ARH Exam I Terms
ARH Exam I Terms ARH 316B
Popular in Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Dengler on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 316B at University of Arizona taught by Professor Plax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture in Art History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Terms 1. Sociability - Sociability in the 18 century was a new form of socializing through shared interests rather than because of similar rank of nobility or middle class. This idea created more fluid lines between social classes In the 17 century, the king was the main collector of art, but in the 18 century, other people began collecting art and being an art collector became a sign of status. People began to form clubs to discuss and look at art. One example of this is Mme de Geoffrin’s Salon in Paris, where there was a culture club held twice a week to discuss music, literature, and art. 2. Hierarchy of genre - In the Art Academy, the genre of art was organized on a hierarchical basis of subject matter. At the top of the hierarchy was the noble genre. This genre included history painting, or a narrative painting that tells a story from one of the great histories. Le Brun’s Queen of Sheba at the Feet of Alexander the Great is an example of a history painting. This includes classical and ancient history, Biblical history, and the stories of great men. Next in the hierarchy was the inferior genre. This included portraiture, still life works, landscapes, and genre scenes. These subjects were frowned upon by the French academy. 3. Rubeniste-Poussiniste controversy - This was a sort of quarrel between styles and influences in the late 17 century and early th 18 century. The debate was between Rubenism and Poussinism, and it challenged the Academy’s hierarchy as well as its authority. Poussinists held up as models high Renaissance artists like Michelangelo and Raphael. They preferred a more classical style of art with subjects that had some sort of message (such as in history paintings). Rubenists on the other hand were known for a very sensuous approach to color, very loose brush strokes, and art that did not appeal primarily to the intellect. Rubens’ Medici Cycle was a prime example for them. Rubenism became known as Rococo. 4. Royal Academy of Art (England, 1768) - The English Academy of Art was established when George II took the throne, and it emulated the French Academy. Its funding came from exhibitions more than from royal support. At the academy, there were lectures, male and female model drawing, and theoretical debate. Reynolds was the director of the British Academy and did a series of lectures. 40 artists were chosen to be members, and we can see a lesson with these artists in Zoffany’s Royal Academicians in General Assembly. 5. Fete Galante - Fete Galante was a type of idyllic painting in which the figures were dressed in theatrical and/or contemporary clothing and enjoying amorous pleasures such as dancing, music, and conversation in a landscape. This new category of subject originated when Watteau painted Pilgrimage to Cythera, and there was no other category to really define it. Fete Galante paintings often had an erotic subtext that were subtle but well understood in the time. The new fete galante genre challenged the authority of the Academy 6. Hunting Scenes - The Hunting scene was a subgenre of fete galante paintings. Hunting was a privilege for the royal family and land-owning people of the aristocracy, so these paintings showed their status. On these hunts, the figures wore hunting uniforms. One interesting thing is that we never see the killing or the chase in these paintings, but the picnic, which was an integral part of the hunt. We see one of these picnics in Lancret’s Hunt Picnic. 7. Marquise de Pompadour - Madame de Pompadour was the mistress of Louis XV, and she was known as the “Patroness of the arts.” She was from a wealthy family, was raised and trained for the purpose of becoming a royal mistress, and was very talented. One of her hobbies was building and decorating houses, and one of her favorite was Chateau Bellveau. In a way, she controlled the arts and culture at the time, and she even did some of her own art (“Friendship”) under the guidance of other artists like Boucher. There were many portraits done of her, including Boucher’s Portrait of Mme de Pompadour. She established the Sevres porcelain manufacture with Louis. 8. Sevres Manufacture - Madame de Pompadour and Louis XV collecting porcelain and founded the Sevres Manufacture in 1738 in order to rival Germany, who produced the best porcelain at the time. The best artists were employed here, and a lot of deep colors are present in the works that came from the Sevres Manufacture. The designs of many of the porcelain pieces that came from the Sevres factory were influenced by Boucher. The Manufacture made everything from urns to mini replicas of bigger statues, such as Friendship, a sculpture done for the gardens of Versailles. Biscuit ware, porcelain made to look like marble, was one of the specialties of Sevres. 9. Pastorals - Pastorals were a genre of painting in which the simple life of the shepherd was elevated and idealized. In these paintings, men and women lived peacefully in the country, playing the pipe and musing on the meaning of life and love. It was a sort of imaginary ideal of life in the country, and it is present in all the arts including literature, poetry, theater, opera, painting, sculpture, and architecture. An example of a pastoral painting is The Bird Nesters by Boucher 10. Venus Requesting Vulcan to make arms for Aeneas - This was a common subject of history paintings in the earlier part of the 18 century especially. The story is that Venus, the goddess of love begged her husband, Venus, to make weapons for Aeneas, her illegitimate son, to use for fighting in the Trojan wars. Vulcan did as she asked. Besides representing a famous mythological story, this subject of art would have held a deeper meaning for the viewers. In the 18 century, there was a fear in society that women were becoming “out of place” and getting too involved in the affairs of men. This scene would have represented a man being humiliated and the female having the upper hand. Boucher and Van Loo painted some of the most famous examples of this scene. 11. Bienseance - For certain 18 century architecture in France, there were 3 “guiding principles” to follow when architects were designing and building their structures. Bienseance was the third of these guiding principles, and it was the idea that a building should be appropriate to the status of the person living there. This is the idea that everyone and everything had a place and knew its place during this time in France. This became very important because it was a way of determining who was who in a social hierarchy where the lines were constantly blurred. 12. Boiseries - A boiserie is a panel of wood that has been decoratively carved. These works of art were very labor-intensive, created by menuiseries. Often these wood panels were also painted th and/or gilded. In the 18 century, there were books with illustrations that were published to provide a sort of “pattern book” for boiserie designs to be used or to be inspirations for other designs. Boiseries are extremely present in 18 century architecture in France, and they can be seen on the walls of Hotel Varengeville by Pineau. 13. Pierre Crozat - Pierre Crozat was a wealthy Parisian collector who became, in a way, a new arbiter of taste th in the arts in 18 century France. He was an art collector and he started a new kind of academy where he invited people to come talk about art and to look at art. Being a part of this group and discussing the arts became a sign of status. One of these gatherings can be seen in Nicolas Lancret’s Concert at Pierre Crozat’s House. During the War of Spanish succession, when funds were decreased, Pierre Crozat supported the arts. 14. Toilette - The toilette was a ritual time of day when a person would get ready for the day at their dressing table. This time was a time for socializing. They would get put, put on a dressing robe, and the servants would help them get dressed. At the toilette, they would drink tea or hot chocolate, receive guests, and the women would put on jewelry and makeup. Boucher painted Madame de Pompadour at her Toilette, in which she is putting on her makeup 15. Bear Leaders - When the grand tourist embarked on their journey through the “Grand Tour,” they did not go alone. One of the people that accompanied them was a tutor. These tutors were a sort of escort for the young men, and they became known as “bear leaders.” Pier Leone Ghezzi was an artist who directed his art career towards the Grand Tourist, and we can see a cartoon representation of this idea of “bear leader” in his drawing Caricature of Grand Tourist and Bear Leader, in which the tutor is leading a bear cub through Europe by the hand. 16. Longhi’s “realism” - Longhi painted genre scenes that were very odd paintings. In his paintings, there is a lot left to mystery, and the images were things that were out of the ordinary. His paintings were touted for their realism. For example, in Rhinoceros, he includes small, realistic details like rhino dung in the image. However, his works often carry a social commentary that seemingly damn noble life in a way that is certainly not flattering. In Rhinoceros, one nobleman laughingly holds up the horn that poor Clare the rhino had lost. 17. Vedute - Vedute paintings were view scenes of the cities, especially Venice. These kinds of paintings were very popular with the Grand Tourists. Antonio Joli painted a lot of these views of the landscapes and cities, and was successful as an artist during this time. Naples during Carnival, shows a scene of a Mardi gras, and is an example of one of his works. 18. Emma Hamilton - Emma Hamilton was the wife of William Hamilton. She was born very poor and was originally a stripper, before getting involved with Hamilton. She was a favorite subject in paintings because of her beauty. She was painted by Romney, Reynolds, Kauffmann, and other artists, often as allegorical figures such as in Romney’s Lady Hamilton as Nature. She also performed “attitudes,” which were a sort of little performances, and many artist drew caricatures of her. Later in her life, William died and she lost her beauty as she began drinking and gaining weight. There were grotesque caricatures created of her in this state. 19. Volcano - On the Grand Tour, one of the main reasons the tourists would want to visit Naples was to see Vesuvius Volcano. In the 18 century, there was a sort of new interest in geology and volcanology, and the very-active Vesuvius was a spectacle to see. This new interest in science shows the shift in focus from religion to science, and this is reflected in the art of the time. Artists such as Hacker and Derby painted the volcano. William Hamilton was especially interested in Vesuvius and how volcanoes worked, and he studied and illustrated the process. Vesuvius was a sort of indicator in portraits that the subject had gone on the Grand Tour or been to Naples. For example, in Joshua Reynolds’ Sir William Hamilton, we can see Vesuvius outside the window, telling us that he is in Naples. 20. Pompeii - The Pompeii excavation was one of the reasons Grand Tourists wanted to visit Napes. Classical Antiquities had been buried in the volcanic eruption years before, and people wanted to excavate them, sell them, and collect them. There was a large market for these objects, but there was also a large black market, lots of smuggling, and lots of forgeries that resulted. Many artists painted the excavations of Pompeii, largely in the context of the Grand Tour. Jacob Hackert’s View of Pompeii is an example of this. 21. Good taste - “Good taste” was a concept started by Lord Shaftesbury. Through this idea of good taste, those in power, namely the nobility, were able to dictate what did or did not constitute as good taste in architecture and art. For example, Chiswick House, a Palladian house, was good taste. Good taste usually involved symmetry, a sense of order, logic, and Classic features. In general, Baroque architecture was not considered to be good taste because it was much too over the top and not logical enough. Ideal nature and classical antiquity were a part of good taste. Shaftesbury believed that by creating art and architecture that exhibited “good taste,” one would be doing a service to the public and leading them on a correct moral path. 22. Colen Campbell Vitruvius Britannicus - In 1715, Colen Campbell published Vitruvius Britinnicus, which was a book compilation of all of the great buildings of Britain. By naming it Vitruvius Britannicus Campbell made a nod back to a Roman architect of classical antiquity who had written a book that offered practical advice and aesthetic advice of ideal Roman architecture. This helped established the idea of British Palladianism, and it had pictures and text that described the buildings and their “good taste.” Campbell laid out three authorized standards of taste, which were that the building emulated Classical antiquity, Palladio, and Inigo Jones. 23. Lord Shaftesbury th - Lord Shaftesbury was a very important figure in the early 18 century. He was the “philosophical spokesperson” for the British architectural movement of Palladianism. He stated that noble taste is good taste, and he wrote a book about education and the arts. He believed that it was an important and noble obligation to develop the public’s sense of good taste, and the way this was done was by having examples of art and architecture that exhibited good taste. The kind of painting he believed was important for this was The Choice of Hercules by Carracci. He believed he already had good taste and that he and others in power were educators of the public. According to Shaftesbury, Classical antiquity was a great golden age of perfection, and the Villa Rotunda was a building that exhibited good taste. 24. Emroidered Parterre - A Parterre was a section of ground in a garden that was in some way defined or outlined. There were different kinds of parterres, and an embroidered parterre was one in which the area was filled in with little shrubs or flowers that were clipped into certain designs. There was a sort of rivalry between the French and the English during this time, and the French considered their embroidered parterre to be superior to the English Parterre. Examples of the embroidered parterre can be seen in the gardens of Versailles. 25. Pictorial circuit - English landscape gardens were much different from the gardens of France, largely because the hilly, uneven grounds didn’t allow for the same designs. They were manmade to appear more natural, and were often built around Palladian structures. Pictorial circuits were paths through the gardens that would lead the viewer on a highly orchestrated trip through the gardens, bringing you to certain stopping point destinations along the way. These stopping points would have benches, eye catchers, and incredible views for the people to admire and view. 26. Abstract garden - Abstract gardens were landscapes that depended only upon natures. Lancelot “Capability” Brown as the man who introduced this idea. He came and remodeled lots of gardens, tearing out eye catchers and creating vast open spaces of grass. He like long, unimpeded views of lawn (called “shaved lawns”), and liked to create unobstructed views of artificial lakes. He viewed nature as a painter would view their paints. He also added tree clumps for visual interest, and he also believed that the animals that dotted the landscapes added to the landscapes. He remodeled Petworth House, Longleat, and many others.
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