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PSC 204 Study Guide Midterm

by: Victoria Miller

PSC 204 Study Guide Midterm PSC 204

Victoria Miller

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Here's the completed study guide that was posted on Blackboard with all the terms filled in from the textbook
International Relations
Study Guide
political science, The University of Alabama, international relations
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 204 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rickert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
PSC 204 Study Guide  Ch. 1 o What lead to the creation of the modern state system?  End of the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia  Stabilized the borders of the belligerents and attempted to resolve some of the religious conflicts that had complicated their relations.  States are now expected to respect one another’s sovereignty within their borders o Explain the concept of free trade  International trade left to its natural course, without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions o Outcome of WWI and WWII for the international system  WWI  Did little to resolve underlying political and military tensions that had unsettled Europe.  Lead to the collapse of the four great empires of central, eastern, and southern Europe  Fundamentally altered domestic social and economic conditions  While it weakened Europe, it showed the international economic and military predominance of the US  Treaty of Versailles  League of Nations  WWII  With most of Europe and Japan destroyed, the US and the Soviet Union emerged as the two world super powers o Treaty of Versailles  The peace treaty between the Allies and Germany that formally ended WWI  German war guilt clause o League of Nations  A permanent international security organization formed in the aftermath of WWI, which was supplanted by the United Nations after WWII and was dissolved in 1946  US never joined  Unsuccessful at keeping Hitler at bay o NATO and the Warsaw Pact  NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)  A military alliance created in 1949 to bring together many Western European nations, the US, and Canada, forming the foundation of the American led military bloc during the Cold War. Today, NATO’s role includes handling regional problems and developing a rapid reaction force  Warsaw Pact  A military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the Soviet Union and its Cold War allies in Eastern Europe and elsewhere; dissolved in 1991 when the Cold War ended.  The international order divided into communist and capitalist parts, and the Cold War between them was the defining characteristic of international politics from the late 1940s until the Soviet Union collapsed o Bretton Woods System  The economic order negotiated among allied nations at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944, which led to a series of cooperative arrangements involving a commitment to relatively low barriers to international trade and investment. o GATT, IMF, and the IBRD/World Bank o Post WWII decolonization and the Third World  In many colonies, the rise in nationalism fed into dissatisfaction with continued colonial rule  The process of shedding colonial possessions, especially the rapid end of European empires in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean between the 1940s and the 1960s o Rise of OPEC  Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries  The developing nations had raw materials that the industrialized world wanted, and if they could organize themselves, they might be able to extract more resources from the rich nations o Globalization  At the turn of the 21 century, whatever disagreements there may have been among the world’s major nations, they all agreed on the general desirability of continued international economic integration  Ch. 2 o Cooperation and Bargaining  Cooperation  An interaction in which two or more actors adopt policies that make at least one actor better off relative to the status quo without making others worse off  Bargaining  An interaction in which actors must choose outcomes that make one better off at the expense of another. Bargaining is redistributive: it involves allocating a fixed sum of value between different actors o Collective action problems  Obstacles to cooperation that occur when actors have incentives to collaborate but each acts in anticipation that others will pay the costs of cooperation o Iteration  Repeated interactions with the same partners o Free riding  To fail to contribute to a public good while benefiting from the contribution of others o Information  The availability of information affects the likelihood of cooperation. When actors lack information about the actions taken by another party, cooperation may fail due to uncertainty and misperception  Simple misperceptions can lead to hostile punishments and the breakdown of cooperation even though all actors thought they were acting cooperatively o Institutions and their role in cooperation  Set of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political interactions in specific ways  The primary way that institutions promote cooperation is through enforcement, or the imposing of punishments on actors who fail to cooperate  Ch. 3 o Interstate vs civil war  Interstate war  A war in which the main participants are states  Civil war  A war in which the main participants are within the same state, such as the government and a rebel group o Bargaining and war, bargaining range  Crisis bargaining  A bargaining interaction in which at least one actor threatens to use force in the event that its demands are not met  Bargaining range  The set of deals that both parties in a bargaining interaction prefer to the reversion outcome. When the reversion outcome is war, the bargaining range is the set of deals that both sides prefer to war o Resolve and incomplete information  Resolve  The willingness of an actor to endue costs in order to acquire some good  Incomplete information  A situation in which parties in a strategic interaction lack information about other parties’ interests and/or capabilities o Risk-return tradeoff  In crisis bargaining, the trade-off between trying to get a better deal and trying to avoid war o Credibility and examples  Believability. A credible threat that the recipient believes will be carried out. A credible commitment is a commitment or promise that the recipient believes will be honored o Tying hands  Making threats in ways that would make backing down difficult o Preemptive war, preventative war, and first strike advantage  Preemptive war  A war fought with the anticipation that an attack by the other side is imminent  Preventative war  A war fought with the intention of preventing an adversary from becoming stronger in the future. Preventative wars arise because states whose power is increasing cannot commit not to exploit that power in future bargaining interactions  First-strike advantage  The situation that arises when military technology, military strategies, and/or geography give a significant advantage to whichever state attacks first in a war o Indivisible goods  A good that cannot be divided without diminishing its value o Reducing likelihood of war  Raising the costs of war  Increasing transparency  Providing outside enforcement of commitments  Dividing apparently indivisible goods o Why do states go to war?  War occurs when features of this strategic interaction prevent states from reaching a settlement that both prefer to war, with all its uncertainties and costs  Ch. 4 o Diversionary incentives  The incentive that state leaders have to start international crises in order to rally public support at home o War and the fate of political leaders o The Democratic peace theory  The observation that there are few, if any, clear cases of war between mature domestic states  Ch. 5 o Alliances and collective bargaining  Alliances  Institutions that help their members cooperate militarily in the event of war  Collective security organizations  Broad-based institutions that promote peace and security among their members o US Cold War policy


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