CHS 200 Exam #1 Study Guide
CHS 200 Exam #1 Study Guide CHS 200
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Sauer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHS 200 at University of Nevada Reno taught by Dr. Logan Hamill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health Biology in Biology, Chemistry, Community Health Sciences, Core Humanities, Nutrition at University of Nevada Reno.
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CHS 200 Exam #1 Study Guide Chapters 14, 8, 14, 16, & 20 H= Important Term H= Quiz Answer Chapters 1&2 Consequent renaissance of a preliminary form of scientific inquiry in the West from the 13th16th centuries Copernicus’s revolutionary publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium Copernicus believe that a suncentered planetary system offered a simpler, more exact, and more harmonious system of the universe than geocentrism. Galileo’s eradication of Aristotle’s organismic cosmology led to Newton replacing it with an entirely new framework. (mechanistic materialism) Significance of inquiry: Scientific inquiry is most important in understanding and making advancements in science Chapter 4 The public health triad describes the interactions among humans, animals and the environment using healthrelated consequences. Studying ALL of these factors help us gain a more holistic approach to health research. World Health Organization (WHO) links tighter in developing and underdeveloped nations. Modification of natural habitat by humans is a leading cause of emerging zoonoses Reemergence of zones that were thought to have been controlled, such as bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981 VectorBorne diseases are infectious diseases (bacterial or viral) that are transmitted via an arthropod Biodiversity is the number, variety and range of organisms and genes within an ecosystem. Greenhouse gases (CO2, Water Vapor, methane and ozone) in the air are caused by combustion of fossil fuels and changes of the land use by humans (Habitat Modification) Slight increase of temperature from 19⁰C to 21⁰C shortens the interval between blood meals (gonotrophic cycle) for mosquitos Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act in 1980 heavily taxed the chemical and petroleum industries to create a “Super Fund” for maintaining hazardous waste sites. Chapter 3 Genetics is the study of inherited biological variation, and it is instructive to view the history of the discipline in the context of insights into the sources and nature of that variation. Independent assortment explains why it is possible to look like a certain family member, but not have the same medical conditions or traits and vice versa. Alleles are alternate versions of the same gene. Virtually all diseases have a genetic basis, including those that occupy the daytoday activities Medicaid does not cover many genetics tests Tests may not be covered if they are being performed only to provide information for another family member. About 510% of breast cancers among women result from inherited mutations in genes known as BCRA1 and BCRA2 Women who carry BCRA1 or BCRA2 have a lifetime risk as high as 85% for breast cancer. If someone and their clinician decide they have an increased risk for breast cancer their best option regarding genetics testing is to test an affected member of the family first. Chapter 8 Health behavior is the behavioral choices and actions of individuals (Biological, psychological, social and environmental factors are involved) About half of the U.S. deaths attributed to the 10 leading causes of death. Poor behavior choices can affect the individual making the poor behavior choice as well as those around them. Social Cognitive Theory was first applied by Albert Bandura o Theory proposes that individuals learn through observation of the behaviors of others and the rewards that others receive as an outcome of their actions. o Cognitive processes mainly regulate an individual’s behavior so that individuals do not simply respond to stimuli unconsciously, but rather they think about and interpret it. o Reciprocal Determinism is the interaction of an individual’s personal factors, actions, and environmental factors that help explain the overall behavior o Individual’s selfefficacy (confidence in own ability to carry out positive behavior) can change to reach their outcome expectancy Theory of Reasoned Action o Decision to engage in a specific behavior is rooted in an individual’s personal attitude toward that behavior o Focuses on attitudes and subjective norms to predict the execution of a certain behavior o Attitudes are comprised of behavioral beliefs that performing certain actions will be associated with certain outcomes. o Subjective norms are the individual’s beliefs about whether other people approve or disapprove of engaging in a certain behavior. Theory of Planned Behavior o Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (add idea of perceived behavior control) o Perceived behavior control accounts for factors beyond an individual’s immediate control that also can have an effect on the individual’s intention o Helps us predict the likelihood of an individual carrying out certain actions Health Belief Model o Used to describe the influence and power of perception in changing and maintaining health behaviors o Emphasizes an individual’s desire to avoid being ill o Expectancy that a specific health behavior will ward off illness or enhance health o Perceived susceptibility is an individual’s perception of the probability they will acquire a disease or illness, which is usually reduced when one believes they are vulnerable to illness o Cuestoaction may also trigger a change in health behaviors (media publicity, public figure battling illness, the loss of a close friend or family member to illness) Transtheoretical Model o Uses stages of change to describe the distinct phases through which an individual progresses to change a behavior. o PreContemplation stage: individual is unaware of their actions or of the consequences of their behavior. Have not considered changing their behavior. o Contemplation stage: individual has begun to become aware of the health implications associated with their current behavior. Start to consider what actions are required to reduce health risks o Preparation stage: individual decided on a particular action plan o Action stage: individual has taken tangible actions to reduce their health risks. There is still risk for relapsing while in this stage. o Maintenance stage: individual accepts ongoing effort required to support long term behavioral change. *Know the order of the stages and what generally goes on in each stage! Chapter 14 Injury is the leading cause of death for Americans age 1 to 44 and the primary cause of lost years of productive life For those aged 1 to 34, injury claims more lives than all other causes combined. Total cost of injuries including acute and rehabilitative medical car, lost wages, and lost productivity adds up to $406 billion a year. Injuries are not accidents Alcohol is a major injury risk factor. (40% of fatal motor vehicle crashes, half of drowning deaths) Other risk factors include personality, group dynamics, social norms (peer pressure), and perception of personal risk (overconfidence) Intentional injuries are results of things like assault, domestic violence, attempted murder, war, and selfharm (suicide) Injuries occur when the tissues of the human body absorb energy that is above the tissue threshold. Four types of energies involved: kinetic (falls, motor vehicle crashes), electrical (lightning strikes, downed wires), chemical (poisoning), and thermal/radiant energy (steam or flame burns) Inelastic Collision is a collision in which some or all of the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies is absorbed by at least one of the partners. This typically means that the weaker or softer item absorbs energy from the stiffer, more unyielding one. The Five E’s of Injury Control o Education: spread of knowledge that can prevent injuries (Don’t Drink and Drive, seat belt education) o Engineering Solutions: creation of physical mechanisms that may prevent serious injuries (air bags, guardrails, crumple zones) o Economic Incentives: including money as an enforcement factor (speeding tickets, seat belt fine) o Enforcement: physical implementation of injury preventing laws (jail) o Empowerment: changing social expectations (people will not drive after drinking, people automatically buckle their seatbelt) The Haddon Matrix o A framework for understanding the opportunities for intervention with injury control. Human Vector/Vehicle Physical/Social Environment Preevent Intoxication Tire Pressure Speed Cameras Speed Brake Functioning Weather/Visibility Seat Belt Use Crumple Zones Social Culture Alertness/sleepiness Air Bags Willingness to allow Experience others to drive while intoxicated During Event Using cell phone Speed of impact Flammability while driving Air bag deployment Guardrails Age Size Stiffness of fixed Size Stiffness of surfaces objects Failty Stability control Barriers Embankments PostEvent BMI Degree of crash EMS response Age Fuel system integrity Trauma center Comorbid Conditions availability (already existing Rehab programs medical conditions at time of injury) Chapter 16 Innate Immune System: present from birth and provides the first line of defense against infectious agents o Nonspecific defense (any organism that isn’t recognized as part of your body or is abnormal will be phagocytized) o Anatomical and physiological barriers create an environment inhospitable to invading organisms o Physiological Barriers: Acidity and chemical barriers o Inflammation: Antibacterial activity and stimulate phagocytosis o Anatomical Barriers: Skin and mucosal membranes o Phagocytic Cells: Neutrophils and macrophages o Natural Killer Cells: Possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells and some virusinfected cells Adaptive Immune System: activation of immune cells and development of substances that will aid in the elimination of organisms an facilitate the development of immunological memory o Specificity for the foreign agent (antigens) o Humoral Immunity: B lymphocytesproduction of antibodies and memory cells o Cellmediated Immunity: Tlymphocytescelltocell contacts, secretion of soluble products and memory cells Active Immunity: an immunocompetent individual is exposed to a foreign organism and the person’s immune cells respond by producing immune products such as antibodies and memory cells o May be acquired naturally (infection) or artificially (vaccine) Passive Immunity: Transfer of performed antibodies to an individual to protect them against a challenge o Provides shortterm protection. Memory cells are not formed o May be acquired naturally (maternalfetal transfer) or induced (injection of immunoglobulin) o Injecting an individual is primarily done to someone who was not previously immunized Vaccines: attempt to stimulate the immune system by mimicking a natural infection o Stimulates memory T and B cells in an individual to induce specific immunity, eliminate organisms that enter the host, and neutralize bacterial toxins Attenuated Vaccine: contains weakened form of live organisms o Produces strong cellular and humoral response o Retains similar characteristics to the original organism but lacks pathogenicity Inactivated Vaccines created by treating the microorganisms with chemicals or heat o Stable and safer than live vaccines o Stimulate a weaker response Toxoid Vaccines: created by treating bacterial toxins with formaldehyde o Renders toxins harmless but maintains immunogenicity o Stimulates a strong antibody response Subunit Vaccines: Selected epitopes from the organism rather than the entire antigen o Contains vaccine adjuvants, usually aluminum salts, increase the length of star of the antigen in the body so that the immune system has more time to respond to the presence of the antigen Conjugate Vaccines : attempt to strengthen the immunogenicity of some organisms with polysaccharide capsule o Stimulate strong immune response o Antigenprotein complex becomes more readily recognizable by the immune system so that a strong response is made Future Vaccines: o DNA: use organism’s genes to invoke antigen expression in host. o Recombinant Vector: use attenuated organism to introduce organism’s DNA into host o Hurdles to Vaccine Development: Mutation of organisms (viruses). Genetic complexity of certain organisms Chapter 20 Colon Cancer: is a neoplasm that starts in the large intestine (colon) or the rectum (end of the colon). This category of cancer is typically referred to as "colorectal cancer." Leading causes of cancerrelated deaths in the United States There is no single cause of colon cancer Nearly all colon cancers begin as benign polyps Certain genetic syndromes also increase the risk of developing colon cancer Rare familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome accounts for approx. 1% of cases of colon cancer HNPCC accounts for 510% of cases (nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) also known as Lynch Syndrome. Signs and symptoms of colon cancer may include: A change in bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of stool for more than a couple of weeks, Rectal bleeding or blood in stool (melena), Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain, Abdominal pain with a bowel movement , A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely, Weakness or fatigue, Unexplained weight loss Prevention: o Exercise o Low fat diet o Calcium Supplementation o Start yearly examinations at about 30 years old if you have family history o Antiinflammatory medicines As many as 5060% of patients who had tumor removed will develop a recurrence Men and women age 50 and older should have a colonoscopy