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Consumer Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Bridget Dixon

Consumer Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide MKTG 3323

Marketplace > Oklahoma State University > Marketing > MKTG 3323 > Consumer Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide
Bridget Dixon
OK State
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters 1 - 6 for exam 1.
Consumer & Market Behavior
Zachary Arens
Study Guide
Consumer, behavior, Exam 1
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKTG 3323 at Oklahoma State University taught by Zachary Arens in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Consumer & Market Behavior in Marketing at Oklahoma State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Consumer Behavior Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: CB and Why it Matters Consumption – to destroy, waste away, use up, tuberculous Interpretive Research – Seeks to explain the inner meanings and motivations associated with specific consumption experiences Phenomenology - Represents the study of consumption as a “lived experience” Ethnography - Involves analyzing the artifacts associated with consumption Qualitative Research - Addresses questions about consumer behavior using numerical measurement and analysis tools Consumer Orientation – a way of doing business that prioritizes customer value and satisfaction above all others Product Orientation – innovation is geared primarily toward making the production process as efficient and economical as possible Undifferentiated Marketing – the same basic product s offered to all customers Differentiating Marketing – serve multiple market segments, each with a unique product offering Niche Marketing – serving one market segment with particularly unique demand characteristics Chapter 2: Value Value – a personal assessment of the net worth a consumer obtains from an activity What you get – what you give Internal Influences – things that go on inside of the mind and heart of the consumer Cognition – thoughts or mental processes Affect – feelings or emotions External Influences – include the social and cultural aspects of life as a consumer Utilitarian Value – derived from a product that helps the consumer solve problems and accomplish tasks that are part of being a consumer Hedonic Value – the immediate gratification that comes from experiencing some activity Total value concept – understanding that products provide value in multiple ways Marketing Strategy – How a company creates value for its customers Customer Lifetime Value – Value Co – Creation – value is co-created by consumers and marketers Marketing Myopia – a condition in which a company views itself competing in a product business rather than in a value-benefits producing business Chapter 3: Perception Perception – a consumer’s awareness and interpretation of reality Exposure – the process of bringing some stimulus within proximity of the consumer so that it can be sensed by one of five human senses Sensation – consumer’s immediate response to this information Attention - the purposeful allocation of information-processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus What factors get attention? 1. Intensity of stimuli 2. Contrast 3. Movement 4. Surprising stimuli 5. Size of stimuli 6. Involvement 1 Comprehension – when consumers attempt to derive meaning from information they receive Selective exposure - Involves screening out most stimuli and exposing oneself to only a small portion of stimuli Selective attention - Involves paying attention to only certain stimuli Selective distortion - Process by which consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs Mere Exposure Effect – Represents another way that consumers can learn unintentionally Consumers will prefer stimuli to which they have been exposed Once exposed to an object, a consumer exhibits a preference for the familiar object over something unfamiliar Behaviorists - Science can only deal with what can be observed. Mental activity can’t be observed so it’s not science Information Processing - Mental activity exists so let’s study it. The mind is like a computer with input and output Learning - A change in behavior resulting from the interaction between a person and a stimulus; Learning can be intentional or unintentional Classical Conditioning – change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally caused some kind of reaction; a type of unintentional learning Conditioned Stimulus – object (bell) or event that does not cause the desired response naturally but that can be conditioned to do by pairing with an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus – stimulus (meat powder) naturally leads to a response (salivation) Instrumental Conditioning – type of learning in which a behavioral response can be conditioned through reinforcement – either punishment or rewards associated with undesirable or desirable behavior Positive Reinforcement – reward Negative Reinforcement – removal of harmful stimuli as a way of encouraging behavior Chapter 4: Memory Memory – psychological process by which knowledge is recorded Framing – a phenomenon in which the meaning of something is influenced (perceived differently) by the information environment Multiple Store Theory Memory – theory that explains memory as utilizing three different storage areas within the human brain: sensory, work bench, and long-term Sensory - area in memory where a consumer stores things exposed to one of the five senses (unlimited capacity; brief) Work Bench – storage area in the memory system where information is stored while it is being processed and encoded for later recall (limited capacity; brief) Long-term – repository for all information that a person has encountered (unlimited capacity and duration) 2 Spreading Activation Model – the way cognitive activation spreads from one concept (or node) to another Episodic Memory VS. Semantic Memory Episodic = memory for events with time and place (episodes) Semantic = memory for facts and knowledge regardless of time and place Ways of Aiding Memory Repetition – repeated thought in short-term memory Meaningful encoding – store memories in an organized fashion that emphasizes meaning Dual coding – coding that occurs when two different sensory traces are available to remember something (Example: Music and scent associated with a place) Chunking – grouping stimuli into meaningful units to create a single memory unit Chapter 5: Motivation and Emotion Homeostasis – bodily reactions to achieve normal status Self-Improvement Motivation - aimed at improving current state, not simply maintaining Means-End Chain – Goal  Means Regulatory Focus Theory – puts forward the notion that consumers orient their behavior either through a prevention or promotion focus Promotion – Focus on pursuit of positive consequences Prevention – Focus on avoidance of negative consequences Self-control is a conflict between now and later. How to Achieve Your Goals Visualize achieving goals– not very helpful Write down specific goals – somewhat helpful Break goals up into “bite size pieces” –helpful Plan ways to overcome obstacles – very helpful Emotions -psychobiological reactions to appraisal Cognitive Appraisal Theory – school of thought proposing that specific types of appraisal thoughts can be linked to certain emotion Thoughts (cognition) linked to types of emotions Anticipation appraisal = Future: hope, anxiety Agency appraisal = Responsibility: guilt, grateful Equity appraisal = Fairness: anger, warmth Outcome appraisal =  Relative to Goals: Satisfaction, Disappointment Types of Emotions Mood – general, no specific target Affect - specific, directed at a target Duchenne Smile – smile that engages the muscles around the eyes Measuring Emotion 3 Autonomic Measures - means of recording responses based on either automatic visceral reactions or neurological brain activity Galvanic Skin Response Self-Report Measures Self-Report Measures – survey and questionnaire based measures PANAS – Positive And Negative Affect Scale Can you feel positive and negative emotion simultaneously? PAD – Pleasure Arousal Dominance How do you feel right now? Joyful ... Sad Happiness: set point theory Chapter 6: Personality, Lifestyle and the Self Personality - totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to his or her environment Unique to an individual Can be conceptualized as a combination of specific traits or characteristics Traits are relatively stable and interact with situations to influence behavior Specific behaviors can vary across time Psychoanalysis – Freud’s theory that the personality has three parts: (Debunked) 1. Id: pleasure principle 2. Superego: follow social norms 3. Ego: resolves tension between id and superego Trait - A distinguishable characteristic that describes one’s tendency to act in a relatively consistent manner Common Consumer Traits Innovativeness - Degree to which consumers are open to new ideas, adopt new products, services Value consciousness - Tendency for consumers to focus on maximizing what is received from a transaction as compared to what is given Competitiveness - Defined as an enduring tendency to strive to be better than others Materialism - Extent to which material goods are important in a consumer’s life Other Consumer Traits Need for cognition - Degree to which consumers tend to engage in effortful cognitive information processing (AKA thinkers) Self-monitoring - Tendency for consumers observe and control behavior in ways that agree with social cues and influence Criticisms of Trait Approach Traits do a poor job of predicting behavior Traits do a poor job of predicting brand choice So many traits exist – hard to justify choosing one vs. other Difficult to measure trait Traits are often overgeneralized – intended for one group but used to describe others 4 Lifestyle – distinctive modes of living, including how people spend their time and money Psychographics – quantitative investigation of consumer lifestyles Way consumer lifestyles are measured 1. Survey consumers using AIO statements 2. Activities 3. Interests 4. Opinions 5. Two popular psychographic measures 6. VALS 7. PRIZM Demographics – observable, statistical aspects of populations such as age, race, or income; tend to follow US census Brand Personalities – collection of human characteristics that can be associated with a brand Anthropomorphize – Think of inanimate objects with humanlike features Self-Congruency Theory - Proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the match between a consumer’s self-concept and the image of typical users of a focal product 5


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