EARTH SCIENCE - CHP.2
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique Bluehorse on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Fort Lewis College taught by Tor Stetson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Earth Systems Science in Geology at Fort Lewis College.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Earth Science Study Guide Chapter 2 : Matter and Minerals I. Matter 1. atoms and subatomic particles a. atoms – the smallest particles that cannot be chemically split in an atom there are 3 sub- particles: 1) the protons(positively charged particles) and neutrons(particles with no charge) that are located in the nucleus(the center of an atom). 2) these are surrounded in a cloud of electrons(negatively charged particles) a) electrons move about the nucleus in regions called principle shells, each shell can hold a specific number of electrons. b) the outermost shell contain valence electrons that interact with other atoms to form bonds. 2. Bonding a. all atoms can bond to one another except a group of atoms called the noble gases( which have 8 valence electons) b. WHY? Because atoms want to become stable. they hold electrical force (from protons and electrons) and these forces hold and bond to each other. the attractions lower the total energy, making them more stable. c. valence electrons are important for bonding: because of the octet rule- this is a rule that states that the main-group of elements tend to combine in a way that allows them to have 8 valence electrons like a noble gas(the most stable elements). d. A chemical bond is a transfer or sharing of valence electrons that allow each atom to attain a full valence shell. e. There are 3 types: IONIC, COVALENT, AND METALLIC 1. IONIC- this is the transferring of electrons from one atom to another. 2. COVALENT- this is the sharing of electrons between two atoms. 3. METALLIC – this is when electrons are shared between all atoms in the substance 3. ions and isotopes a. Ion - An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. b. Isotope each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element. II. Minerals 1. 5 part definition a. a mineral is a SOLID, INORGANIC, NATURALLY OCCURING, has a DEFINITE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, and a DEFINITE CYSTALLINE STRUCTURE. 2. silicates and other mineral groups a. 8 elements make up the majority of rock-forming minerals (in order): Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. b. two elements make the “building block” for the most common mineral group, the silicates. 1. Silicates: they contain oxygen and silicon atoms that make the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. There are 3 different groups: a) common light silicate minerals: they contain varying amounts of aluminum, potassium, calcium, and sodium. A) Most abundant group are the feldspars. (Potassium feldspar and Plagioclase feldspar. b) common dark silicate minerals: they contain iron and magnesium in their crystalline structure and include pyroxenes, amphiboles, olivine, biotite, and garnet. 2. Non-silicate: are divided into groups, based on the negatively- charged ion or complex ion that members have in common. a. so they have similar physical properties that are useful in identifying them. b. the most common non-silicate minerals belong to three groups – the carbonates, the sulfates, and the halides. 3. physical properties a. a mineral’s luster, ability to transmit light, color and streak are the most frequently used tools to identify them. 1. luster – the appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral. 2. Ability to transmit light – when there is no light transfer, it is called opaque. When light, but not an image, is transmitted, it is translucent. When both light and an image is transmitted, it is transparent. 3. color – is the more conspicuous characteristic but it is considered a diagnostic property of only a few minerals. 4. streak – is the color of a mineral in powered form. 5. cleavage – is the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding. 6. fracture – when a mineral has chemical bonds that are equally, or nearly equally, strong in all directions. 7. tenacity – describes the mineral’s resistance to breaking, bending, cutting or other forms of deformation.
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