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Chapter 3 Study Guide

by: Ashley Trecartin

Chapter 3 Study Guide EDU 215

Ashley Trecartin

GPA 3.43

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Terms and concepts to know for the Chapter 3 quiz.
Human Development and Learning
Dr. Carolyn Hodge-West
Study Guide
Human, development, and, learning, chpater, 3, study, guide, Infancy
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDU 215 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Dr. Carolyn Hodge-West in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Development and Learning in Social Science at Southwestern Michigan College.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Human Development and Learning Chapter 3 Study Guide Terms to Know 1. Trust­versus­mistrust stage of development: according to Erikson, the period during  which infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their  needs are met by their caregivers, occurs during the first 18 months of life.   2. Cephalocaudal principle: the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body.  3. Proximodistal principle: the principle that development proceeds from the center of the  body outwards. 4. Myelin: protective insulation that surrounds parts of neurons—which speeds the  transmission of electrical impulses along brain cells. 5. Personality: the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiates one  individual from another.  6. Sensorimotor stage of cognitive development: Piaget’s initial major stage of cognitive  development which can be broken down into six substages.  7. Object permanence: the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot  be seen.  8. Autonomy­versus­shame­and­doubt stage: the period during which, according to  Erikson, toddlers (aged 18 months to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if  they are allowed the freedom to explore, or shame and self­doubt if they are restricted  and overprotected.  9. Secure attachment pattern: a style of attachment in which children use the mother as a  kind of home base and are at ease when she is present; when she leaves, they become  upset and go to her as soon as she returns.  10. Accommodation: changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to  encounters with new stimuli or events.  11. Synaptic pruning: the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of  stimulation.  12. Plasticity: the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to  experience.  13. SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome, the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby. 14. Babbling: making speech­like but meaningless sounds.  Concepts to be Familiar With 1. What is an EEG? a. A test to track and record brain wave patterns.  2. What is auto stimulation? a. A means for the brain to stimulate itself during REM­like sleep in infants.  3. What is a social smile? a. A baby’s smile in response to another person, rather than non­human stimuli.  4. What is a neurotransmitter? a. Chemical messages sent across the synapses.  Tables to Know Table 3­3 Some Basic Reflexes in Infants Reflex Approximate Description Possible Function age of disappearance Rooting Reflex 3 weeks Neonate’s tendency to turn its  Food intake head towards things that touch  its cheek Stepping Reflex 2 months Movement of legs when held  Prepares infants for  upright with feet touching the  independent  floor locomotion Swimming  4­6 months Infant’s tendency to paddle and  Avoidance of danger Reflex kick in a sort or swimming  motion when lying face down  in a body of water Moro Reflex 6 months Activated when support for the  Similar to primate  neck and head is suddenly  protection from  removed. Arms thrust out to try  falling to grasp something.  Babinski Reflex 8­12 months An infant spreads out its toes in  Unknown  response to a stroke on the  outside of its foot.  Startle Reflex Remains Due to sudden noise a baby will Protection fling out arms, arch back and  spread fingers Eye­blink Reflex Remains Rapid shutting and closing of  Protection for eyes  eyes due to exposure to direct  against direct light light Sucking Reflex Remains Infant’s tendency to suck at  Food intake things that touch its lips Gag Reflex Remains An infant’s reflex to clear its  Prevents choking  throat Substage Age Description Example Substage 1:  First month  During this period, the various  The sucking reflex  Simple reflexes of life reflexes that determine the infant’s causes the infant to  integrations with the world are at  suck at anything  the center of its cognitive life  placed in their lips.  Substage 2: First 1­4 months At this stage infants begin to  An infant might  habits and  coordinate what were separate  combine grasping an  primary circular  actions into single, integrated  object and sucking on reactions  activities.  it, or starting at  something with  touching it.  Substage 3:  4­8 months During this period, infants take  A child who  Secondary  major strides in shifting their  repeatedly picks up a  circular reactions cognitive horizons beyond  rattle in the crib and  themselves and begin to act on the  shakes it different  outside world.  ways to see how the  sound changes is  showing the ability to modify cognitive  schemes about  shaking rattles.  Substage 4:  8­12 months Infants begin to use more  An infant will push  Coordination of  calculated approaches to  one toy out of the  secondary  producing events, coordinating  way to reach another  circular reactions several schemes to generate a  toy that is lying  single act. They achieve object  partially exposed  performance during this stage.  under it.  Substage 5:  12­18  Infants develop the deliberate  A child will drop a  Tertiary circular  months variation of actions that bring  toy repeatedly  reactions desirable consequences. Rather  varying the potion  than just repeating enjoyable  from which it drops,  activities infants carry out mini  carefully observing  experiments to observe  each time to see  consequences.  where it falls.  Substage 6:  18months­2  The major achievement is the  Children can even  Beginnings of  years capacity for mental representation  plot in their heads  thought or symbolic thought. Only at this  unseen trajectories of  stage can infants imagine where  objects, so that if a  objects that they cannot see might  ball rolls under the  be.  table they can figure  out where it will  come out on the other side. 


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