Book Outline for Chapters 5-10
Book Outline for Chapters 5-10 EP 2013
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Book Outline for Chapters 5-10 Chapter 5 Sport and physical activities are an important part of society We should be able to argue for intrinsic and extrinsic value of lifelong fitness Sport philosophy provides perspectives and techniques to carefully examine the crucial issues in the field and helps communicate issues Philosophical questions can make more questions TERMS Deductive Reasoning: the logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. Sometimes referred to as top-down logic Ethics: moral philosophy, the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct Inductive Reasoning: logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most of the time. Often used in applications that involve prediction. Bottom-up logic. Philosophy: specifically, love of wisdom, more broadly, study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence Chapter 6 Sport history involves the study of sport related events and individuals from the past th Developed into academic study in the mid-20 century Sport historians had the challenge of myth-busting to provide accurate accounts of people from the past Differing sport participation between men and women Understanding sport history can serve as a benefit to professionals throughout the field of kinesiology TERMS Historiography: methodological process of producing historical accounts of the past through analyzing not only facts, but assumptions and values of society and its people History: study that gives meaning and life to what people of the world have done, said and thought in the past History of Sport: accumulative body of knowledge that recounts past practices and purposes of sport, games, athletics, leisure pursuits, and exercise through the ages Primary Sources: works written at or near the time something occurred Qualitative Research: examines meanings, concepts, characteristics, definitions, symbols, and descriptions of things. Quantitative Research: refers to counts and measures of things Secondary Sources: works based on primary sources; books, journal articles, newspaper accounts, and other material by someone who was not an eye witness Sport History: a scholarly field of concerned with the historical study of sport Chapter 7 Sport sociology is a field that examines how patterns of social relations, interactions, organizations, and institutions impact how we understand and experience sport and physical activity in society Academic study beginning in mid-20 century Sociological research and theory can be useful to aspiring kinesiology professionals Doping can be a form of overconformity to the “sport ethic” Michel Foucault helps us understand the ways in which relations of power and control work in the context of coaching and strength training Erving Goffman helps us understand the multiple roles of kinesiology professionals have to play in different aspects of their careers. TERMS Conflict Theory: contends that sport is an opiate of society deadening our awareness to social concersn Critical Theroy: focuses on concepts of power in social life and are about action and political involvement Patriarchy: political and social control of women by men in which the subordination of women is implicit Sociology: study of human behavior and social interactions as they occur in social and cultural settings Sport sociology: subdiscipline of exercise science focusing on sport as a part of social and cultural life Values: socially determined and shared ideas regarding what is good, right, and desirable Chapter 8 Exercise physiology is the science of how the body functions during exercise and sports activities and how the body adapts to chronic exercise training Exercise physiology covers both acute and chronic exercise responses and adaptions It is the study of how the body utilizes energy from the standpoint of cellular mechanisms to a systems approach TERMS Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): a highenergy molecule found in every cell. Its job is to store and supply the cell with needed energy. Aerobic: relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen Anabolism: the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism Anaerobic: relating to, involving, or requiring an absence of free oxygen. Beta Oxidation: metabolic pathway that catalyzes fatty acids Bioenergetic: energy processes in living organism Cardiac Output: volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute Catabolism: chemical reactions resulting in the breakdown of large molecules to smaller molecules Cellular Respiration: series of metabolic processes involved in the aerobic production of ATP Chronic: continuing over a large period of time of recurring frequently Core Temperature: deep internal temperature of the body Electron Transport Chain: final metabolic pathway that oxidative phosphorylates ADP to form ATP, with water produced as a by product Endurance Exercise: is the act of exercising to increase endurance. The term endurance training generally refers to training the aerobic system as opposed to anaerobic Exercise Physiology: physiological mechanisms underlying physical activity, the comprehensive delivery of treatment services concerned with the analysis, improvement, and maintenance of health and fitness, rehabilitation of heart disease and other chronic diseases and/or disabilities External Respiration: exchange of gases between the external environment and a distributing system of the animal body Free Energy: form of energy that is “free” to do various kinds of cellular operations Glycolysis: process whereby glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid or lactic acid Heart Rate: frequency of cardiac contractions in beats per minute Homeostasis: tendency of various control systems in the body to regulate physiological processes within narrow limits Homoeothermic: same body temp. Krebs Cycle: cyclic reactions in the mitochondria that metabolize pyruvic acid and acetyl CoA with CO2, NADH, and FADH2 Lactic Acid: by product of anaerobic glycolysis Lipolysis: breakdown of triglycerides Metabolic Pathway: sequence of enzyme-mediated chemical reactions resulting in specific products Metabolic Power: rapidity with which a metabolic pathway produces ATP Metabolic Capacity: capacity of a metabolic pathway to produce quantities of ATP Metabolism: sum total of all the chemical reactions in the body Mitochondria: specialized cellular structures responsible for producing ATP during aerobic metabolism Oxygen Consumption: rate at which oxygen is utilized in the body Phosphagen System: metabolic pathway using creatine phosphate as the substrate which donates a phosphate group to ADP in the anaerobic formation of ATP Phosphorylation: chemical process whereby a phosphate group is added to a molecule Potential Energy: energy stored in energy nutrients Resistance Exercise: form of exercise where muscles are contracting at large percentages of maximal voluntary contraction capability and results in a distinctly different thermodynamic and metabolic pattern of responses compared to endurance forms Stroke Volume: amount of blood pumped by the hear per beat Chapter 9 Carbohydrates yield 4 kilocalories per gram Fat yield 9 kilocalories per gram Protein yields 4 kilocalories per gram 60% of an athlete’s diet should from carbs, 30% from fat, and 10% from protein 2 vitamin classes: Fat soluble, water soluble Insufficient intake = vitamin deficiencies Excessive intake of fat-soluble vitamins = vitamin toxicity 2 mineral classes: macrominerals and microminerals Athletes should always hydrate before, during, and after exercise Body composition relates to exercise performance and overall health TERMS Adiposity: the relative amount of body fat being carried by the individual Amine: nitrogen containing compound which has gone through a slight chemical alteration Antioxidant: compounds which prevent the oxidation of substances in foods or in the body Absorptive: ability to absorb Blood Glucose: blood sugar; glucose is a simple sugar and breakdown product of carbs Carbohydrates: class of energy nutrient including sugars, starches, and cellulose Cofactors: minerals and vitamins may act as cofactors as part of a reaction and are necessary for a reaction to move forward Creatine Phosphate: high energy phosphate molecule which serves as a reservoir of phosphate units to resynthesize ATP and ADP Ergogenic Acids: ergogenic means “work enhancing”; thus, ergogenic aids are substances which would enhance exercise performance Diurerics: substances which result in water loss Electrolytes: include sodium, chloride, and potassium which are involved in fluid balance Essential Amino Acids: nine amino acids that must be obtained Fat: class of energy nutrient that contains twice as much energy as glucose Glycogen Stores: storage form of carbs found in liver and muscles Hypohydrated: low body water Hyponatremia: below normal levels of sodium in the blood Kilocalories: appropriate term used for “Calories” One kilocalorie = 1000 calories Macronutrients: carbs, fats, and proteins are considered macronutrients and are needed by the body in large quantities. Major Minerals: essential mineral needed in the diet in amounts greater than 100mg/day Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals are considered micronutrients and are needed by the body in small quantities Nonessential Amino Acid: the 11 amino acids which can be made in the body by the essential amino acids Picolinate: substance chelated with such minerals as chromium because it is thought to enhance absorption of the mineral to which it has been chelated Quackery: a misrepresentation of the facts in order to deceive the consumer Sport Nutrition: principles of nutrition applied to individuals in sport and exercise Trace Minerals: essential minerals need in the diet in amounts less than 100mg/day Chapter 10 Present day research is influenced by the historical perspective of physical activity epidemiology Federal guidelines for physical activity have a significance to the field of physical activity epidemiology TERMS Biological Possibility: fact that your hypothesis and the relationship that you are proposing is in harmony with existing scientific information Clinical Trial: individuals free from the disease or condition are randomly assigned to receive either an intervention or no intervention Confounder: variable whose effect is entangled with the effect of the risk factor of interest Cross Sectional Studies: investigators collect information about the health outcome and the potential risk factor at the same time within the same group to determine if a relationship exists between these two variable Epidemiology: study of distribution and determinants of health- related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems Experimental Study: investigators randomly assign varying levels of the risk factor of interest to individuals without disease and then follows these individuals to compare the development of the disease in the future Incidence Rate: number of new cases of a disease in a specified time period divided by the population at risk Mortality Rate: death rate Morbidity: any departure, subjective or objective, from state of physiological or psychological well-being Observational Study: investigator observes the occurrence of the disease or condition in individuals who differ by the risk factor of interest Physical Activity Epidemiology: involves the specific investigation of the relationship between physical activity and health and diseases within a population Prevalence Rate: number of existing cases of the disease divided by the total population at a point in time or over a given time period Prospective Study: identifies and follows individuals initially free of the health outcome of interest and seeks to establish if initial or subsequent physical activity levels differentiate those who do and do not develop the disease Rate: number of cases or deaths divided by the population at risk in a given time period Risk Factors: biological, environmental, and behavioral factors which interact to cause disease in populations
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