Study Guide CJ 201
Popular in Intro to Interpersonal Communication
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Luppino70 on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 201 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Karen Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Study Guide for Exam 1 Ch. 1 Developmental Approach: Interpersonal relationships start from the very beginning but it grows as time goes on. A continuum. Dyadic Approach: Interpersonal relationship starts when two connected individuals who want to start connecting. Have to be connected Small group is 3 people. Interpersonal is between two people. Interpersonal relationships happen when effective interpersonal communication is occurring. Interpersonal Communication Components 1. Source/Receiver (2 occurring, one person is both a source and a receiver) 2. Encoding/Decoding (Making meaning of messages sent) 3. Message, can be visual, auditory, tactile (touch), olfactory (smell), or gustatory (taste) Channel; how it is sent Code; Symbols you use (emoji's or abbreviations) Meaning; the intent of the message either through the words said or the tone used 4. Feedback 5. Noise, interference with the communication process Physical, a train passing by Psychological, zoning out Physiological, can't hear, feeling sick, the body getting in the way Semantic, wrong choice of words, words you don’t understand, trigger words (words used that unintentionally trigger a negative reaction, they did not mean to be that way) 6. Context Physical Dimension is the environment the conversation is taking place Temporal Dimension is the time of day, historical time, and the where the message fits in a sequence of communication events. Social--Psychological Dimension is the status of the relationship, the formality or gravity of the situation. Cultural Dimension are the norms and customs to follow. Effective Interpersonal Communication Components 1. Communication Competence, knowing what rules you must follow, norms to obey, etc. 2. Field of Expression, know where the person is coming from, their cultural background and know how they communicate. 3. Ramifications of Communication, knowing that talking with someone will do to the person Irreversible, the die is cast. Inevitable, you always communicate even when you are not doing anything. Unrepeatable, cannot be recreated, no second chance at a first impression 4. Ethical, not required but not being so will lead to the dissolving of the relationships 5. Foster symmetrical and complementary, things in common and different. Both things are admired and bring people together. 6. Feedforward, qualifiers, conversations about the conversation that is about to start (You may want to sit down, I'm sorry to tell you, etc.) Unethical Communication: When one person impedes on the other persons freedom of choice. 1. Lying, interaction based on a falsehood. White lies are still unethical but it depends. "Does this make me look fat?" She is unethical in that because there is only one answer. 2. Fear and Emotional Appeal. Guilt Tripping when you are not knowing that is in intentional or always what the other person does. 3. Censoring Messages, not telling someone everything, omitting information. 4. Gossiping a. sharing information that was meant to be secret b. knowingly spreading false information c. invasion of privacy Ch. 2 Tools for effective as possible communication 1. Mindfulness, be aware that your words have an impact and the situation you are in. Aware of the situation 2. Flexibility, be able to know when something is ok or not ok. 3. Meta-communication, communicating about communicating, either before or after. 4. Cultural Sensitivity, where someone comes from. Ch. 3 Self-concept: how you imagine yourself, your strengths and weaknesses, feelings, etc. Others image of you Self-Disclosure: Communicating information about yourself to someone else. Some people reveal a lot or very little Factors to leading of self disclosure a. Disclosure of others. Tell me something and I will tell you something, the dyadic effect b. Audience size. One on one conversations can usually lead to more disclosure, but who you want to know will affect your disclosure c. Topic. What are you ok talking about? d. Gender. Women will share to men first usually. W to M, W to W, M to M, M to W. e. Relationship. How close you are to someone Benefits of Self Disclosure a. Knowledge of self, you learn about yourself as you say them to someone else b. Ability to cope. Getting things off your chest c. Communication effectiveness. More communication will lead to better communication d. Meaningfulness of relationships. Once self disclosure is happening the relationship will grow e. physiological health. Release things that are bottled up and this leads to less stress and overall better health. Guidelines to Self Disclosure a. Motivated. Reason for it b. Appropriate. In context it is ok, not gossip and will not hurt the individual who is being told. c. Clear. What you are trying to say. d. Reciprocal. Dialogue not Monologue Social Penetration Theory: Relationships can be related to an onion. There are levels to how people will let others know. You can reveal and get to a another level with someone Social Comparisons Self-Evaluation and interpretations Self-Awareness: How much you know about yourself Open self, information you and others know about you Hidden Self, information you know but others don't Blind Self, information you do not know but others know about you Unknown Self, information neither you nor others know about yourself Self Esteem: measuring how valuable you think you are. How you feel about yourself Self-Realization: New information about yourself that will lead to a new thoughts and understanding about yourself Self-Effacing Humor: Making fun of yourself. Perception process 1. Stimulation. Receiving the auditory or visual cues. Need to recognize and acknowledge what happened a. Familiar. If something is well known then it is easier to pick up on it/them b. Intensity. The louder, the brighter, the bigger, etc. c. Novel. Something new and strange will stick out more. It may be something that bugs you but is not intense enough to pick up on it. 2. Organization. Putting the stimulation in order, making sense of it a. Proximity. Something closer in time and space. Watching a door close and seeing it we connect the two things b. Similarity. Seeing something that is in common and linking them together. c. Closure. Fill in the blanks. Missing information but trying to make a guess. i. Schematics. Experience, I've seen this before so I am guessing this ii. Scripts. Assumptions based ion social norms, not from personal experience 3. Interpretation/Evaluation. Attaching meaning to the stimulation. 4. Memory. 5. Recall. Taking it out of Memory Attribution, how we try to explain our own and other behaviors, this can also be known as impression formation Misattribution, inaccurately perceive something Self-serving Bias, take credit for the good, deny the bad. Trying to preserve our own self-esteem Halo Effect, if you believe someone has positive qualities, you will infer they possess other positive qualities. Reverse Halo Effect, believing someone is bad and you will not see the good qualities and anything they do is bad Self-fulfilling prophecy, a prediction that becomes true because you act as if it to be true Pygmalion Effect, others perception changes how one sees themselves Stereotyping, seeing one person a certain way and presuming that this is true for all of those who fit into that category. Perceptual accentuation, seeing what you want to see. You chose this, you are in denial since you do not want to believe. Not seeing what how the world accurately Overattribution, singling out one or two obvious characteristics about someone and attribute everything about them to the one or two characteristics Fundamental Attribution Error, overvalue someone's internal factors like personality, and undervalue external factors. Attribution of Control: a way of forming impression by our reaction to others actions or responses. How we feel about why they did something. Ch. 4 Listening: 1. Receiving. What is said and what is omitted, verbal and nonverbal messages 2. Understanding. What the speaker meant and the emotion behind it 3. Remembering. Recalling to what was said and what do to 4. Evaluating. Judging the message. Is what is being said really what is happening 5. Response. Both the response you make when the speaker is talking and the response when the speaker has stopped talking. Listening when someone is speaking and letting them know you are listening is back channeling cues. Then when you are giving information back when you are talking it is feedback. Feedback happens after the other person talking, and when they are speaking it is a response. In communication the terms are reversed. Effective Feedback: Immediacy. Did you hear me? Honesty. Appropriateness. Just being supportive in certain situation Clarity. Types of Listening Active, responses given during and after Informative Listening: Gathering the information given. Evaluative Listening: Information gathering to give an opinion on the given information. Empathetic Listening: Seeing the world as someone else sees it and feeling for them. Trying to help the other person, being in their shoes. Passive, No response or cues to listening Appreciative Listening: Listening for the nice sound of it. Discriminatory Listening: Distinguishing between sounds, looking for a specific sound Informative Listening: Just listening for words and no cues are to be given. Just listening for the information. Gender Men Men are more likely to go off of their expertise and be given respect. Less visual and auditory cues as feedback. Men are more likely to argue and want to prove a point over the others. Men share to solve problems and report. More evaluative listening Women Women are more interested in talking about feelings and relationships and communicating support. More listening clues to show they are listening and make eye contact to show more engagement. Women share to show emotion and talk it through, to connect. More Empathetic listening. Non listening behaviors Pseudo-listening: Nodding your head to show you are responding but not really listening. Some response to say you are going along but not truly listening Stage-Hogging: Listening informatively, gaining info but just waiting until your turn. Selective Listening: Only hearing to what interests you and what you want Defensive Listening: Perceiving an innocent comment as a personal attack Ambushing: Listening to everything that was said and use it against the other person. Insensitive/Surface Listening: Only hearing the words and not the emotion Being more effective in Listening Paraphrase, Express understanding of feelings, Ask questions
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