PLS 150 Study Guide, Exam 1
PLS 150 Study Guide, Exam 1 PLS 150
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Opong-Wadeer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLS 150 at University of Rhode Island taught by Nathaniel Mitkowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Plants, People and the Planet in Plant Science at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Final Version - PLS 150 Study Guide, Exam 1 Scientific names and how to write them (Species, Genus and Linnaeus) (this is actually page 41-42 so you should read those too, they will come back on the 2 nd exam) Binomial Nomenclature: The system where we use two names to name plants * Plant classification system Common vs. Scientific names: * Carl Linneaus devised system * Scientific names are universal Common names can vary widely for same plant a. Example: Kentucky blue grass in America but in Europe it's called meadowgrass b. Poa = blue grass c. Poa pratensis d. Also called 'Latin' names because names are 'Latinized' e. Genus & species: f. Genus always capitalized g. Genus = a 'Latinized' noun h. Species are not capitalized i. Species = often an adjective j. "binomial nomenclature" k. 'lumpers' vs. 'splitters' among taxonomists l. Lumpers cram everything together to have fewer subdivisions m. Splitters n. Naming of plants based on International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants o. Hybrid designated by 'X' between species that are crossed p. With plants two species can be combined together and produce good offspring Know the what the Big Bang was: The Universe started from a single, infinitely dense point 13.7 billion years ago All matter created in this universe Everything expanded outward Know covalent, hydrogen and ionic bonds – know what a molecule is, know what an atom is Types of bonds: Covalent Atoms are bonded to form molecules Strongest bond type – covalent Generally will not fall apart easily and require energy to break Like a divorce, can be done, but requires a lot of time and energy Sharing electrons between atoms Ionic Very weak Ions are atoms with charge (+ or ) Just like teeneytiny magnets Fall apart in water or when they come in contact with other ions Not stable without other ions Like a one night stand – doesn't usually stick around when it's all over All salts are ionic Ionic= definition of salt Giving up and getting electrons between atoms, to form little magnets Hydrogen Super weak Molecules act like magnets – this is the difference between Hydrogen/ionic bonds Molecule acts like it has two charges – positive and negative Called dipolar molecules Assemble and disassemble a million times a second, "sticky" bond More attraction than bond Water has two sides that stick to opposite sides of other water molecules Atoms: Single atoms are the smallest unit of any element o This is why it's important Atoms can be divided but are then just generic particles Atoms are the building blocks of matter, or elements Everything is made up of atoms Molecules: When atoms combine, molecules are formed Molecules can be very small or very large Know why carbon is important: Carbon is the most important element, basis of all life Carbon has special properties and is the 4th most common element in the Universe We are carbon based life About 90% of molecules in our body are carbon Know where oil originated from Plant material Know where plastics come from and what that has to do with oil Plant material Know the definition of subsistence farming Everything you grow is for your own consumption Know the basic difference between preindustrial and industrial farming Preindustrial: o Enough food needed to be grown and processed for the whole year o Everyone in family worked o No use of pesticides/never really had extras more for survival for each season Industrial Farming: o Regular availability of food products o Easy to grow lots of food, quantity Know an example of three food catastrophes Dark Ages Irish Potato Famine Salem Witch Trials Know what the Green Revolution was and what it relies on when did it start? The Green Revolution: Allowed crop production to skyrocket during WWII Relied on: Required fertilizer, pesticides, oil Started: Norman Borlaug brought IR8 rice to India, on the brink of famine (WWII) What was the first Green Revolution crop? Wheat/rice What does Earth’s carrying capacity rely on? Resources currently available Know what caused the Dust Bowl Poor agronomic practices (destruction of native prairie) What is the purpose of Sustainable Agriculture To sustain means to persevere SA tries to use practices allowing for continued and perpetual farming What are a few sustainable farm practices Make food and fiber Improve the environment Use oil efficientlyminimize need Transition to onsite inputs Make some money Improve everyone's quality of life Know what the Gulf Coast Dead Zone is little/no oxygen in the water due to pollution at mouth of Mississippi river Know what genus and family apple belongs to, where they come from, how new trees are produced and how apples are pollinated Genus always capitalized o Genus = a 'Latinized' noun o From Malus domestica Family Rosaceae: the family the Apple comes from Apples originated from Kazakstan to Turkey New trees are produced by grafting Apples are pollinated by cross pollinating, requires bees to take the pollen of one apple tree to another apple tree Know when apples were domesticated 8,000 BC Know how plants changed the environment (O vs 2O , oz2ne, land stabilization) Ozone: absorbs the damaging ultra violet rays plays a key role in temperature on earth O 2vs CO 2: o CO 2: Plentiful at Earth's beginning Toxic to aerobic life (aerobic means Oxygen) Antiaerobic: nonoxygen Plants "fixed" some CO2 o O Plants make oxygen from water and then use it when burning sugars 2: Land Stabilization: o Produced 99% of the oxygen at the time of atmospheric conversion o Oxygen allowed for true plants and other life to evolve and colonize Know what ozone does and where it occurs Ozone: absorbs the damaging ultra violet rays plays a key role in temperature on earth Occurs: 610 miles above earths surface extends 30 miles up Know what global warming is, how CO is 2nvolved, what plants did with all the CO on 2he Earth millions of years ago and what we do with it Global warming: o plants help cool atmosphere o burning oil reverses the process o sea level rises How CO is2 volved: o CO 2holds heat in the atmosphere What plants did with all the CO2 on the Earth millions of years ago: o Locked it away (oil) What we do with it: o Exhale it because we are aerobic life/burn it for fossil fuels What are the consequences of global warming Melting ice= high sea levels Ocean acidification Unpredictable/severe weather Permanent regional changes Example China, deserts blooming Famine, global unrest, extinctions Human health crises Example Zika virus was only a tropical disease but hit Florida What were the first plants to evolve Cyanobacteria Know the inputs for photosynthesis Sunlight carbon dioxide Water What is chlorophyll, what type of molecule Chlorophyll: is a working pigment/green pigment found in chloroplasts of plants, algae and some bacteria Type of molecule: clever molecule that acts as the lynchpin of photosynthesis What does chlorophyll do with the electrons is pulls off water Electrons are passed down ETC As electrons move, protons are pumped Differential in proton concentration drive ATP/NADPH2 production Know the dark and light stages of photosynthesis and the basic purpose of each Light: ATP is produced for energy Dark: CO2 out of air, sugar is produced (calvin cycle) Bonus note I took while taking notes in class that I caught him saying: Possible question on the exam: o Photosynthesis is important because it turns the suns energy into what? Answer: Sugar
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