BIO121 Midterm 10/3
BIO121 Midterm 10/3 Bio 121
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by BenWilliams on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 121 at Parkland College taught by Erbach in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Natural Sciences at Parkland College.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
This is a general outline of chapters 14. I’m hoping this is 90% of what we’ll need to know for the midterm. At the end of the outline, I’ve made up some POSSIBLE essay questions based on the learning outcomes for each chapter. Happy studying… :( Ben I. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology A. Characteristics of all living things 1. Responsiveness 2. Adaptability 3. Growth and development 4. Reproduction 5. Movement and locomotion 6. Respiration 7. Circulation 8. Digestion 9. Excretion B. Anatomy (study of structure) vs. Physiology (study of function) 1. Macroscopic anatomy bigger structures viewed by naked eye 2. Microscopic anatomy smaller structures viewed by microscope 3. Structure will determine function a) Macroscopic example: the structure of the elbow joint only allows it to function (move) in one plane b) Microscopic example: structures of chemicals only allow the to function (react) with other certain chemicals C. Human Levels of Organization 1. Chemical level atoms and molecules 2. Cellular level cells are smallest living structures in the body 3. Tissue level groups of cells with similar functions 4. Organ level two or more tissue types working together to perform a function 5. Organ System level multiple organs functioning together 6. Organism level all levels working together D. Cell Theory 1. Cells are the basic structure of all plants and animals 2. Cells are the product of other preexisting cells 3. Cells are the smallest unit of life E. Tissues 1. Epithelial tissue cover exposed surfaces, contains glands for secretion, and lines internal passageways 2. Connective tissue internal filler, store energy, provide structure and support 3. Muscle tissue contract to create movement 4. Neural tissue conduct action potentials, carry information F. Organ Systems 1. Integumentary system protect against outside, control body temperature a) Dermis, epidermis 2. Skeletal system support, protect tissues, storm minerals produce blood cells a) Bones, cartilage, joints 3. Muscular system movement, support, generate heat 4. Nervous system respond to stimuli, coordinate organ systems a) CNS, PNS 5. Endocrine system long term communication using hormones a) Glands, kidneys, pancreas, gonads b) You can think of the nervous system as being iMessage and the endocrine system as being the postal service. One is direct communication over a short period of time, the other is messages that last longer. 6. Cardiovascular system transport cells, nutrients, waste, and gases a) Heart, blood vessels, blood 7. Lymphatic system defend against disease a) Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus 8. Respiratory system primary gas exchange a) Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs 9. Digestive system absorb nutrients from food a) Mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas 10. Urinary system eliminate water and salts a) Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra 11. Reproductive system produce sex cells and hormones a) Ovaries, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes G. Homeostatic Regulation 1. Receptor sense change 2. Control center command change 3. Effector adjust stimulus 4. Negative feedback effector suppresses stimuli 5. Positive feedback effector increases stimuli H. Directional Terms (p. 32) 1. Superior/Inferior toward the head/toward the feet 2. Medial/Lateral toward midline/away from midline 3. Proximal/Distal toward point of attachment/away from point of attachment 4. Superficial/Deep toward body surface/away from body surface 5. Cranial/Caudal toward head/toward tail (coccyx) 6. Posterior/Anterior back/front 7. Dorsal/Ventral back/front I. Sectional Planes (p. 33) 1. Frontal/Coronal separates into posterior and anterior sections 2. Sagittal separates body into left and right sides 3. Transverse/Horizontal separates into superior and inferior sections II. Chemical Level of Organization A. Work is the movement or change in how matter is constructed 1. Energy is required to do work a) Kinetic energy energy in motion b) Potential energy stored energy that can transfered to do work B. Types of Chemical Reactions 1. Decomposition a) AB > A + B b) Hydrolysis (1) AB + H2O > AH + OHB c) Catabolism (1) AB > A + B + energy 2. Synthesis a) A + B > AB b) Dehydration (1) AH + OHB > AB + H2O c) Anabolism (1) A + B +energy > AB 3. Exchange a) AB + CD > AD + CB C. Enzymes 1. Enzymes are catalysts that lower activation energy and are usually one part of a metabolic pathway a) Activation energy the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction b) Catalyst something that speeds up reactions without damaging itself c) Metabolic pathway chain of enzymic reactions that result in a final product (1) Exergonic reaction net EXIT of energy (2) Endergonic reaction net ENTRANCE of energy D. Important Properties of Water 1. Lubrication little friction between water molecules 2. Chemical reactant bodily chemical reactions occur in water 3. High heat capacity water can carry a lot of kinetic energy without turning into a gas a) Thermal inertia large amounts of water change temperature slowly 4. Solubility many inorganic and organic molecules will dissolve in water a) Solution uniform mixture of two or more substances (1) Solvent liquid that the substance is being dissolved into (2) Solute substance dissolved into solvent (a) Aqueous solution water is solvent (3) Colloid solution with dispersed proteins or other big molecules (a) The solutes will remain dispersed equally in the solution (4) Suspension solution with large particles (a) The solutes will settle after a while E. Random Water Solvent Stuff 1. Ionic compounds break apart in water a) Hydration spheres are formed when water molecules surround cations and anions to keep the from reassociating (I don’t know if “reassociating” is a scientific term…) b) Electrolytes (1) The anions and cations can conduct an electrical current 2. Organic molecules with polar covalent bonds (glucose) will also have hydration spheres a) Hydrophilic substances that react with water well b) Hydrophobic substances that don’t react with water well F. Regulating Body pH 1. The pH of blood is normally 7.357.45 a) Acidosis low blood pH b) Alkalosis high blood pH 2. Acids a) Solute that dissociates and releases an H+ 3. Bases a) Solute that dissociates and releases an OH 4. Weak acids and bases do not dissociate completely 5. Salts a) Any solute that dissociates into any cation except H+ and any anion except OH 6. Buffers a) Buffers stabilize pH of a solution by removing or adding H+ (1) pH of blood is regulated by H2O3 (a) CO2 + H2O <> H2O3 <> HCO3 + H+ G. Carbohydrates 1. Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in ratio of 1:2:1 a) Glucose C6H12O6 2. Monosaccharides simple sugars 3. Disaccharides 2 sugars combined 4. Polysaccharides multiple sugars combined a) Every sugar has to be broken down into a monosaccharide before it can be used to produce ATP b) Starches large polysaccharides made of glucose 5. Isomers molecule with same number of atoms but in a different shape H. Lipids 1. Contain Carbon and Hydrogen in ratio of 1:2 2. Fatty acids long carbon chains with carboxyl group as head (COOH) a) Saturated all hydrogens filled in b) Unsaturated some carbons in the chain are double bonded and do not have all hydrogens filled in. This creates a kink in the chain 3. Glycerides multiple fatty acids connected by glycerol heads a) Can be monoglyceride, diglyceride, or triglyceride 4. Steroids structural components of membranes, hormones, and digestive secretions 5. Phospholipids main structural component of cell membranes I. Proteins 1. Most abundant organic components of the body 2. Amino acids are put together in chains to create proteins a) Linked together by dehydration synthesis 3. Polypeptides of 100+ amino acids are defined as proteins and have four levels of structure a) Primary (1) Sequencing of amino acids b) Secondary (1) Bonds form between atoms of different amino acids to form alpha helices or pleated sheets c) Tertiary (1) The chain becomes coiled and folded by other proteins d) Quaternary (1) Interactions between polypeptide chains forms a protein complex 4. Denaturation occurs when external temperatures are too cold or too hot for a protein to hold its quaternary or tertiary structure J. Nucleic Acids 1. Nucleotides a) Phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base (1) The nitrogenous base can be a purine (A, G) or pyrimidine (C, T, U) 2. Pairing a) DNA (1) AT (2) GC b) RNA (1) T turns into U (2) AU (3) GC III. Cellular Level of Organization A. Biggest to smallest organization 1. The cell 2. Plasma membrane 3. Cytoplasm a) Cytosol b) Organelles (1) Nonmembranous (2) Membranous B. Plasma Membrane 1. Consists of phospholipid bilayer, surface proteins, and glycocalyx C. Cytoskeleton 1. Consists of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, thick filaments, microtubules, centrioles, cilia, flagella D. Endoplasmic Reticulum 1. Network of intracellular membranes that connect to the nucleus 2. Smooth ER 3. Rough ER a) Contains ribosomes which are the sites for protein synthesis (1) Fixed ribosomes are attached to the rough ER E. Golgi Apparatus 1. Modifies and packages proteins for exocytosis and packages enzymes for use inside the cell 2. Cis face side of apparatus that receives vesicles 3. Sis face side of apparatus that vesicles leave from 4. Lysosomes are vesicles with digestive enzymes that are produced from the golgi F. Mitochondria 1. Produces ATP 2. Contains its own DNA called mtDNA 3. Double membraned with the internal folds called cristae G. Nucleus 1. Contains a porous nuclear envelope that keeps nucleoplasm from exiting the nucleus but allows for chemical communication with the rest of the cell 2. Nuclear DNA a) Chromatin loosely coiled DNA in nondividing cells b) Chromosomes tightly coiled DNA in dividing cells H. Making a Protein 1. Transcription a) DNA strands separate b) RNA polymerase reads DNA and creates mRNA c) mRNA is edited by taking out noncoding sequences called introns and leaving in the remaining sequences called exons d) mRNA leaves the nucleus 2. Translation a) mRNA binds to ribosome at the Psite b) Complementary start tRNA (that carries a single amino acid) binds to the Psite c) The rest of the tRNA binds to the ribosome at the Asite as the mRNA is read I. The Plasma Membrane 1. Degree of permeability is based on the size of the substance, electrical charge of substance, and the lipid solubility of the substance a) Cell membranes are selectively permeable 2. Passive transport no ATP required to cross membrane a) Diffusion b) Carriermediated transport 3. Active transport ATP required to cross membrane a) Vesicular transport b) Carrier mediated transport 4. Tonicity a) Isotonic equal solute concentration inside and outside of cell b) Hypertonic higher solute concentration outside of cell c) Hypotonic higher solute concentration inside of cell d) Water will diffuse across a membrane towards the region of higher solute concentration J. Mitosis 1. Interphase (majority of cell life) a) G0 some cells enter this phase when they are not preparing to divide b) G1 normal cell functions, cell growth, organelle duplication, and protein synthesis c) S DNA replication, histone synthesis d) G2 more protein synthesis 2. Prophase a) Chromosomes become visible 3. Metaphase a) Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate 4. Anaphase a) Centromeres split and chromatids separate 5. Telophase a) Nuclear envelopes form, nuclei enlarge, and chromosomes begin to uncoil 6. Cytokinesis a) Cells finish dividing K. DNA Replication 1. DNA helicase unwinds DNA and separates the strands 2. DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides to the exposed single DNA strands a) DNA polymerase can only move along a DNA strand in one direction (3’→ 5’) b) Leading strand DNA polymerase adding nucleotides in order or 35 c) Lagging strand DNA polymerase adds nucleotides in order of 35 but has to stop frequently (1) This concept is super freaking confusing but YouTube has some good animations of the lagging strand IV. Tissue Level of Organization A. Tissue types 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Neural B. Epithelial tissue 1. Functions a) Physical protection b) Control permeability c) Provide sensation d) Produce secretions 2. Intercellular attachments a) Tight junction (1) Barrier that isolates basolateral surface from contents of the lumen b) Adhesion belt (1) Strengthens apical region c) Gap junction (1) Permits chemical communication that coordinates activities of cells d) Desmosome (1) Interlocks cytoskeletons of cells 3. Simple squamous a) Functions (1) Absorption, reduce friction b) Locations (1) Kidneys, eyes, alveoli of lungs 4. Stratified squamous a) Functions (1) Protection where mechanical or chemical stress occurs b) Locations (1) Skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, vagina 5. Simple cuboidal a) Functions (1) Limited protection, absorption, secretion b) Locations (1) Kidney tubules, thyroid 6. Stratified cuboidal a) Locations (1) Sweat glands, mammary glands 7. Transitional a) Functions (1) Tolerate repeated cycles of stretching and recoiling b) Locations (1) Urinary bladder, uterus 8. Simple columnar a) Functions (1) Absorption, secretion b) Locations (1) Stomach, small intestine, uterine tubes, kidneys 9. Pseudostratified columnar a) Functions (1) Absorption, secretion b) Locations (1) Trachea, lung airways 10. Glandular epithelia a) Endocrine release secretions into interstitial fluid b) Exocrine release secretions to the outside c) Types of secretions (1) Merocrine mucus or watery secretion (2) Apocrine release part of cell cytoplasm as well as secretory product (3) Holocrine entire cell bursts and release products C. Connective Tissue 1. Areolar Connective Tissue a) General packing material of body b) Fibers (1) Reticular, collagen, elastic c) Cells (1) Melanocytes, macrophages, mast cells, fibroblasts 2. Adipose Connective Tissue a) Adipocytes b) Functions (1) Store energy and provide padding c) Locations (1) Eyes, around kidneys, abdominopelvic cavity 3. Reticular Connective Tissue a) Looks like grapes… lol b) Functions (1) Provide support, resist distortion c) Locations (1) Spleen, kidney, liver, lymph nodes 4. Dense Regular Connective Tissue a) Functions (1) Connect organs, muscle to bone, or bone to bone b) Locations (1) Tendons, ligaments 5. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue a) Functions (1) Resist stretching in multiple directions b) Locations (1) Visceral organs, underneath skin 6. Elastic Connective Tissue a) Functions (1) Tolerate extensive compression or stretching b) Locations (1) Intervertebral disks, large blood vessels 7. Blood a) White blood cells are called leukocytes b) Functions (1) Transport gases, recognize pathogens c) Locations (1) Blood vessels 8. Hyaline Cartilage a) Chondrocytes are found in lacunae of all cartilages b) Functions (1) Stiff support, reduces friction c) Locations (1) Joints, ribs, trachea rings 9. Elastic Cartilage a) Functions (1) Stretch and return to original shape b) Locations (1) External ear 10. Fibrocartilage a) Functions (1) Resist compression, prevent bone contact b) Locations (1) Knee joint, intervertebral disks 11. Bone a) Periosteum (1) Outer covering of all bones b) Osteocytes in lacunae c) Lamella (1) Rings of osteocytes d) Central/Haversian canal (1) Big circle at center of lamellae that contains blood vessels e) Canaliculi (1) Small passageways between lamella (rings) D. Muscle Tissue 1. Skeletal Muscle a) Striated and multinucleated 2. Smooth Muscle a) Unstriated and uninucleated 3. Cardiac Muscle a) Striated and contain intercalated disks (1) Intercalated disks are gap junctions that allow for precise heart contraction rhythms E. Neural Tissue 1. Neurons a) Composed of neuronal body, axon, and dendrites 2. Neuroglia a) Cells that support neurons F. Membranes 1. Mucous a) Line passageways that communicate with exterior 2. Serous a) Only inside the body because it is extremely thin and delicate 3. Cutaneous a) Covers surface of the body (skin) 4. Synovial a) Covers joints but is not in between them (1) Look at picture on p. 161 5. Fascia a) Superficial (1) Between skin and organs (2) Consists of areolar or adipose tissue b) Deep (1) Forms strong internal network (2) Consists of dense irregular tissue c) Subserous (1) Between serous membranes and deep fascia (2) Consists of areolar tissue Possible Essay Questions 1) Describe various types of cells in the human body and explain the basic principles of the cell theory. 2) Identify the major organ systems of the body, describe the functions of each, and how they contribute to hemostasis 3) Define metabolism and how it relates to enzymes, and distinguish between work, kinetic energy, and potential energy. 4) Describe the important properties of water in the body and relate it to chemical processes that take place in the body (pH, solubility, etc). 5) Pick 5 organelles of the cell, describe them, and discuss their specific important functions to the cell’s life or other cells lives. 6) Describe protein synthesis. Include all the organelles and enzymes involved in the process. 7) Describe the cell cycle using all of the phases (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), including the subphases of interphase. 8) Give one location and one function of every tissue type discussed in unit 4. 9) Describe the roles of inflammation and regeneration in response to tissue injury.
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