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Midterm SG Comms

by: Joshua Crump

Midterm SG Comms COMS 2330

Joshua Crump
GPA 3.71

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About this Document

This is the first part of the concepts that are needed for the Comms Midterms
Communications Research
Shana Bridges
Study Guide
communication, journalism, research methods
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joshua Crump on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMS 2330 at Georgia Southern University taught by Shana Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Communications Research in Journalism at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Study Guide: Communication Research Survey of Communication Studies: Chapter 1, Foundations  Definition of communication that the authors put forth: The process of using symbols to exchange meaning Survey of Communication Studies: Chapter 4, History  How long ago did the study of communication begin? Over 2500 years ago in Greece and Sicily  Who was the first person to teach public speaking? Aristotle  Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric: faculty of discovering the possible means of persuasion in reference to any subject whatever  Ethos, pathos, logos o Logos: presentation of logical or seemingly logical, reasons that support a speaker’s position. o Ethos: orator persuades by moral character when his speech is delivered in such a manner as to render him worthy of confidence..moral character..constitutes the most effective means of proof o Pathos: speaker touches particular emotions from the audience  Why was Medieval period considered “dark ages” of study of communication? Greco Roman culture was dominated by Christian influence after the fall of Romans. They felt threatened by secular works. Church preserved many of the classical teachings of rhetoric, making it hard for a secular education.  Four prominent trends during the Enlightenment period o Neoclassicism: revived the classical approach to rhetoric by adapting and applying it to contemporary situations o Eclectic method: offered standards of style for presenting and critiquing oration, drama, and poetry o Psychological/epistemological- applied communication study to basic human nature, knowledge and thought o Elocutionary approach: delivery and style by providing strict rules for a speakers bodily actions such as gestures, facial expressions, tone, and pronunciation  1900-1940: five primary areas of communication study o Work on communications and political institutions o Research concerned with the role of communication in social life o Social-psychological analyses of communication o Studies of communication and education o Commercially motivated research  Conditions that altered communication studies in the 1970s: feminism, civil rights, anti-war movements Zhou, Nature and Purpose of Research  Ways of Knowing: be able to define and identify an example of each o Authority: any professional, teacher, etc. efficient but not infallible. They can be biased o Personal Experience: learning through 5 senses (seeing, touching, hearing) o Tenacity: comfortable with a belief that’s been held for a long time. (tradition) info may not be accurate just because its believed o Intuition: gut feeling, fast and quick. Can be misconceived and open to mistakes. Very subjective  Steps of the scientific method  Objective/objectivity: minimize scientists bias and personal beliefs  Empirical: science studies natural phenomena that are observable and measurable  Exploratory Research: happens when researcher looks into area where little previous research exists  Explanatory Research: address the why instead of the what. Build on exploratory  Inductive Research: researcher begins to observe and collect evidence. Find patters and gets conclusions based on specific cases.  Deductive Research: begin with a universal statement and make a specific prediction.  Circle of Science: inductive and deductive. Science is cumulative and one study doesn’t prove anything. Start w/ inductive to get generalization and use that to predict what data will be generated (deducing an outcome based on a general rule)  Positivism: evidence gathered through the perception of our senses.  Constructivism: believes that humans actively make sense of what is happening around them. Kagan, The Three Cultures  What are the three cultures Kagan referring to? Natural Sciences, Humanities, Social Sciences  Nine dimensions of difference between three cultures o Natural: All natural phenomena (geology, physics, astronomy, chem, bio)  Minimal influence of historical conditions & ethical influence  Quantitative, empirical observations, hypothesis & research?’s o Humanities: What makes us human? Culture (Linguistics, lit/philosophy, religion, performing arts)  Qualitative, tolerance for ambiguity, semantic concepts (fictive kin)  Serious influence of ethical & historical conditions o Social Sciences: study human behaviors & psychological states (b/t people & society) anthropology, psychology, geography, sociology, and economics  Quantitative & Qualitative  Modest influence of historical conditions * major influence of ethical conditions


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