genepool is completely mixed and all hominins together created the modern human b. Recent Single Origin- modern humans originated only in Africa only 200,000 years ago i. All other hominins went extinct 3. Skeletal Anatomy a. Multi-regional model believers stress the similarities of old skeletons to modern humans b. Single origin model believers stress the disappearance of certain skeletal features c. Neanderthals found in Western Eurasia, not Africa i. Date to 350,000 years ago, but the traits that tie them to modern humans date to 100,000 years ago ii. Short arms & legs, robust, large nasal cavities P. 80 The Origins of Modern Behaviors 1. One of the key features of modern behavior is the use of symbolism 2. Our view of the origins of modern behavior appear to be Eurocentric (40,000 years ago), while we know that the origins of modern humans was in Africa (much longer than 40,000 years ago) P. 88-89 Disappearance of Neanderthals 1. Disappear after 40,000 years ago 2. May have disappeared b/c unlike modern humans they weren’t too smart in their clothing, shelter, and other technologies 3. May have disappeared b/c volcanoes killed lots of people as well as resources and they had couldn’t quickly adjust to the fewer (food) resources P. 101-104, 106-109 Upper Paleolithic Europe •Begins around 45,000 cal BC •Better able to cope w/ glacial climates 1. Early Upper Paleolithic a. Earliest modern human groups- Russia, England, Italy b. Artistic expression by Aurignacian groups in Spain, Germany, France, Russia i. Red dots on a cave ii. Oldest woman sculpture out of mammoth bone iii. Bone needles to sew clothing iiii. Well-constructed hearths v. Rotary drill vi. Artiﬁcial shelters c. Hunters of large animals such as reindeer, horse i. Sometimes by natural traps (ravines) 2. Mid-Upper Paleolithic a. Survived -20 degree winters b. Gravettian/ Eastern Gravettian archaeological records- cultures of the mid- upper Paleolithic period c. Mammoth steppe- dry grasslands supporting unusual pairings of plants and animals i. Good for hunter-gatherer groups d. Aggregation sites- like a “hotel” site; people stayed, left, and came back to e. Took part in experimental ceramics i. Created balls, pellets, Venus ﬁgurines ii. Way ahead of their time f. Triple burials- deformed person is buried with 2 men and lots of ‘stuff’ ii. Way ahead of their time f. Triple burials- deformed person is buried with 2 men and lots of ‘stuff’ i. Special status? 3. Late Upper Paleolithic a. Eastern, Western, and Central Europe- Magdalenian and Epi-Gravettian i. Settled here unlike the Gravettian and Eastern Gravettian b/v ice age had subsided b. Atlatl- device that made spear throwing more efﬁcient c. Bow and arrow technology, ﬁshhooks, barbed harpoons d. Sophisticated dwellings e. Lots of realistic animal drawings and stylized human drawings 4. Interpreting Upper Paleolithic Art a. Many techniques: engraved, pecked, outlines, ﬁlled with monochrome or polychrome, integrate curves of the cave b. Many theories on what the art means i. Art for the sake of it, gallery style ii. Drew animals to hope hunt goes well, drew pregnant animals for fertility magic, initiating young males as hunters, etc. iii. Entoptic phenomena- cave art represents visions when sitting in a dark cave, under drugs, with lack of food, etc. iiii. Communication- establish social identities and territorial markers P. 112-115, 117 The Americas 1. Origins of people from Russia, Siberia a. Crossed from Siberia to Alaska using land bridge, Beringia i. Couldn’t go past Alaska b/c Canada was 2 glacial sheets: Cordilleran & Laurentide ii. Later an “ice-free corridor” opened along Canadian Rockies b. Some people used coastal route to Americas, landing above the glacial sheets and travelling south as the sea levels lowered c. Sea passage with skin boats along the edge of glaciers- most unlikely Paleoamericans 2. Earliest Paleoamericans known as pre-Clovis 3. Clovis- found in boundaries of the United States, distinctive Clovis ﬂuted spear points a. Barely any art, except geometric designs on bone and ivory tools b. Kill sites of large animals (and small for food) P. 121 Later Paleoamericans 1. Paleoamericans after Clovis: Folsom, Plano, Hell Gap, Cody 2. Complex societies and activities 2
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