Study Guide Outline
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique Bluehorse on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Fort Lewis College taught by Tor Stetson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Earth Systems Science in Geology at Fort Lewis College.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Biology Study Guide: Chapter1: I. scientific inquiry: 1. Science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study. 2. Overall goal – to discover the underlying patterns in nature and use that to make predictions about what should or should not be expected. 3. Keywords: hypothesis, theory, and scientific method: a) Hypothesis – a tentative explanation that is tested to determine whether it is valid. 1) If a hypothesis is not testable, it is not scientifically useful. 2) They must fit other observations other than those used to formulate the hypothesis. b) Theory – a well-tested and widely accepted view that explains certain observable facts. 1) These are hypotheses that survived rigorous testing. c) Scientific methods – the process of scientists in which they gather facts through observations and formulate hypotheses and theories. 1) A process that requires creativity and insight. 2) There is no “fixed path” between the processes: 3) it is best to call it “the processes of science” rather than “the process of science.” A) The processes: a. a question is raised b. Scientific data that relate to the question are collected. c. Questions that relate to the data are posed, and one more working hypotheses are developed that may answer these questions. d. Observations and experiments are developed to test the hypotheses. e. The hypotheses are accepted, modified, or rejected, based on extensive testing. f. Data and results are shared with the scientific community for critical examination and further testing. II. Systems of Earth - our environment is highly integrated and is made up of four major spheres: 1. Hydrosphere (water) – is a dynamic mass of water that is continually on the move, evaporating from the oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating on the land, and running back to the ocean again. a. covers 97% of the earth b. all living things need water c. in addition to providing freshwater on land, streams, glaciers and groundwater. It is also responsible for sculpting and creating many of our planet’s varied landforms. 2. Atmosphere (air) – earth is surrounded by a gaseous portion of the earth. the planet’s envelope of air a. provides air for use to breath and protects us from the earth’s ultraviolent rays. b. The energy exchanges that continually occur between the atmosphere and the earth’s surface produce effects we call weather and climate. 1. climate has a strong influence on the nature and intensity of earth’s processes. when climate changes, these processes respond. 3. Geosphere (earth) – the solid earth, the largest sphere. a. Extends from the surface to the center of the earth. b. examining the most prominent surface features, we can obtain clues to the dynamic processes that have shaped our planet. 4. Biosphere (living things) – the totality of life on earth a. plants and animals depend on the physical environment for the basics of life. b. through countless interactions, life-forms help maintain and alter their physical environment. III. Development of the earth 1. interior of the earth a. when the planet was very hot, the sorting of material created 3 layers: the crust, mantle and core. b. they all have compositionally distinct layers. c. earth is also divided by physical properties such as the layer being solid or liquid, or how weak or strong they are. A) the CRUST: earth’s relatively thin, rocky outer skin. 1) two different types: continental and oceanic. 2) Oceanic – is made of dark igneous rock basalt and roughly 7 Kilometers thick. ( about 180 million years old) 3) Continental - is about 35 kilometers thick. And made of many rock types but the most common is the granite rock called granodiorite. ( about 4 billion years old. B) the MANTLE: the solid, rocky shell that extends 2900 kilometers in depth. 1. <82% of the earth’s volume is in the mantle. 2. the chemical composition is a marked change. 3. Is divided into 2 parts – the lower and upper mantle. a. Upper mantle: can be further divided into 2 parts: the lithosphere and asthenosphere. 1. lithosphere – consists of the entire crust and uppermost mantle and form’s Earth’s relatively cool, rigid outer shell. 2. asthenosphere – the zone of weak material that is under the lithosphere. Rocks are easily deformed. b. Lower mantle: at the top of the core, 660 kilometers to 2900 kilometers in depth. 1. due to an increase in pressure, the mantle gradually strengthens with depth. the rocks still are very hot and capable of very gradual flow. C) the CORE: the innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle. It is divided into 2 parts: the inner and outer core. a. Outer core – is a liquid layer. the movement of metallic iron generated Earth’s magnetic field. b. Inner core – is the solid layer. it is solid due to the high pressure despite high temperatures. 2.plate tectonics a. the idea of a continental drift (the idea that the continentthmove about the face of the earth) started a revolution in the 20 century. b. A theory was made called plate tectonics that explained this movement. 1) according to this theory – the earth’s rigid outer shell (the lithosphere) is broken up into numerous slabs called lithospheric plates, which are continually moving. 2) more than a dozen of these plates exist. the biggest is the pacific plate.
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