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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Amanda Sanchez

Exam 1 Study Guide BSC 1010

Amanda Sanchez

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Chpaters 1-6
General Biology I
Thomas Pitzer
Study Guide
Biology, Science, scientific method, functional groups, Study Guide, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Fats, saturated, Nucleic Acids, pH, carbon, functional, groups, Biological, Molecules, hydrolysis, cells, Cell, Theory, Prokaryotic Cells, eukaryotic, eukaryotic cells, animal, plant, endomembrane system, golgi apparatus, Mitochondria
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Sanchez on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 1010 at Florida International University taught by Thomas Pitzer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Science at Florida International University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
exam questions ­what is life 1.Cellular organization: all organisms consist of one or more cells. 2.Ordered Complexity: all living things are both complex and highly ordered. 3.Sensitivity: all organisms respond to a stimuli.  4.Growth, Development, and Reproduction: all organisms are capable of growing and  reproducing. 5.Energy Utilization: all organisms take in energy and use it to perform many kinds of  work. 6.Homeostasis: all organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions that are  different from their environment. (body temperature stays the same despite  outside  temperature) 7.Evolutionary Adaptation: all evolve adaptations to their environment. ­whats is a scientific theory ­widely accepted in the scientific community as being true ­body of interconnected concepts ­is supported by much experimental evidence and scientific reasoning. ­ expresses ideas of which are most certain ­hypothesis vs. prediction ­ hypothesis: possible  explanation for an observation. (because) ­ prediction: doesn’t provide an explanation. ­scientific method ­ observation ­ hypothesis formation ­ prediction ­ experimentation ­ conclusion ­positive vs. negative control  ­ Positive control:receives a treatment with a known response, so that this positive    response can be compared to the unknown response of the treatment. ­ Negative control: group in which no response is expected ­deductive vs. inductive reasoning ­ deductive reasoning: applies general principles to predict specific rules. ­ inductive reasoning: specific rules later on generated through general principles.   ­homoplasty vs. homologous ­ homoplasty: have similar structure and function, but different evolutionary origin ­ homologous: have the same evolutionary origin, but different structure and function. ­darwin reasoning for developing natural selection (evidence) ­ similarity of similar species ­ Darwin noticed variations in related species living in different locations ­ Darwin asked why did isolated species resemble organisms of near­by populations? ­what do we need in order for natural selection ­variation ­heredity ­better than other offspring ­environmental changes ­differential reproduction ­vesicles once that break down the cell: ­lysosomes (break down harmful cell products, cells that are about to die, waste   material, and cell debris and forces it out of the cell) ­peroxisomes (break down toxic substances in the cell)  ­cytoskeleton: ­consists of crisscrossed protein fibers that support the shape of the cell and anchor     organelles. ­3 types of fibers compose it: actin filament (cellular movement), microtubules (move    materials within a cell), and intermediate filaments (serve a wide variety of  functions) ­atomic number: ­the number of protons in an atom ­atomic mass: ­the sum of masses of an atom’s protons and neutrons. ­ mass of protons+mass of neutrons = atomic mass ­ions: ­ an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more    electrons. ­pH: ­0(acidic)—>7(neutral)—>14(basic) ­ the pH of a solution indicates its concentration of hydrogen ions. ­competitive inhibition vs non­competitive inhibition: ­competitive inhibition: compete with the substrate for the same active site and prevents   substrates from binding. ­non competitive inhibition: bind to the enzyme in a location other than the active site,   changing the shape of the enzyme and making it unable to bind to the substrate. ­changes in free energy: ­chemical reactions can create changes in free energy. ­endergonic: reaction that requires the input of energy. ­exergonic: reactions that releases free energy ­catalyst: ­substances that influence chemical bonds in a way that lowers the activation energy   needed to initiate a reaction. ­coenzymes vs cofactors:  ­coenzymes: when a cofactor is a nonprotein organic molecule. It plays an accessory   role in enzyme­catalyzed processes, often by acting as a donor or acceptor of  electrons. ­cofactors: one or more nonprotein components required by enzymes in order to   function. ­metabolic pathways: ­ series of reactions in which the product of one reaction becomes the substrate for the    next reaction. ­regulation of metabolic pathways: ­it is regulated by feedback inhibition in which the end product of the pathway is an  allosteric inhibitor of an earlier enzyme in the pathway. ­what kind of things can get though a cell membrane? ­Small and non polar (hydrophobic) molecules can freely pass through the membrane,    but charged ions and large molecules such as proteins and sugars are barred  passage.  ­isotopes: ­atoms of a single element the possess different numbers of neutrons. ­intra: within  ­inter: between  ­between: 2 ­among: more than 2 ­what carbon do you add to the next nucleotide to the next strand ­3(old)to the 5 strand ­dehydration synthesis: ­monomers are joined to for polymers ­hydrolysis: ­polymers are broken down to monomers how do plants store energy? ­starch how do animals store energy? ­glycogen ­carbohydrate: monomer= monosaccarides  ­protein: monomer= amino acids  ­fat: monomer= lipid ­dna: monomer= nucleotide ­endosymbiosis: ­ proposal that eukaryotic organelles evolved through a symbiotic relationship. ­ one cell engulfed a second cell and a symbiotic relationship developed. ­ mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have evolved this way. ­the cis and trans of the golgi: ­cis face: receives material for processing in transport vesicles. ­trans face: send the material packaged in transport or secretory vesicles. ­ picture of a cell labels what is is and the function ­organelle­ vacuoles­ gylcosomes ­ animal cells  don't have vacuoles  ­plant cells: ­central vacuole holds water ­saturated­lard  vs unsaturated ­unsaturated is more beneficial. ­mono unsaturated: ­canola oil, avocado. ­most beneficial. ­diffusion: ­ the net movement of dissolved molecules  or other particles from a region where they    are more concentrated to a region where they are  less concentrated. ­*osmosis: ­the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.  ­differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (not the misconceptions): ­Prokaryotic: no endoplasmic reticulum(ER),no microtubules, no Golgi apparatus, no   nucleus, no mitochondria, have a single chromosome, no lysosomes. ­hypertonic: ­a solution with a higher concentration of solutes than in the cell. (water moves out of the  cell making it get smaller).  ­hypotonic: ­a solution with a lower concentration of solutes than in the cell. (water moves into the   cell making it swell up)  ­isotonic: ­a solution with the same concentration as in the cell. (water diffuses into and out of the   cell at the same rate, with no change in cell size) ­phospholipid molecule­how does it form the way it does: ­phospholipids are composed of 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group linked to a 3­  carbon glycerol molecule. ­spontaneously form bilayers ­phospholipid bilayer is fluid ­membrane fluidity varies with lipid composition  ­tails: polar (they hold an electrical charge) ­heads: non polar (electrically neutral) ­question off of his syllabus: ­Office Room:OE­273B ­Office Phone:(305)348­1224 ­Office hours: just call before stopping by ­Functional groups:


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