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BIO 101 Quiz Study Guide 9/30/16

by: Toree Friedrich

BIO 101 Quiz Study Guide 9/30/16 BIO 101

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Bioogy > BIO 101 > BIO 101 Quiz Study Guide 9 30 16
Toree Friedrich

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About this Document

This study guide covers what will be on the Quiz on 9/30
Biology 101
Steven L.Lima
Study Guide
Biology, Bio, life, Bacteria, prokaryotes
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Toree Friedrich on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at Indiana State University taught by Steven L.Lima in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biology 101 in Bioogy at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Exam Two Quiz One Study Guide  Rocks  Sedimentary Rocks  Form mud, clay, sand, and gravel  Contain fossils  Cannot be dated or aged directly  Age is determined by the fossils  Igneous Rocks  Form from lava, magma → melted rocks  Contain no fossils  Can be aged with radioactive elements  Aging Igneous Rocks  You can age igneous rocks using radioactive decay  Key elements  C → N  Age Range: 100­50,000 years ago  Information is in 14C/12C ratio  High ratio: young rock  Low ratio: old rock  K → Ar  Age Range: 10 million – 4.5 billion years ago  Information is in K/Ar ratio  U → Pb  Age Range: 10 million – 4.5 billion years ago  Age of the Earth: 4.54 billion years  Changing Conditions on Earth  Changing Ocean Levels  Volcanic activity and climate change  Major drops in ocean associated with extinctions  Indiana was below sea level for a long time  Climate Change  Temperature  Major swings in global temperature over time  Very warm and very cold periods  “Snowball Earth” – 650 million years ago the Earth was completely frozen  Oxygen (O2) Levels  Increased dramatically over time  Very low up to 2­2.5 billion years ago  O2 increased markedly with the evolution of photosynthetic bacteria  (cyanobacteria)  O2 is a byproduct of photosynthesis  “Oxygen Catastrophe” of Precambrian Era  O2 is toxic  O2 killed off many microbes  Much of life today descended from a microbe adapted to O2  More about O2  High O2 levels made large life possible  High energy use requires high levels of O2  O2 made life possible on land  O2 produces O3 (Ozone)  O3 removes much of the UV light on Earth from the sun  Geological Eras and Periods  PreCambrian Era (4.5 billion years ago – 542 million years ago)  Origin of life – roughly 3.5 billion years ago  Bacteria are first clear organism in fossil record  But claims of very old bacteria are much often debated  Photosynthetic Bacteria – 2.2­3 billion years ago at least  Clear cyanobacteria stroma to lite fossils 2.8 billion years ago  Multicellular organisms – 600­700 million years ago  Paleozoic Era (“Old Life”)  Cambrian Period (542­488 million years ago)  The “Cambrian Explosion”  Relatively rapid diversification of macroscopic life (that actually started in the late PreCambrian)  Almost all of the major clades (or phyla) still present today have their origin in  the Cambrian Explosion (or earlier)  Famous examples of “explosion” fossils from the Burgess Shale fossil bed in  Alberta, Canada  Mid­Cambrian – 505 million years ago  Ordovician Period (488­444 million years ago)  No macroscopic life on land (everything is still in the ocean)  Major radiation of marine organisms  End of Ordovician is marked by a major mass extinction   But most types of life survive  Silurian Period (444­416 million years ago)  Marine diversification continues  Jawless fish diversify and become dominant vertebrates (many species)  First modern fish appear (they had jaws and rayed fins)  First plants appear on land by the end of the period  Devonian Period (416­359 million years ago)  Jawed (modern) fish diversify and replace most jawless fish  Many heavily armored  Many large cephalopods (squids) as major predators in oceans  First “forests” on land  Major diversification of arthropods on land  Centipedes, spiders, mites, insects, etc.  First amphibians appear on land  Represent a major branching of the vertebrate phylogenetic tree  Devonian period ends in another mass extinction  But most types of life forms survive  Carboniferous Period (359­297 million years ago)  Dense forests cover much of Earth  Source of coal  Crinoids dominated the oceans  Flight evolves in insects  Amphibians dominate land animals  Amniotes appear → vertebrates that do not need water for reproduction   Permian Period (297­251 million years ago)  Amniotes diversify and replace amphibians on land  Modern fish are dominating water  Mass extinction  96% ocean species go extinct  70% land species go extinct  Cause  Massive volcanic activity  Gives off much CO2  Rapid climate change  Acidification of ocean  Mesozoic Era  Biological diversity slow to recover  Triassic Period (251­200 million years ago)  Great radiation of diapsid reptiles being  Dinosaurs, marine reptiles, crocodiles  Synapsid reptiles almost extinct  Flight evolves in pterosaurs  1  vertebrate  Forests are dominated by conifers   Ends in major extinction  Jurassic Period (200­145 million years ago)   Dinosaurs dominate land  Along with other large reptiles  Flight in a line of theropod dinosaurs → BIRDS  First flowering plants appear (angiosperms)  Mammals diversify → Small and nocturnal  Cretaceous Period (145­65 million years ago)  Dinosaurs dominate  Birds diversify  Modern birds appear  Flowering plants spread and diversify  Mammals diversify; still small  Ends in mass extinction  Cause  Large meteor impact  Quick climate change → (colder)  Much volcanic activity  Also causing climate change  Some mammals survive  Birds are the only surviving dinosaurs  Cenozoic Era  Tertiary Period (65­2.6 million years ago)  Mammals diversify rapidly and dominate land  Flowering plants dominate  Grass evolves and covers much of Earth  North American is repopulated from Asia  Birds and other reptiles diversify  Quarternary Period (2.6 million years ago – present)  Planet continues to cool  Many “ice ages” → much ice present on planet  Causes moderate extinctions  Major period of human evolution   Humans drive the extinction of nearly all large mammals  Prokaryotes  Bacteria & Archaea  Two distinct clades of bacteria­like organisms  Three Domains of Life  3 Major Clades  Bacteria  Eukarya  Archaea  Ways Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes are similar  DNA and same genetic code  Same basic biochemistry  Same key genes  Ways Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes differ  Prokaryotes lack  Cytoskeleton  Distinct organelles and a nucleus  Prokaryotes have  DNA that is in a single circular chromosome  No sexual reproduction (never diploid)  Reproduce by binary fission   Split into two cells  They can exchange DNA between cells  Conjugation   Direct exchange of DNA  Transformation  Pick up DNA/genes from environment  Basic Shapes of Bacteria  Helical  Baccilus  Coccus  Prokaryotes generally do not exist as single cells  Most lice in social groups (BIOFILMS)  Dense layer of cells  Form with chemical communication  Gut bacteria are in biofilms  Prokaryote Cell Walls  Gram Positive Bacteria  Gram Negative Bacteria  Metabolic Diversity of Bacteria  Can exist in many environments  Different species can extract energy from a large variety of sources  Few things can’t be eaten by some bacterium  Oxygen Metabolism  Obligation Anaerobes  Need O2 free environment  Aerotolerant Anaerobes  Don’t use O2, but can tolerate O2  Facultative Anaerobes  Shift to using oxygen when present  Obligate Aerobes  Require O2 for existence  Source of Energy and Carbon  Photoautotrophs  Photoheterotophs  Chemolithotrophs  Chemoheterotrophs  N2 Metabolism  N2 is a triple bond  A bond that can’t be broken by most organisms  A problem is that N is required for protein  Some soil dwelling bacteria are known as NITROGEN FIXERS  Live in roots of some plants  Archaea  Often found in extreme environments  Extremely hot places  Extremely acidic places  Extremophiles


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