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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lydia Egeberg on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to chd4615 at Florida State University taught by James Duncan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Fam/Child Public Policy in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Public Policy Test 1 notes Chapter 1: Reluctant Student or Passionate Proponent? • Some students fail to see how studying family policy is important to their lives and careers. • Sometimes reluctant students fall into a trap—the illusion of knowledge—and fail to see that success in family policy takes knowledge and skills. Are Families a Public Issue or a Private Matter? • Dominant culture in the United States places great value on families, yet upholds the individual as primary. • Too much value placed on the individual can be detrimental to one’s personal and public life. • Families are important because they are where people first learn how to relate to others and overcome self absorption. • Family is primarily private; yet it is also publicly seen, politically contextualized, and a societal good. Why is it that Family Policy Matters? • Families are the building blocks of society. • Public policy can support family functioning by shaping the environment in which families operate. • Investments in keeping the family foundation strong today have been proven to pay back tomorrow. What Difference can You Make in Shaping Family Policy? • Politics should not be abandoned because it appears dirtied. • New technology has changed the context of political action. • Recent examples of young people in nonviolent political protest include: ▫ The Occupy Movement, 2011 ▫ Tea Party Movement, 2009 ▫ Collective Bargaining Protests, 2011 ▫ Egyptian Uprising, 2011 ▫ Civil Rights Movement • Youth activism has power. How likely is it that family policy will shape your career and life? • Family policy may shape your work life, whether you work directly to affect policy or not. • Professionals often find their ability to deliver services constrained by policies that place families in harm’s way. • Family policy works best when promoted by professionals who understand what it takes to make families work and who grasp how the public policy process works. How Can You get started? • Political activism often begins when you find yourself saying, “This isn’t right!” or “There ought to be a law!” • Don’t allow excuses, difficulties, time, or money stymie you when responsible action is needed. • Remember that change is hard, but when it seems hardest, there is often a clear and powerful reason to take action. Chapter 2: Why Consider Families? Family, in one of its many forms, has been part of every known human society. • Stories that portray family life in all its diversity have captured our attention for generations. • Much of what we do in the present is for the purpose of fostering hope for the future. Why Consider Policy? • Policy shapes the conditions under which families operate (e.g., maternity and parental leave). But… • Policies are often viewed and implemented from an individualistic perspective (e.g., Social Security; education). Most policymakers would not think of passing a law without considering its economic impact, yet family considerations are seldom taken into account in the normal routine of policymaking. Why Are Families Marginalized in Policymaking? ▫ In rhetoric and writing, policymakers regularly espouse the importance of families. ▫ High-profile politicians in both major parties prioritize family policies in their campaigns. ▫ Support for families has constantly and consistently been endorsed by presidential candidates. ▫ The symbol of family appeals to common values that can rise above politics and provide common ground. Why Are Families Marginalized in Policymaking? ▫ Professionals from many realms have repeatedly endorsed the value of families in policies, programs, and practices across a number of issues. ▫ Family scientists have made significant progress in the last two decades identifying effective family-centered approaches for prevention and intervention programs. If Policymakers, Professionals, and the Public Endorse the Importance of Families to a Strong and Vital Society, Why Does Family Policy Still Take a Back Seat to Economic Policy? • Rapid changes in family life • Skepticism about government’s role in family life • Lack of professionals trained in evidence-based family policy Rapid Changes in Family Life • Contemporary families are affected by a number of demographic forces: delays in fertility and marriage; increases in cohabitation, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing; and a rise in maternal employment since the 1960s. • Recent demographic shifts have split families into the haves and the have-nots. • Families today face decreased social mobility, stagnant wages, higher poverty rates, and increased instability. Skepticism about Government’s Role in Family Life • Rapid changes in family life require new forms of family support. • Public investments in U.S. families have grown substantially over the last 25 years, gradually legitimizing government’s role in supporting families. • Government support for families has been patched together by policymakers without a comprehensive vision for family policy. • Policy has not kept pace with recent shifts in the economy, family demographics, and family life. Lack of Professionals Trained in Evidence-Based Family Policy • Calls for evidence-based policy have become routine and family rhetoric has become rampant among policymakers and professionals. • However, we have few formal bodies, little leadership, and meager resources devoted to what can be done, how best to proceed, or who should assume responsibility. • Most researchers and professionals are trained in social science or in policy work, but not in both. Summary • Policymakers, professionals, and the public endorse the importance of families, yet family considerations are not routinely incorporated into policy decisions. • This may be due to rapid changes in family life, uncertainty about the role of government, and lack of professionals trained to advance family policy. • Increasingly, the legitimacy of government’s role in supporting family functions is being recognized. • Family professionals are encouraged to promote family impacts as a criterion for policy decisions. Chapter 3: How Important are Definitions? • Family policy lacks clear definitions given its short and contentious history. • The United States has always had a family tilt in its policymaking, but family policy did not emerge as a distinct subfield of social policy until the 1970s. • Definitions are important to identifying the parameters of what family policy is, what it is not, and what it can achieve. What is Family Policy and the Family Impact Lens? • Pioneers in family policy made an early distinction between: ▫ explicit policies: designed to achieve specific goals regarding families , and ▫ implicit policies: not specifically or primarily intended to affect families, but that have indirect consequences on them. • Family policy focuses on five explicit functions: family formation, partner relationships, economic support, child rearing, and caregiving. • Family formation and membership: Families bring new individuals into the world and provide individuals with their personal and family identity, helping define who they are and where they come from, and assuring continuity across generations. Government regulates this function through policies affecting childbirth, marriage, divorce, adoption, foster care, inheritance, etc. • Partner Relationships: Families are a fundamental influence on individuals’ abilities to form and maintain committed, stable partner relationships. Families can serve to strengthen and nurture healthy communication, cooperation, intimacy, and conflict management skills in their members. Government can support these efforts through policies regarding marriage, relationship education, benefit eligibility, tax incentives, etc. • Economic Support: Families provide economic support to meet their families’ needs for shelter, food, clothing, and so forth. Government shares these responsibilities with families, sets minimal standards for parental behavior, and intervenes when these standards for parental behavior, and intervenes when these standards are not met. • Child rearing: Families raise and nurture the next generation to be productive members of society. Families are responsible for ensuring children’s’ health, safety, education, and general well being, and for teaching them values and appropriate social behavior. Government shares these responsibilities with families, sets minimal standards for parental behavior, and intervenes when these standards are not met. • Caregiving: Families provide protective family care across the life cycle. Although not required to do so by law, families still provide most of the care and concern for the elderly, frail, ill, and those with disabilities. Government supplements or supplants families who need help or are unwilling or unable to provide this care. • Policies that do not explicitly address family functions would benefit from being viewed through the companion implicit term, the family impact lens. • The family impact lens in policy acknowledges the implicit, yet often critical, role family considerations play in board range of policies by analyzing: ▫ A) what consequences are of any policy or program on family well-being (e.g. prison policy, social security reform); ▫ B) how families are used as a means to accomplish other policy ends (e.g. workplace policies that provide child care for sick children, which could be a disguised attempt to improve employee productivity); ▫ C) when families act as administrators of public policy by determining eligibility (e.g. survivor benefits, immigration status) and distributing benefits to members (e.g. applying for the Earned Income Tax Credit ect.) The Family Impact Lens The family impact lens in policy acknowledges the implicit yet often critical role family considerations play in a broad range of policies by analyzing: • Family as a criterion for determining the impact of any policy or program on family well-being. • Ex: prisoner reentry and privatization • Privatization would jeopardize existing protections for children and lower-earning spouses. • Family as a means for achieving non-family policy goals. • Making policies more family-friendly instead of work- friendly • Family as an administrator of public policy by determining eligibility for benefits and by distributing them to members. • Distinguishes between family-focused policies or programs (i.e., what is enacted or established) and family-centered practices (i.e., how policies or programs are implemented) What Qualities Can the Family Concept Bring to Policymaking? • Shifts policy attention away from the individual and toward a family relationship • The family impact lens shifts the focus to giving more. • Moves toward holistic, multidimensional thinking • Changes focus to giving more, instead of getting more • Provides a moral voice that overcomes greed, self-centeredness, self-interest, and the quest for power • Targets attention to the whole family instead of an individual family member Does Consensus Exist Around the Definition of Family? • Consensus emerges around the definition of family policy while questions arise about the definition of family. • Definition of family is complicated by many issues: ▫ cohabitation and financial support of children ▫ same-sex partnerships and parenting ▫ racial/ethnic differences in the importance of marriage ▫ globalization and its impact on the migratory flows of transnational families. ▫ The label single-parent family is misplaced and the term fragile family is more fitting. ▫ Both structural and functional definitions of families share one strength- both are based on a relationship between at least two people. ▫ Limitations- • Structural- excludes long-term foster families, same- sex partners, and cohabitating couples who are not related by birth, marriage, and same-sex couples. • Functional- seem more inclusive because these criteria are met by long-term foster; excludes a noncustodial parent who fails to pay child support or a legally sanctioned marriage where the couple no longer cares for each other, but stays together. What Evidence or Precedence Can We Use to Define Family? • Defining family cannot be settled by research or court cases. • Law books do not have a specific definition of family. • Courts have made decisions on a case-by-case basis. • Varying legal definitions have been credited as a recognition of changing family forms by some and criticized by others as attempts to undermine the traditional family. Does the Field Require a Single, Universal Definition of Family? • Legislators rarely ask the Family Impact Seminars to define family. • No singular definition of family may be possible because families encompass a myriad of structures and engage in multiple functions. • Either a structural or functional definition of family can be used to reinforce the intent of a specific program or policy. Is Defining Family More than a Theoretical Exercise? • Absence of a universal definition does not mean that family definitions are unimportant. • Definitions determine who benefits from a program and who does not. • Definitions are more important now than ever given that family structures are complicated and less sequenced. • Changes in family life add to the complexity of designing public policies to support diverse families. Summary • Clear definitions of family policy and the family impact lens are central to establishing the field as a distinct field of inquiry and for moving the field forward as a legitimate subfield of social policy. • In contrast, precise and widely accepted definitions of family may not be needed to move the field of family policy forward; how family is defined will depend on context and purpose. • Family policy and the family impact lens can be powerful forces for creating the conditions to strengthen and support families in all their diversity across the lifespan. Chapter 4 U.S. Individualism • The United States is one of the only countries without a specific mention of family in its constitution. • Our constitution is focused on “Life, Liberty, & the Pursuit of Happiness” (Lipset & Pool, 1996, p.38). ▫ This usually translate into a focus on individuals. Women Children Veterans Person with disabilities • Subsequently: we often fail to recognize how families contribute to social problems, are affected by social problem, and how families can be valuable to providing solutions to social problems U.S. Individualism Permeates Policymaking • No federal agency assumes sole responsibility for families. • No federal or state government has charters or declarations that set forth family aims and principles. • Piecemeal policies are passed that respond to specific individual needs without a comprehensive vision for families. How Policymaking Affects Families • Families influence Individual development, but the community and policies influence the family. • Family functioning is shaped by internal/external influences • Organizational Processes maintain family systems by… • Promoting psychosocial protection of the family. • Promoting adaptation to changes in cultural, economic, and social contexts. • Ultimately Families do not operate in isolation • The functions of the family are fulfilled in alliance with other institutions. Examples of Family Marginalization in Policymaking • Supreme Court decisions • Extension of equal protection and constitutional autonomy rights into family decisions such as marriage, child custody, and reproduction • Shift in family law toward treating family commitments as private contractual arrangements • Federal laws • Policies designed with the individual but not family in mind • Policy eligibility varies by family structure, often in unintended ways • Lack of policies that recognize and value work in the family in the same ways as work in the formal labor market • One of the most effective antipoverty policies is the Earned Income tax Credit (EITC). Yet if a low-income working couple with a combined income of $25,000 decides to marry, they will loose about $1,900 in annual EITC benefits. • State Laws • Many family policies are now determined by states (e.g., child welfare, health insurance, family preservation, K-12 education, marriage, divorce, property distribution) • State policy decisions privilege some types of families over others, often in unintended ways • Local laws and Service Provision • City ordinances; zoning rules; local education boards • Community organizations; family service providers • Workplace policies • Are hiring, decisions, flexibility, overtime requirements, and health benefits family friendly? no • More mothers entering the workforce • No public policy protects parents’ responsibility to care for their children • Organizational practices and operating procedures • Are laws implemented as intended? no • Are programs administered, financed, and staffed in family- friendly ways? no • Is program philosophy and practice generally more individualistic or familistic? individulaistic • Professional training practices • Family policy not prioritized by fields and institutions relevant to policy (e.g., economics, political science, law) • Lack of attention in secondary and higher education to how families contribute to their members and to society • Little training provided to teachers on how to involve parents and serve families with diverse needs • Human service professionals mainly trained in individualistic approaches to treatment and service delivery • Data and theories • Lack of data collected on key aspects of family life • The National Survey of Family Growth measures cohabitation, but does not allow cohabiting couples to be of the same sex. • Families are too complicated now a days to collect accurate data • Food stamps and noncash aid is not included in the calculation of the poverty line. • Family outcomes neglected or inconsistently measured • Family data often collected from only one family member • Who is targeted in data collection has not kept pace with the full range of changing family demographics • Capturing the dynamic, multifaceted nature of family relationships is challenging; complex analyses needed to represent the reciprocal nature of family interactions • Data limitations slow the development and refinement of theoretical frameworks that can inform policy decisions • Family scientists are challenged by developing measures that capture the changing landscape of family life in America. Summary • Policies and practices in the U.S. are approached primarily from an individualistic frame. • Families are largely considered a private matter, but are profoundly affected by the public environment in which they operate. • Families provide many functions for the good of society, but they perform these valuable functions mostly on their own. • Families are more effective in supporting, educating, and caring for their members in the context of family-friendly policies and practices. Chapter 5: What Outcomes Matter to Policymakers? • Professionals are typically more interested in the private value of the functions that families provide for their members and how family members benefit from policies and programs they participate in. • f ▫ When speaking to policymakers, it is more important to focus on the public benefits of families to society. How Important Are Families to Societies Around the World? • In Malta, the valuing of marriage and family is strong. • In Vietnam, the state protects marriage and family. • In Latin America, family remains one of the most valued social institutions. • In Turkey, every individual is linked with some kind of family, making it an “alternativeless” institution. • In the United States, the Standard North American Family (SNAF) is a normative ideal. • Globally, families are highly valued as the building blocks of society that cut across differences in ideology and nation-states. What Contributions Do Families make to Society? • Families are a fundamental foundation for generating productive workers. • Families contribute to the raising of caring, committed citizens. • Family policies and programs are an efficient investment of public resources to reach societal goals. • Family policies and programs are an effective means of promoting positive child and youth development. Families Are a Fundamental Foundation for Generating Productive Workers • In the midst of a global economic transformation, every nation’s competitiveness depends more than ever on its human capital. • Human capital in knowledge-based economies depends on cognitive (hard) and noncognitive (soft) skills. • Researchers are able to predict the probability that a child will become a high school dropout 11 to 14 years later based on the quality of early care. • Globally, quality child care programs are financed for many reasons: lowering poverty rates, filling labor shortages, supporting employed parents, and so forth. • When public support for preschool education increased, children’s math and science achievement rose, with the largest advantages for the most disadvantaged. Families Contribute to the Raising of Caring, Committed citizens • Secure attachment relationships predict many qualities that most societies value in their citizenry—involvement, leadership, self- confidence, social competence, self-reliance, empathy, etc. • Parenting competence at age two in the first generation predicted parenting competence at age two in the second generation. • Internationally, policies to support competent parenting included paid maternal, paternal, and family leave; parental education courses; home-visits; sick-child leave; and so forth. • In a recent study of the world’s most highly competitive countries, providing paid family leave does not appear to interfere with a country’s global competitiveness. Family Policies and Programs Are an Efficient Investment of Public Resources to Reach Societal Goals • Government cannot afford to replace the functions families perform for the benefit of their members and the good of society. • U.S. taxpayers receive a return of $10.50 to $25 in private parent contributions for every public dollar allocated to a child in a two- parent, middle-income family. • In Canada in 2002, family caregivers saved the health system $5 billion Canadian dollars ($3.2 billion in U.S. currency). • In an analysis of 13 advanced countries, investments in family policies did not interfere with a country’s employment prospects or economic competitiveness. Family Policies and Programs Are an Effective means of Promoting Positive Child and Youth Development • In evaluations, programs that focus on family dynamics have proven to be nine times more effective than “youth-only” approaches. • In Britain, implementing a number of evidence-based reforms reduced child poverty by half: ▫ setting a national minimum wage ▫ raising the universal child benefit ▫ providing universal preschool for three- and four-year-olds ▫ extending paid parental leave ▫ establishing a parent’s right to request part-time or flexible work hours without jeopardizing employment, etc. Summary • Government plays a smaller role in family policy in the United States than in other countries. • The U.S. provisions for family leave are unpaid and shorter in duration. • The U.S. system of child care requires payments by parents with some state and federal subsidies. • The United States’ reliance on tax benefits and credits instead of direct cash transfers ends up treating higher-income families more generously than lower-income families. • The United States spends more than other countries on education, especially at the university level. What factors are associated with human capital? • In the midst of a global economic transformation, every nation’s competitiveness will depend more than ever on its human capital, specifically the education and social skills of its labor force. • The odds of dropping out of school were even greater when parents were neglectful or disengaged. • Children’s early experiences are powerful predictors of later development, especially when considered in combination with the surroundings they grew up in, peer relationships, and their later care. Earned Income Tax Credit Presentation -Provides monetary support/credit -more children; more money -given to the working poor not teens -depends on marital status -phase in: first dollar earned and increase -Phasing-in rate: % of earnings, according to family size -Phase-in ends: reaches maximum credit -encourages people to work -higher phase out rates for single vs. married -rate for 3 children homes raised to 45% -once you hit max credit, rate goes down -Issues: hard to prove where child actually lives FERPA Presentation - protects the confidentiality of a students record - Private, elementary, and secondary levels are not subject to this funding • The directory section of education records may be disclosed without consent • Other exceptions include: o If the eligible student is caught in possession of alcohol or a controlled substance under the age of 21 o If it is an emergency situation o “to the victim of an alleged perpetrator of a crime of violence or sexual offence” (“Family Education”, 2011,p. 5) • The school is not required to notify students “individually” of their FERPA rights, but they can use other means... • Law enforcement units do NOT lose their status if they perform non-law enforcement tasks for the school Medicare/Medicaid - Medicare: federal insurance program that helps the elderly pay for medical bills. Has to be: o 65 years of age o US citizen o Enrolled in the Social Security - Medicaid: assists low-income families or individuals in paying non/medical assistance; Program differs state by state - Medicaid medical coverage includes the most common forms of healthcare - Medicaid pays Medicare premiums, deductibles, and co-payments for people who are enrolled in both programs SCHIP Presentation - has a partnership between Federal and the individual state’s government - Eligible: o Under age 19 o Not covered by other forms of health care o Not in a public institution
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