New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psychology: Sensation and Perception study guide

by: Alexis Notetaker

Psychology: Sensation and Perception study guide Psyc 3016

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Monroe > Psychology > Psyc 3016 > Psychology Sensation and Perception study guide
Alexis Notetaker
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Study guide for chapters 4 and 5.
Sensation and Perception
Dr. Rick Stevens
Study Guide
Psychology, sensation and perception, study, guide, ch.4/5
50 ?




Popular in Sensation and Perception

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3016 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Rick Stevens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


Reviews for Psychology: Sensation and Perception study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/28/16
Study Guide for Chapters 4 and 5 Test Chapter 4 Spatial Organization=Neurons in your retina are stimulated in a pattern that mirrors the spatial organization you are looking at. -There is a retinotopic map, which means the spatial relationship in your cortex that kind of mirrors the one in your retina -Cortex devotes more processing power to things coming from the fovea that it does coming from the periphery. -V1(striate cortex) has the higher percentage of cortex, compared to retina used to process the signals from the fovea. Location Columns=Striate cortex is organized into this and they are perpendicular to the surface of the cortex, so that all the neurons with in a location columns have their receptive fields at the same location on the retina. -the neurons in the location column also respond most to stimuli of the same orientation. -orientation columnswithin location columns. -with lots of neurons you can process many variations of “THIS ANGLE” -Tiling = area that sends info to the location column, working together these columns cover the entire visual field. -Hypercolumn = A location column with all of its orientation. Receives info about all possible orientations that fall within a small area of the retina; therefore it will process info from a small area in the visual field. The cortex in organized in columns: -Cortical magnification factor= size of magnification. -Visual cortex shows; location columns (receptive fields @ the same location on the retina are within a column -Orientation columns = Cortex is also organized into these columns, with each column containing cells that respond best to a particular orientation. Neural map on the Striate cortex -Positron emission tomography(PET) - Person is injected with a harmless radioactive tracertracer moves through bloodstream  monitoring the radioactive measures blood flow  changed in blood flow show changes in brain activity. -PET subtraction method= brain activity is determined by, measuring activity in controlled states, in stimulation states, subtracting the control activity from the stimulation activity. Subtraction used in PET. -MRI=magnetic resonance imaging = some nuclei emit a radio frequency in a magnetic field. Uses signals coming from hydrogen atoms, lots of signals come from fat/water. -FMRI= functional magnetic resonance imaging = hemoglobin carries oxygen and contains a ferrous molecule that is magnetic, brain activity takes up oxygen, determines activity of areas of the brain by detecting changed in magnetic response of hemoglobin. What and where streams: -Lesioning/Abiation experiments. -Animal is trains in come task  specific part of the brain is removed or destroyed  the animal is retrained to determine which perceptual abilities remain. WHICH PARTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS. -Ungerleider and Mishkin experiment: Monkeys used -Object Discrimination= behavioral task, provide evidence for the ventral =, or what, visual processing stream. Responsive to an object with a particular shape. -Landmark discrimination problem = Respond to a previously indicated location. WHERE/HOW=PARIETAL LOBE, ALSO CALLED DORSAL PATHWAY WHAT=TEMORAL LOBE, ALSO CALLED VENTRAL PATHWAYS -Both pathways originate in retina and continue thru the ganglion cells in the LGN -Double dissociations—understanding of brain damage. Presence of this means that 2 factors involve different mechanisms and operate independently of one another. Temp lobe= difficult to name, not to locate Parietal=difficult to do location task, not a problem with naming In line with the monkey studies -Modularity = Idea that specific areas of the cortex are specialized to respond to specific types of stimuli. -Modules = Areas that are specialized to specific types of stimuli areas are called this. -Fusiform Face area = located in the fusiform gyrus on the underside of the brain directly below the IT cortex. This area is roughly equivalent to the face areas in the temporal cortex of the monkey. Specialized to response to faces.(Kanwhisher) -Prosopagnosia = Difficulty recognizing the faces of familiar people. -Parahippocampal place area = activated by pictures depicting indoor and outdoor scenes. -Extrastriate body area = activated by pictures of bodies and parts of the bodies(not faces) -Hippocampus = area associated with forming and storing memories. -Mind body problem = how hot and cold, colors, sounds, fragrances and tastes can be explained by electrical impulses. Richness of perceptual experience. -Expertise hypothesis = the environment can shape the nervous system. -Spatial organization = neurons in your retina are stimulated in a pattern that mirrors the spatial organization you are looking at. Plasticity = brain is shaped by experience(kitten line experiment) -right after birth, have many more connection than are needed; some drop out when not used, what is left produces the brain pattern. Experience shapes your brain all your life. Greebles = does the fusiform face area respond to more than faces, training with Greebles caused it to start responding to them, they are kind of face-like. Gave them names, possibly inducing a ”face schema” Chapter 5 WAYS OF UNDERSTANDING: Levels: -Incremental/reductionist level-line detectors, movement detectors, neurons affecting other neurons. -Hollistic level= the perceiving objects ideas, shapes, figure-ground, gestalt laws. -Reductionist= understanding by reducing to the smallest components. Similar to structuralists (Wundt, Tichener, Fechner) -Introspection= elements of consciousness, 3 categories, sensation, images, and feelings. Both sensation and images can have the same fine types of characterist. -Quality=blueness of light or highness of a tone -Intensity=strength or degree -Duration=Time the stimulus lasts -Vividness= degree of separation between foreground and background -Extensity= spread-outedness Feelings= strain-relaxation-calm-excitement The Challenge Of Object Perception -The stimulus on the receptors is ambiguous Inverse projection problem: an image on the retina can be caused by an infinite number of objects Objects can be hidden or blurred -Occlusions are common in the environment Objects look different from different viewpoints. Viewpoint invariance=the ability to recognize an object regardless of the viewpoint STTUCTURALIST APPROACH: -Established by Wundt; states that percetions are created by combining elements called sensations -Stimulated the founding of Gestalt psychology in the 1920’s by Wertheimer, Koffka, and kohler GESTALT APPROACH(best guess rules): -whole differs from the sum of its parts -perception is not built up from sensations but is a result of perceptual organization -Principles of perception organization -Praganz=every stimulus is seen as simply as possible -Similarity= similar things are grouped together -Hollistic is the other end of the spectrum from reductionist -Good continuation- connected points resulting in straight or smooth curves belong together -Promimity-things that are near to each other are grouped together -common fate- things moving in same direction are grouped together. -Meaningfulness or familiarity- things form groups if they appear familiar or meaningful , maybe parodelia -Synchrony-elements occurring at the same time are seen as belonging together Neurons that respond maximally to displays reflect: -good continuation -Similarity PERCEPTUAL SEGREGATION: -Figure-ground segregation= determining what part of environment is the figure so that it stands out from the background -figure is seen in front of the ground -it is closer -the ground is more uniform and extends behind figure -it is generally background, a field without specific shapes. -the contour separating figure from ground belongs to the figure -the edges are with the center, the closer, the brighter, the thing that is most meaningful. – Phenomenology emphasized descriptions, looking at illusions and experiences  –Modern approaches measure objective DVs and look for explanatory mechanisms  responsible for object perception  • This is in contrast to the Gestalt approach, but builds upon Gestalt principles Experience, evolution, we see a preponderance of verticals and horizontals  • Oblique effect ­ people are more sensitive to these orientations  • Occurs due to biology and experience  – Gestalt Laws/heuristics are reflected in your experience with environmental  objects  • Like the Mueller­Lyer Illusion • Structural­description models  – 3­D objects are based on 3­D volumes called volumetric features that are  combined for a given shape  • Marr’s model proposed a sequence of events using simple geometrical features  • The sequence begins with identifying edges and proceeds to recognition of the  object • Recognition­By­Components theory by Biederman (RBC) – Geons – 36 geons that combine to make all 3­D objects  – Geons include cylinders, rectangular solids, and pyramids  – They can be used to make a lot of identifiable objects • Properties of geons  – View­invariant properties ­ aspects of the object that remain visible from different  viewpoints  – Accidental property ­ a property that appears rarely and from certain viewpoints  – Discriminability ­ the ability to distinguish geons from one another  – Principle of componential recovery ­ the ability to recognize an object if we can  identify its geons • Perceiving an object ­ sunburst or butterfly?  – Experiment by Sheinberg & Logothetis  • Monkey was trained to pull one lever for a sunburst or another one for a butterfly  • Binocular rivalry was used ­ each picture shown to one eye  • Neuron in the IT cortex was monitored  • Firing was vigorous for only the butterfly, but perception went back and forth with  binocular rivalry The particular cell was receiving one image,the point being that it was physically  alwaysthere • The cell is a basic piece of physicalequipment, but it slowed firing based  onpsychological factors • Same result with people ­ house in one eye, face in other, fMRI looking at face area and another area Theory of unconscious inference –Created by Helmholtz (1866/1911) to explain why  stimuli can be interpreted in more than one way  – Main Principle ­ perceptions are result of unconscious assumptions about the  environment • Theory of unconscious inference  Likelihood principle ­ objects are perceived based on what is most likely to have  caused the pattern  – You make best­guesses based on the amount of information that you have (or the  amount at which had when you stopped processing) • Palmer experiment – Observers saw a context scene followed by a briefly flashed target  picture          Results showed that:  • Targets congruent with the context were identified 80% of the time  • Targets that were incongruent were only identified 40% of the time


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.