CDAE 024: Fundamentals of Public Communication: EXAM 1!!!!!
CDAE 024: Fundamentals of Public Communication: EXAM 1!!!!! CDAE 024
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDAE 024 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Sarah Heiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Public Communication in CDAE, PCOM at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
CDAE 024: FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC COMMUNICATION EXAM 1 CHAPTER 1: CONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION What is communication? - The process of using messages to generate meaning o Three main components: Process, messages, meaning o Process: communication is not instantaneous, there are steps in the process o Messages: a symbolic unit, something that has meaning o Meaning: this is the hard part, to have shared meaning in communication is very difficult, there is only a brief moment when two people understand each other Seven Components of Communication - Source: sends the message (initiator) - Receiver: interprets the message from the source - Code: verbal and nonverbal symbols in the message - Message: all code together - Feedback: decode the message, then provide feedback (done by receiver) - Channel: way through which the message is sent (texting, talking) - Noise: anything that takes attention away from the message (could be actual noise, or could be the sunlight) Competent Communication - The ability to effectively exchange meaning through common system of symbols, signs, or behaviors COMMUNICATION CONTEXTS CDAE’S DEFINITION OF PUBLIC COMMUNICATION “PCOM includes critically analyzing situations, managing information, and crafting messages that work in an increasingly global society” CHAPTER 2: PERCEPTION, SELF, & COMMUNICATION What is perception? - The process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses - Two types o Active Perception: your mind selecting, organizing, and interpreting what you sense § Biological: your brain is using vibrations that go through your ear to make sense of it o Subjective Perception: your uniquely constructed meaning attributed to stimuli § Unique to you § We can both smell the same flower, I might like it, you may not - Why do perceptions differ? o Physiological Factors § Male, female, short, tall… o Past experiences and Roles § Sibling, had a specific job… o Culture/Co-Culture o Present feelings/Circumstances § Hungry right now, might not pay as much attention How does the perception process work? 1) Selection 2) Organization 3) Interpretation - 1. Selection: Paying attention to what’s important to you o Selective Exposure § Exposing yourself to certain messages o Selective Attention § Focusing on certain cues and ignoring others o Selective Perception § Only “see, hear, believe” what you want o Selective Retention § Only remember what reinforces your beliefs - 2. Organization: Organizing things into a whole o Figure: focal point o Ground: everything else o Closure: fill in the gaps if we do not have all the information o EXAMPLE: If I saw two people walk out of the grocery store together, I would think that they are a couple, then if they go different ways I would be confused. § Figure: two people…I was choosing to focus on them § Ground: everything else going on at the grocery store § Closure: I assumed they were a couple - 3. Interpretation: Personalizing the observation o Here, you put meaning to the stimuli o If I saw it was raining, I would bring an umbrella…many other people wouldn’t Two types of errors in perception - Attribution Errors o Cause and effect - Perceptual Errors o Errors in perceiving others CHAPTER 3: LANGUAGE & MEANING What is Language? - A collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate o Key points § COLLECTION of symbols, letters, or words, not just one § Arbitrary meanings: the words don’t mean anything, we just assign it an agreed upon meaning - Meanings of language o Denotative: dictionary meaning o Connotative: cultural meaning o Concrete: words that refer to definite objects o Abstract: words or phrases that refer to general ideas - Language has rules o Semantics § Study of the way humans use language to evoke meaning in others o Syntax § Way in which words are arranged to form phrases and sentences o Pragmatics § How language is used in a social context, includes the effect that the language has on the communication o Phatic Communication § Communication that is used to establish a mood of sociability rather than to communicate information or ideas Sapir-Whorf Thesis - Our perception of reality is determined by our thought processes, and our thought processes are limited by language, therefore language shapes reality - Principles of the thesis o Linguistic Determinism § Language influences how we think and perceive reality o Linguistic Relativism § People who speak different languages will see the world differently Importance of Labels - Labels are constructed and interpreted by people - Labels and language influence health realities and practices - Deconstructing labels involves considering connotations, denotations, ultimate terms, euphemisms, and double speak Improving language skills - Use descriptiveness - Paraphrase - Define terms used - Be concrete CHAPTER 5: LISTENING & CRITICAL THINKING Hearing - The act of receiving sound LISTENING - The active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and or nonverbal messages. o Involves the ability to retain information, as well as to react empathetically and or appreciatively to spoken/nonverbal messages - Four types of listening o Active (purposeful) § Empathetic (relational) § Critical (evaluative) o Enjoyment (pleasurable) - Becoming a better listener o Avoid multi-tasking o Suspend quick judgments o Be quiet o Encourage communication o Demonstrate responsiveness o Ask clarifying questions - Perceptual Checking o 1. Observation § You slammed the door when you got home o 2. Multiple Interpretations § I’m thinking something bad happened at work or maybe you’re mad at me o 3. Request Clarifications § Am I completely off base here? - Process of Listening o Attention: controlling selective and automatic attention § Selective: sustained focus we give to important stuff § Automatic: instinctive focus we give to important experiences o Working Memory § Once we have paid attention, our brain makes sense of the stimuli § We then interpret and assign meaning to what we hear • Brain looks for shortcuts • Uses patterns and words stored in the long term memory to apply these o Short term Memory § Once interpreted in the working, information is sent to the short or long term • Short is temporary storage for information o Long term Memory § Permanent storage place for information • Past experiences, language, values, knowledge, images of people, memories CRITICAL THINKING - Involves analyzing the speaker, the situation, and the speaker’s ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented - Phases of Critical Thinking o 1. Observe the message o 2. Consider the message source and context o 3. Evaluate the message o 4. Imagine, research, and test alternatives o 5. Contribute! - Critical Thinking Strategies o Analyze the situation § All messages occur within a context § Identify the possible influences of this context (situation) § Consider alternative understandings o Analyze the Source § Credibility of the source • Expertise • Trustworthiness • Goodwill o Analyze the Source’s Argument § Identify the purpose and main points § Consider alternative arguments § Identify faulty reasoning, like… • Hasty generalization • An either-or argument • Name calling/flattery o Analyze the Evidence § Identify and evaluate the supporting evidence • Consider o Source credibility o Type o Comprehensiveness o Sufficient
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