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Communications Study Guides CO 101
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Date Created: 09/28/16
SM EXAM THREE CO101 PROF LEIBOWITZ SPRING 15 HELPING RESPONSE SKILLS 1. How is empathy defined and what are two basic skills involved in empathy? o Empathy: Intellectually identifying or vicariously feeling another’s emotions The accurate identification of the meanings in a person's statement Understand what happened to them, understand the feelings they are feeling, Get beneath the words they are saying and understand what is going on inside of them The ability to communicate your understanding to the other person Show your empathy by giving appropriate response, do not tell a person who came out of a multiyear relationship that they should go out and immediately date, say something else, something that will really help them o Two Skills Needed Intellectually identifying or vicariously experiencing the feelings or attitudes of another Must be able to get into another person's head, be able to understand their situation 2. How is empathy different than sympathy and apathy? Apathy o A lack of feelings o Happens all the time Empathy o Feeling with o Sounds like you’re hurt as well Sympathy o Feeling for (sorrow, pity) o “I feel just awful knowing he did that to you” 3. What are the basic attitudes underlying the use of empathy? Prior conditions: You must care and you must be genuine To be an empathic communicator means that o You want to listen to try and understand people's feelings and points of view o You are able to accept (not necessarily agree) with other people's feelings as they exist, without trying to change them, stop them, or judge them o You trust that people can cope with their problems without solving their problems for them o You believe that listening to someone is helpful in and of itself and may be the only means of help you can offer 4. Of the response types discussed in lecture (e.g. evaluating, interpreting, etc.) be able to distinguish among them and be able to identify which can (and cannot) effectively communicate empathy. Most effective in communicating empathy o Feeling paraphrase: Summarize what you understand a person's feelings to be, translate them into your own words You seem to feel..." "I get the sense that you..." "It sounds like you..." Occasionally effective in communicating empathy, but with potential problems o Questioning or probing responses: asks for further information or details, pressing people to reveal more factors, as if our ability to help them depends on knowing all the relevant information o Advice Giving: Tell the other how to act or think o Interpreting or Analyzing: places the experience of the other into categories of explanation or interpretation, replacing the actual feelings with ideas that explain why they have those feelings o (False) reassurance: is appropriate when someone is anxious or frightened or if person is operating with wrong information. However, in other cases this is only false reassurance; we don't know that everything will work out. o Generalizations: this response is used to reassure others by showing them that they are not alone in their feelings. Somewhat beneficial but the problem is in moving to what is common and general we lose sight of what is special and unique about the person's experience. o Content Paraphrasing: summarize, in your own words, what you understand the other person to be saying Rarely Effective in communicating empathy o Evaluating or Judging: tells other that their feelings or behavior are right/wrong, appropriate or inappropriate o Challenging: Confronts people with inconsistencies, inaccuracies or misunderstandings that, according to us, are contained in the way the other feels or acts o Threatening: Often motivated by the desire to help other, particularly if we think that their feelings may lead to behavior that, in our opinion, would be harmful to them o Distracting: Attempts to change the subject onto a topic we are more comfortable with. Often these responses are more designed for our benefit than for the other. ASSERTIVENESS 1. From examples, be able to recognize ineffective conflict responses (e.g. personal attack, crucializing, bulldozing). Common but ineffective responses to conflict (from Bach and Wyden research) Continued Avoidance o Just because you do not say anything does not mean you do not have a conflict with them Personal Attack o Will go after the person's personality or background and nothing to do with the actual conflict Issue Expansion o Carry around past hurts and when you bring up an issue, they will bring up things from the past Outside Comparisons o When you compare you to someone else Crucializing o "If you loved me..." o Will keep heightening the problem until you agree with them Bulldozing o Make threats when things are not going your way 2. Be able to identify examples, characteristics, and consequences (e.g. payoffs and penalties) of non-assertiveness, direct aggressiveness, and passive aggressiveness. How do these responses differ? Passiveness (Non assertiveness) o Behaving in a way that allows your rights to be infringed on and your wants and needs to be ignored o Ex: Avoid the Person Hint Accommodation Internal dialogues o Pay Offs A way to avoid or postpone direct conflict A way to purchase approval of others May feel like a comfortable secure role o Penalties Lowered Self Esteem Increased Anxiety Resentment Anger Relationships can be less satisfying Direct Aggressiveness o Behaving in a way that violates the rights or needs of others. The goal is to dominate or humiliate the other person o Ex: Yelling Demanding Threatening o Payoffs Able to protect one self Exert control over one's life May provide a temporary solution o Penalties Other may respond in kind May worsen the conflict Other may take formal action against you Feelings of loss of control Feeling guilty or humiliated afterwards Passive Aggressiveness o Same intent as with direct aggressiveness but messages are expressed in subtle, indirect ways. The goal is to vent anger but avoid responsibility for the messages o Ex: Teasing or sarcasm Breaking confidentiality Forgetfulness Using an "illness" Passive Resistance o Payoffs Pleasure from hurting or inconveniencing other Allows one to feel some sense of control An indirect way of getting back at the other o Penalties Original problem isn't solved Potential backlash from other Continued negative feelings 3. According to the reading on Assertiveness, what is the goal of assertiveness? Assertiveness means: o Giving and receiving respect through your approach o Being direct honest, and appropriate o Making choices about how you behave o Being willing to address conflict rather than ignore or avoid it o Having the intention to solve a conflict rather than a hidden agenda o Exercising your personal rights without violating others' rights Goal of assertiveness according to article: o “The goal of assertiveness is not to get what you want in any given situation. It is to give and receive respect and thereby maintain self dignity and self esteem.” 4. What are the major obstacles to being assertive? Lack of awareness of what assertiveness Don't believe you have any right to be assertive Maintaining irrational beliefs about what will happened if you're assertive o If I act in an assertive manner, others will get mad at me. o It is rational to believe that everyone should like you and approve of everything you do o If I act assertively, the outcome will be awful, horrible, and terrible (Catastrophic Thinking) o What evidence do you have that this catastrophic outcome is likely to occur? Is it rational to believe that this outcome is likely to happen? o It is wrong and selfish to turn down others' requests o Is it rational to believe that you must always agree to others opinions? You get anxious thinking about being assertive Verbal Deficit ("I don't know what to say?") Nonverbal deficit (" I don't know how to act?") 5. Be able to recognize the elements of a basic assertive response, empathic assertive message, protective assertive responses discussed in lecture. In what situations are specific protective assertive responses particularly useful? Basic Assertive Response o Begin your statement with an "I" message Shows I am owning this I'd really appreciate it if you'd pick up your wet towels from the bathroom floor because it's not fair to me I'm really uncomfortable when you drink and then want to drive. Give me the keys because I want to drive home o State Directly, honestly, and appropriately what you think, feel or want Empathetic Assertive Response o Three Specific steps Tell the other person you understand what they are saying or doing Let the other person know how you feel about this Tell the other person what you want or are willing to do Protective Assertive Response o Broken Record Continual repetition of your opinions Saying NO to salesperson o Time Out Ask for some time before you make your decision When your Boss ask you to stay late o Flipping Make a counter-response When someone ask you to dinner, they say lets do Chinese, you respond by saying yes to dinner but lets do Mexican food o Repeating Back Force the other person to listen by having them repeat what you said When in a heated discussion, the other person is not listening to what you are saying, have them repeat it o Negative Assertion Just admit to doing something, but without an apology Yes, I was work to late o Fogging Respond to criticism without agreeing or disagreeing to it When you are criticized, say you are right about that o Negative Inquiry In response to negative criticism, ask questions to make the other person assertive Used when someone says you did bad, ask what did I do bad, how could I improve o Anger Disarming and Anger Starvation Allow the other person to completely vent while you maintain eye contact and keep emotional control Ex: I will talk to you when you stop screaming o Reversal Requesting a direct “No” to a request you made When asking for new supplies at work but your boss says that there is not enough money in the budget but does not say “No” Ask if that means we are not getting new work supplies o Clipping Responding to short-tempered person with single word answers Yes, Perhaps, Maybe COMMUNICATION IN RELATIONSHIPS 1. Relational myths discussed in lecture A myth is a myth because it is not reality Human relationships just happen o The chemistry was right, I just felt the vibes We are not able to control the way we behave in our relationships o Hey, that’s just the way I am It is manipulative to try to plan how you communicate; it’s most important just to be yourself Relationships should be perfect o Myth of relational perfection Relationships just sometimes end; no one is to blame; people just grow apart o The myth of inevitable relationship entropy 2. What does social exchange theory tell us about relationships? Be sure to be able distinguish Comparison Level from Comparison Level for Alternatives. Thibaut and Kelly’s social exchange theory Exchanges include information, favors, time, affection, disclosures, gifts, etc. Relational change is a function of reward-cost analyses. We seek relationships that yield high rewards and low cost Both partners are making two kinds of judgment: Comparison-level judgments(CL) CL is a standard that develops over time, allowing us to judge whether a new relationship is profitable or not It is the result of past experiences Your CL for your doctor will be different than your CL for your lover CL is helpful in accounting for why some relationships might be acceptable at some times but not at others Can be satisfactory or non satisfactory Comparisons-level for alternatives(CLalt) Lowest level of outcomes a member will accept in the light of available alternative opportunities The standard by which individuals evaluate the quality of other groups that they may join 3. Be able to distinguish among the stages of relational development and deterioration. Individuals Alone Your history, needs, expectations come into play at this stage Do you present yourself as alone and receptive Is your relational quota filled Inviting Ends with agreeing to see one another again Initial Contact Involves uncertainty reduction Also called the auditioning stage Exploring Hallmark of this stage is small talk(idea exchange and gossip primarily) Breadth of topics at first and later on depth Exploring the possibilities for a relationship Most relationship stabilize at this point Intensifying Also called the euphoria stage Emphasis now is both quality and quantity of communication Much more private information now shared Other people get set aside Can begin to see things from partner’s perspective Revising A less emotionally charged stage A perception of oneness, a fusion of identities Third parties see the partners as a relationship Sometimes jealously/endurance test occur here Cost-benefit analysis conducted Attempts at revising parts of the relationship occur here Bonding A voluntary commitment is made to an extended future together Usually involves a specific event A more formal recognition of the relationship Differentiating A normal phase; cycling in and out Reduction of tolerance for a partner’s imperfections Increased involvement outside the relationship Thinking more about the concerns and needs than about one’s partner Disintegrating Withdrawal rather than discussion Feeling awkward, hesitant and defensive around one’s partner Don’t show intimacy and avoid discussing the relationship Willingness to violate rules of the relationship Stagnating No effort to improve or end the relationship; often much ambivalence here May present a positive “front” to third parties Cl(alts) Terminating May fade away, experience sudden death, or end incrementally May be unilateral or mutual May need to “tie up loose ends.” Should clarify whether there is any possible future relationship Individuals Alone How are you different What have you learned What mistakes did you make What will you do differently next time JOB INTERVIEWING 1. What are the characteristics of open, closed, primary, secondary, and leading questions? Open questions Broad-based probes that allow the interviewee to provide perspectives, ideas, information, feelings, or opinions as he or she wishes. For example in job interview: “What one accomplishment has best prepared you for this job?” In customer service interview: “What seems to be the problem?” “Can you tell me the steps you took when you first set up this product?” Open questions encourage the interviewee to talk and allow the interviewer an opportunity to listen and observe. They take time to answer and give respondents more control, which means that interviewers can lose sight of their original purpose if they are not careful. Closed questions Narrowly focused and control what the interviewee can say. Require brief 1 or 2 word answers. Range from those that can be answered yes or no, such as “Have you had a course in marketing?” to those that require only a short answer, such as “Which of the artists that you have signed have won Grammys?” By asking closed questions, interviewers can control the interview and obtain specific information quickly. But the answers to closed questions cannot reveal the nuances behind responses, nor are they likely to capture the complexity of the story. Effective interview conversations contain a combination of open and closed questions. Primary questions Lead-in questions about one of the major topics of the interview. They are like the main points of an essay or speech. An interview with a music producer may have 4 primary questions corresponding to the topics: 1) Finding artists How do you find artists to consider for contract? 2) Decision process Once an artist has been brought to your attention, what course of action do you follow? 3) Criteria What criteria do you use when deciding to offer a contract? 4) Stories of success and failure Can you tell me the story of how you came to sign one of your most successful artists and then one about an unsuccessful artist? Secondary questions Follow-up questions designed to probe the answers given to primary questions. Some follow-up questions are not as directive and simply encourage the interviewee to continue: “And then?” “Is there more?” Some probe into what the person has said” “What does ‘regionally popular’ mean?” “What were you thinking at the time?” Some probe the feelings of the person: “How did it feel when her first record went platinum?” “Did you expect the to become so popular?” Major purpose is to encourage the interviewee to expand on an answer they’ve given. Sometimes the interviewee may not understand how much detail you are looking for, and occasionally he or she may be purposefully evasive. Leading questions Guide respondents toward providing certain types of information and imply that the interviewer prefers one answer over another. For example: “What do you like about working for Habitat for Humanity?” steers respondents to describe only the positive aspects of their volunteer work. “Having a ‘commercial sound’ is an important criteria, isn’t it?” directs the answer by providing the standard for comparison. In most types of interviews, neutral questions are preferable because they are less likely to create defensiveness in the interviewee. What should be your first step when preparing starting a job search? Research the company/school and job Networking!!! linkedin.com Company/School website Career Services Center Faculty in your major Other students/alumni Internships Then create a winning resume and cover letter that helps you get an interview 3. What is the purpose of a resume, what kinds of information should be included on a resume? A resume is a brief summary of your skills and accomplishments and is your “silent sales representative” What should be included: 1) Contact information Your name, address (current and permanent), telephone numbers, and email address. If you go by a nickname, think twice about using it for your contact information. Use a professional sounding email. Use a professional sounding voice-mail. 2) Career objective A one-sentence objective describing your job search goal. 3) Employment history A list of your paid work experiences, beginning with the most recent. List the name and address of the organization, your employment dates, your title, key duties, and noteworthy accomplishments. Try not to leave gaps in your work history because this may raise red flags for employers. 4) Education List the names and addresses of the schools you have attended (including specialized military schools), the degrees or certificates you have earned (or expect to earn), and the dates of attendance and graduation. Also list academic honors received with degrees or certificates. 5) Relevant professional affiliations List the names of the organizations, dates of membership, and offices you held them in. 6) Military background (if applicable) List branch and dates of service, last rank held, significant commendations, and discharge status. 7) Special skills List language fluencies, technical expertise, computer expertise, multimedia competencies, and any other skills related to your job goal. 8) Community service List significant involvement in community service organizations, clubs, and other volunteer efforts. 9) References List or have available the names, addresses, email addresses, and phone numbers of at least 3 people who will speak well of your ability, your work product, and your character. Prepare your resume so it is easy to read, highlights your accomplishments, and is short. Good resumes are generally not more than two pages long. 4. Be able to identify effective behaviors that should be used during an interview. 1) Use active listening Attending, understanding, remembering Make and keep eye contact 2) Think before answering 3) Present a credible (competent, trustworthy, and dynamic) image 7) Ask questions 5. What activities are appropriate as a follow-up to a job interview? 1) Write a thank-you note 2) Self-assess your performance How well did you do? What can you do better next time? 3) Contact the interviewer for feedback If you don’t get the job, call for feedback. Be polite and indicate you just want to get some help on your interviewing skills. 6. What factors are likely to lead to rejection of a job candidate? What is the most important factor? Negative personality or poor impression Lack of ambition Poor motivation Unenthusiastic Immature Poor communication skills Inadequate training, lack of experience Poor grades in major field Poor preparation for the interview Lack of specific goals Unrealistic expectations TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS How does TA describe games (e.g. what are the characteristics of games)? A game is a highly structured pattern of complementary transactions, involving an ulterior motive. All games are played to give or receive strokes. All games have an ulterior motives and a payoff. Games are most often played to give or receive negative strokes. One way to determine if you are involved in a game is to look for repetitive problems with very similar language and responses being used. In any game, either person can stop the game by not providing the expected payoff. What is the primary reason for people playing these games? It serves as a substitute for intimacy (as it is used here, intimacy refers not to sexuality but rather to open, honest, genuine communication). Be able to distinguish among the ego states and types of transactions? The three identified ego states include the Parent, Adult, and Child. Parent Individual acts and speaks like a real parent Frequent use of expressions like “Don’t” “Should, Shouldn’t” “Stop that” “Don’t worry” “I’ll fix everything” Nurturing behaviors Adult Individual is oriented to the world as it is, not as it is talked about Logical rather than emotional, calm rather than excitable Accumulating and processing relevant information and estimating probabilities in situations Asks a great deal of questions Realizes the world is complex and change is inevitable Child Spontaneous, creative, rebellious, impulsive, adventurous Does what he/she wants to do “Is this ok?” “This is mine!” “You don’t love me” What does the concept, stroking, entail and what is the function of stroking? Any behavior that acknowledges the importance of the other person. Strokes provide recognition and confirm the other’s self-concept. Strokes may be positive, negative or mixed. A mixed stroke would involve an initially positive comment that is then subverted or changed into a negative one. All ego states seek to receive strokes. People generally seek positive strokes, but failing that they will settle for negative strokes. Negative strokes are better than indifference. From either an example or a description be able to recognize a particular type of game from those indicated on the handout. A. WHY DON’T YOU, YES BUT – ask the other person for his opinion or advice and then criticize what he says; used to find fault with others. B. NOW I’VE GOT YOU, YOU SOB – set the other up by asking her to admit something and then using her admission to pounce on her mistake; player is rewarded by feelings of superiority. C. IF IT WEREN’T FOR YOU – you make a mistake, perform poorly or fail at some task and then tell your partner that he was the cause of your problem. D. UPROAR – person A attacks person B, then person B defends self, then person A attacks again, and B leaves the encounter crying, upset, or angry; person A gets to feel good about himself. E. WHAT WOULD YOU DO WITHOUT ME – come to your partner’s rescue when he has a problem (which may or may not be partially caused by you) and then make sure he knows you’ve saved him (again). F. KICK ME – keep making mistakes or generally doing things wrong until the other person is provoked into “kicking” you; played to receive negative strokes. Similar to the game, STUPID, in which the person acts silly, ridiculously, foolishly and gets others to laugh at him/her. G. WOODEN LEG – person uses some fault (e.g. family background, physical ailment, personal experience) to evade responsibility for one’s actions; takes the form of the question, “What do you expect from a man with a wooden leg?”; player actually enjoys benefits of misery. What should be considered when one recognizes that a game is occurring and one thinks about terminating the game? You need to know you are a part of game You should stop giving the intended response/ playing the complimentary role in the game and give an unexpected response so the other person doesn't get a payoff SECOND EXAM STUDY GUIDE NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION What distinguishes nonverbal communication from verbal communication? o NVC can be intentional or unintentional (Verbal is usually intentional) o Does not have to be spoken or written symbols o Inevitable, ambiguous, shows emotions, multichanneled What is territoriality and how is it conveyed nonverbally? o Any behavior used to identify space as your own and defend your space o Spatial markers: put belongings on seat to mark your spot o Tenure: if people realize you have an established place, it should be respected What distinguishes emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors? o Emblems: substitute for a verbal message Fist pump (yay), Thumbs up (approval) o Illustrators: Supplements verbal message “This wide, this round, this tall.” Using your hands to supplement o Affect Displays: Supplement verbalized feelings Facial expressions, tone of voice, or other NVC that shows feeling o Regulators: Cues the control the flow of a conversation Move away when you want to end the conversation, yawing when disinterested o Adaptors: Relieve tension and stress Beard Stroking, finger cracking What kinds of messages are sent through the different categories (e.g. proxemics, kinesics, etc.) of nonverbal behavior? o Proxemics: Spatial message Territorial via spatial marker, tenure Artifacts decorate the physical space we control o Kinesics: Body movement Gestures, postures, adaptors, eye contact, facial expressions, general body movement o Paralanguage/vocalics Speaking rate, volume, vocal animation, vocal interferences, dialects o Haptics: touch Communicate friendless, caring, status, aggression, sexuality, or to regulate interaction Most ambiguous because its meaning depends on: Nature of relationship, age and sex of other person, situation, site of touch, duration of touch What kinds of behavior are appropriate for the distance zones identified by Hall? o Public distance: beyond 12’ o Social distance: 4’ – 12’ o Personal distance: 18” – 4’ o Intimate distance: Contact – 18” What effects does chronemics (e.g. activity, duration, and punctuality) have on communication? o Activity: when should an event occur during the 24 hour cycle? Grocery shopping 3 AM or 3 PM? o Duration: How long should an activity last? Dinner, a movie. o Punctuality: How close to the specified time should you arrive? Early, late, on time? DEVELOPING AND ORGANIZING A SPEECH What should be considered when conducting an audience and occasion/setting analysis? o Audience analysis Prior knowledge: What does the audience know and not know? Provide background information for what they don’t know. Existing beliefs and attitudes Favor: Do not let audience slide because opponent will give counterarguments Neutral: Do not know or do not care; provide preliminary information as needed Opposed: Give sound reasons and arguments to audience's mind o Occasion/Setting analysis Length of speech: Intro and conclusion take up time; use 3 points, make them focused and lucid Size of audience: Amount of people changes expectations Location of the speech: Location affects positioning and body movement Prior activities of audience: Do you have to work harder to get people's attention? o Considering your analyses, ADAPTION IS THE KEY What is a speech goal (general and specific)? What are the major types of general speech goals? In what ways are speech goals and thesis statements different? o General goal: Overall intent of speech Inform, entertain, persuade o Specific goal: Single statement of the exact response you want to elicit from audience Informative = Increase understanding, knowledge, or appreciation Persuasive = Reinforce belief, change belief, or motivation to act o Thesis statement: Full declarative statement (JUST THE CENTRAL FOCUS, NOTHING ELSE) What are the characteristics of effective speech introductions and conclusions? o Introduction AttentionGetting Statement: Statistics, examples, study, etc. Thesis Statement (JUST THE CENTRAL FOCUS, NOTHING ELSE) Preview of Major Points (Numbering distinguishes your points, making them easier to follow) Relate the Topic to the Audience o Conclusion Restatement of Thesis Summary of Major Points Final Motivational Appeal What are the relationships between speech topics and organizational patterns? When should you use the various types of organization? What are transitions and how do they function in a speech? o Your topic contains major points, which need an organizational pattern Your major points must answer the question “Why?” Your evidence must be relevant and persuasive as well. o Time order (Sequential, chronological) Use temporal words like 1 , 2 , or 3 to make your points easier to follow o Narrative order: process of using stories to dramatize thesis Main points in a story can be chronological or have flashbacks Can develop thesis in an emotionally compelling manner o Topic order: main points divided in categories (general to specific, least to most important) o Logical reasons order: main points provide evidence to support thesis o Transitions: phrases or sentences that connect ideas Section transitions: SHORT sentences that bridge major parts of speech Signposts: words/phrases that connect supporting material to speech To number ideas: 1 , 2 , 3d Focus on key ideas: Foremost, most important, above all Introduce explanation: To illustrate, for example, in other words Forecast end of an anecdote or speech: In short, finally, in conclusion What are the guidelines for outlining a speech? What does it mean to subordinate points? o Subordination = to move from general to specific for each major point How should main points be selected and stated? Selected: They must be relevant to the thesis Stated: Write major points as declarative statements DELIVERY AND PERSUASIVE SPEAKING What does a speaker need to do to achieve conversational quality? What are the four methods of speech delivery and the (dis)advantages of each? o Understand the ideas of the speech, not memorize the words → Spontaneous → Conversational quality o Impromptu Pros: Learn how to organize thoughts; Think on your feet Cons: Few seconds or minutes to prepare; Cannot look at notes o Manuscript (Scripted) Pros: More time to prepare Cons: Lacks nonverbal communication because delivery is not as important as the words o Memorized Pros: If you pull it off, then it can enhance speaker credibility Cons: Not effective if you blank out o Extemporaneous: wording of the speech varies every time speech is delivered Pros: Plan, research, and outline in advance; Can use notes (major ideas, quotations, statistics) Cons: If you stand there and read your notes, then your delivery will suffer What techniques can a speaker use to develop speaker immediacy? o Use personal pronouns (1 /2 ) o Ask rhetorical questions Do not ask too many questions consecutively; give audience time to think o Share common experiences o Personalize information Reframe the statistics so that they become relevant to the audience o Use simple language Inflated language distances you from the audience o Try for vividness Create a word picture for the audience to captivate the audience o Emphasize important ideas Proportionality: Provide more evidence for more important points Repetition: Repeated phrase to connect the audience, e.g. Professional athletes → “0 dollars” What are the causes for and techniques to manage speaker apprehension? o Genetic component: Some babies are born shy, but it's not a determinant for the rest of your life o Traumatic component: Major life failure sticks with you o Negative reinforcement: Consistently receiving negative feedback o Negative selftalk o How to manage speaker apprehension It is usually much worse from your standpoint Facilitative vs. debilitative anxiety Some anxiety is good, but we want to hone the anxiety so that it does not impair our delivery o Visualization and cognitive restructuring (needs numerous attempts) Visualization: Mental picture of success; “visual selffulfilling prophecy” that is conducive to acting in ways that will lead to that success Cognitive restructuring: To reframe your thoughts so that they are constructive rather than over critical o Important recommendations Complete the development of the speech as soon as possible Extensive practice Read over the outline multiple times to learn the content Begin to speak it out loud Practice speaking the content as if you're in the room, e.g. Pretend objects are people – direct eye contact Practice once or twice in the actual classroom What are the goals or desired outcomes of a persuasive speech and what is the importance of this information for speech development? o Proposition of fact: To convince the audience to believe something is or is not true o Proposition of value: To convince the audience that something is “X” or its opposite o Proposition of policy: To convince the audience that a specific course of action should be taken Your proposition determines 1) How it is tailored to your audience 2) Development of argument via logos, ethos, pathos What is logical reasoning? What makes for a good reason? o Logos: The logical reasoning a speaker uses to develop an argument What you believe (your proposition/thesis) Why you believe it (your reasons) Helpful for people in your audience who listen via central route (critical analysis of argument) o Criteria for good reasons Reasons must clearly and directly support your thesis They should be supported by sufficient evidence NO EDITORIAL SPEECHES (Always cite the original source of your evidence) Be able to recognize examples of the common reasoning fallacies. o Hasty generalization Generalization not supported /w enough evidence A handpicked instance is not indicative of a claim – find multiple examples to represent all citable material o False cause Post hoc, ergo propter hoc – after this, therefore because of this An effect can have multiple causes, so don't blame that effect on one thing, e.g. Gun violence among students is not caused by only listening to heavy metal music Moreover, the proposed cause may not even be related to the effect o Ad hominem To praise or attack the arguer's character, not their argument Example: Newt Gingrich was attacked several times during the Republican primaries due to his divorces. o Eitheror Reduction of a complex issue to 2 alternatives, when there could be other possible reasons o Straw person Distortion of an opponent's argument and attacking that weaker position (straw person) Example: Coleen believes in gun regulation, not prohibition. Bob responds by saying that the 2 amendment says we have the right to bear arms. He sets up a straw person by proposing a statement that cannot be argued, seemingly weakening Coleen's proposition. But Coleen never said she wanted to take away gun rights. What does Maslow’s research suggest that persuaders should do? o To identify potential “unmet needs”, such that your audience will be motivated to believe or act o Hierarchy of needs is debatable because some sacrifice smaller needs for larger ones, i.e. Rather than working your way up, you shift back and forth between needs What is the function of credibility and what steps can a speaker take to build his/her credibility? What does demonstrating goodwill mean? o Ethos appeals to audience members who listen via peripheral route o How to build credibility Delivery including physical appearance Citing sources that agree with you Citing relevant personal experiences Demonstrating goodwill To demonstrate that the speaker understands, empathizes, and is responsive to audience Empathy: “I know you don't feel this way about X, but many in our country do have this position” Acting in an ethical manner (avoid ad hominem) LISTENING and Helping Responses How much do college students listen and how effective are they at remembering information? o Recall 50% in 24 hours o Recall 25% in 48 hours o Listening is the most frequent activity – 53% of college students' time is spent as a listener What are the goals or purposes for listening? o Appreciative: listening for pleasure Casual conversation, listening to music, watching TV, etc. o Discriminative: listening to understand meaning of message “Read between the lines” Pay attention to verbal AND nonverbal cues o Comprehensive: listening for comprehension Lectures, patients, etc. o Critical: evaluating truthfulness and honesty Most demanding because it requires understanding of many criteria o Empathic: listening to provide helpful responses, paying attention to feelings associated with the message What are the stages of listening (as described in lecture) and in what ways do they differ? What are specific suggestions for improving listening effectiveness as related to the stages? H: Hearing o Passive, physiological process A: Attending o Psychological process o Choose to listen, whether it is by unconscious or conscious means o For that reason, attending is where most people stop the listening process o Skills Hear the person out before reacting Resist mental distractions U: Understanding o To understand what was heard and attended o Active listening skills increase understanding of what we have heard and attended Empathizing Questioning Paraphrasing E: Evaluating o Distinguish between facts and inferences Fact: Agreed upon, observable pieces of data Inference: Generalization that extends from fact Example: You see a guy wearing a suit (Fact) He might be going to an interview or meeting (Inference) o Evaluate inferences: Are the speaker's generalizations, based on facts, valid or invalid? R: Remembering o STM (subject to decay) and LTM (resistant to decay) o Rehearsal: Repeat the name of something several times to memorize o Mnemonics: Artificial memory technique that regenerates information based on familiar acronyms o Regrouping: AKA chunking – to recall larger ideas rather than long lists o Notetaking In what ways are people ineffective listeners (e.g., pseudolistening, selective listening)? Be able to recognize examples of different types of ineffective listening behaviors? What are the barriers to effective listening? Ineffective Listening Behaviors Pseudolistening: Pretend to listen, usually to be socially polite Selective listening: Only listen to preselected topics, e.g. You listen during biology but not IH b/c latter is boring Assimilation to prior messages: Familiar material presented in a different manner is difficult to follow because we stick to what we initially understood Content avoidance: Pretend to listen because of the topic or speaker Defensive listening: To take innocent comments as personal attacks Internal debating: To not listen due to excessive internal noise Barriers to Effective Listening Barriers that are conducive to ineffective listening behaviors Inaccurate Assumptions about Listening ◦ Mental energy is required for listening → Content avoidance/pseudolistening Noise (External and internal) Prejudging the Speaker And/Or Content ◦ Premature judgment prevents you from attending, e.g. Stuttering, lazy eye, accent, etc. ThoughtSpeech Time Differential ◦ You already understand something, so you divert your attention Egocentrism ◦ We would rather talk than listen, especially someone who you disagree → Pseudolistening What is critical listening (or critical analysis) and what skills are involved? o Critical listening: listening to evaluate truthfulness/honesty of a message via HAUER o Skills Understand and recall verbal/nonverbal Assess ethos Analyze truthfulness of message What is empathy (as opposed to sympathy) and what are the basic attitudes underlying the use of empathy? o Intellectually identifying or vicariously experiencing the feelings or attitudes of another o The accurate identification of the meanings in a person’s statements o The ability to communicate your understanding to the person Sympathy feeling for (sorrow, pity) “I feel just awful knowing he did that to you.” Empathy feeling with “it sounds like you were really hurt by that.” Of the response types discussed in the handout (e.g. evaluating, feeling paraphrasing, interpreting, etc.) be able to distinguish among them and be able to identify which can (and cannot) effectively communicate empathy. Most effective in communicating empathy: Feeling paraphrase (sometimes called a reflection of feeling response or an understanding response) Step 1: o Identify what the other person is feeling o Generally speaking there are 5 major categories of feelings (anger, uncertainty, fear, sadness, or happiness) Step 2: o Accept the expressed feelings – do not judge them or feel you need to change them Step 3: o Express you understanding of the other’s feelings Occasionally effective in communicating empathy, but with potential problems: Questioning or probing responses Advice giving Interpreting or analyzing (False) reassurance Generalizing Content paraphrasing Rarely effective in communicating empathy: Evaluating or judging Challenging Threatening Distracting SECOND EXAM STUDY GUIDE NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION What distinguishes nonverbal communication from verbal communication? o NVC can be intentional or unintentional (Verbal is usually intentional) o Does not have to be spoken or written symbols o Inevitable, ambiguous, shows emotions, multichanneled What is territoriality and how is it conveyed nonverbally? o Any behavior used to identify space as your own and defend your space o Spatial markers: put belongings on seat to mark your spot o Tenure: if people realize you have an established place, it should be respected What distinguishes emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors? o Emblems: substitute for a verbal message Fist pump (yay), Thumbs up (approval) o Illustrators: Supplements verbal message “This wide, this round, this tall.” Using your hands to supplement o Affect Displays: Supplement verbalized feelings Facial expressions, tone of voice, or other NVC that shows feeling o Regulators: Cues the control the flow of a conversation Move away when you want to end the conversation, yawing when disinterested o Adaptors: Relieve tension and stress Beard Stroking, finger cracking What kinds of messages are sent through the different categories (e.g. proxemics, kinesics, etc.) of nonverbal behavior? o Proxemics: Spatial message Territorial via spatial marker, tenure Artifacts decorate the physical space we control o Kinesics: Body movement Gestures, postures, adaptors, eye contact, facial expressions, general body movement o Paralanguage/vocalics Speaking rate, volume, vocal animation, vocal interferences, dialects o Haptics: touch Communicate friendless, caring, status, aggression, sexuality, or to regulate interaction Most ambiguous because its meaning depends on: Nature of relationship, age and sex of other person, situation, site of touch, duration of touch What kinds of behavior are appropriate for the distance zones iden
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