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UA - PH/AY 101 - Class Notes - Week 6

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UA - PH/AY 101 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image AY 101 – SEPT 28 LECTURE NOTES  Mercury    Small, cooled off quickly  o  No volcanoes or tectonics to erase craters    Similar to Earth’s moon    Was there ever geological activity on the moon or Mercury?    Yes, not so much on Mercury as on the moon  Venus    Thick CO2 atmosphere, some N2, sulfur dioxide clouds that rain sulfuric acid 
  Surface temperature 470 degrees Celsius (almost 900 degrees Fahrenheit) 
  Some volcanic activity 
  Almost same size and orbit as earth, why are they so different? 
o  Large, inside is still molten hot    Volcanoes: provided N2, CO2, H2O; greenhouse effect 
  Tectonics: erase impact craters 
o  Slightly closer to sun than earth is    Too hot for liquid water, originally 
  H2O, CO2 all stayed in atmosphere 
  Massive greenhouse effect 
  Water vapor boiled off into space leaving CO2 atmosphere 
Mars    Red color due to iron oxides 
  Thin CO2 atmosphere 
  Some volcanic activity, mostly in the past 
  Some craters 
  Water on Mars 
o  Polar ice caps 
o  Lots of geological features caused by liquid water erosion, mostly over two billion years 
old  o  No doubt once liquid water on Mars    Medium Size: inside was molten hot for a while  o  Volcanoes: provided N2, CO2, H2O; greenhouse effect 
o  Tectonics: erased impact craters 
o  Magnetic field: protected atmosphere 
  Moderate distance from sun  o  Liquid water temperatures (with greenhouse effect) 
o  Most carbon dioxide dissolved into oceans 
  However, the insides cooled  o  Lost volcanoes, tectonics, and regulation of carbon cycle 
o  Water freezes 
background image o  Therefore, Mars was too small to keep its earth-like features  The Jovian Planets (“Gas Giants”)    Jupiter  
  Saturn 
  Uranus  
  Neptune 
Internal Structure    Metal/rock cores: 10 earth masses in all cases 
  Hydrogen compounds = water, ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) 
  Hydrogen and helium (especially Jupiter and Saturn) 
Jupiter’s Clouds    Colors we see depend how deep we see (whether the upper layers are cloudy)  o  (atmosphere to surface) stratosphere, (dark grey), haze (grey), troposphere (grey),  ammonia ice (orange), ammonium hydrosulfide ice (red), water ice (blue)  o  Uranus, Neptune: blue methane clouds  Saturn’s Rings    All the outer planets have rings, but Saturn has the most prominent ones 
  10,000x thinner than paper 
  Dust-meter-sized chunks of ice 
  So prominent due to how much light they reflect 
Rings    Would dissipate after millions of years if left undisturbed – can’t be left over from the formation  of the planets 4.5 billion years ago    Created by some random recent event? No—all Jovian planets have rings, so it must be a  universal phenomenon    Must be continually replenished 
  Small “moonlets” get continually impacted by sand-sized particles, released new ring particles 
Jovian Moons    Jovian planets have a ton of moons 
  Like small terrestrial planets, but colder (more ices (hydrogen compounds) than rock) 
o  Io (of Jupiter)    Most volcanic body in the solar system    Why, if it’s so much smaller than earth?  o  There must be another source of heat than the core, however,  friction does keep the inside hot after being “squished” and 
(visible clouds, gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, metallic hydrogen)  (visible clouds, gaseous hydrogen) 

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Astronomy
Course: AY 101 - Intro to Astronomy - Jeremy Bailin
Professor: Jeremy Bailin
Term: Spring 2015
Name: AY 101 - Sept 29 Lecture Notes
Description: Thursday, September 29, 2016 Lecture Notes
Uploaded: 09/29/2016
3 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
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