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LING 253 Notes for First Exam

by: Kelsey Mulford

LING 253 Notes for First Exam LING253

Marketplace > University of Delaware > LING253 > LING 253 Notes for First Exam
Kelsey Mulford

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About this Document

A general overview of the topics you should know for the test - basically everything the TA went over in review class today.
Laboratory Phonetics
Thomas Parrell
Study Guide
Linguistics, phonetics, phonology, speech pathology
50 ?




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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Mulford on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LING253 at University of Delaware taught by Thomas Parrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Study Guide for Exam 1 What is speech? Speech consists of auditory, articulatory, and acoustic parts. Waveforms Waveforms show the amplitude of a sound over time. Phonetic Transcription This means representing speech as a sequence of segments. We use IPA so that  each sound has a symbol and each symbol only represents one sound. There are  phonemic (using phonemes), broad phonetic (using phones), and narrow phonetic  transcriptions (using phones). It is not perfect, but it is a useful tool for  representing speech segments. A phoneme is a contrastive sound in language that may be used to  *We cannot use English to transcribes sounds because there is not a one­to­one  correlation between the written symbols and the sounds they represent. Minimal Pairs Minima pars are sounds that, when changed, can cause a complete change in the  meaning of the word. Example: the [b] in bit and the [p] in pit, pit and bit are two separate words Know the parts of the throat and vocal fold anatomy for the upcoming exam! Know:  The apex, blade, and dorsal of the tongue  The arytenoid, thyroid, and cricoid cartridges  The parts of the nasal pharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx Consonant Articulation Know the place, manner of articulation the, and voicing of all consonants and be  able to label the parts of each sound. For example: [m] is a voiced, bilabial nasal stop Be able to draw diagrams for the vowels as well! For [m], you would draw the lips  closed, the velum open, and the vocal folds vibrating Manner of Articulation Know the degree of narrowing the oral tract (stop, fricative, approximant), the  escape channel (nasal or oral), and the source (pulmonic, glottalic, and velaric) and direction of the airflow (egressive vs. ingressive) Voice Onset Time (VOT) Know how to measure VOT! The VOT is the time between the burst and the vowel sound. For example, an un aspirated [p] sound would have a large VOT whereas an  unaspirated [p] would have a VOT of 0. How is Sound Produced The vocal folds vibrate: a. This is by creating a difference in the air pressure b. Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure c. Review the Bernoulli effect d. Vocal fold adduction (bringing them together) is used to create  voicing There are different phonation types: a. Modal­ talking b. Creaky­ vocal fry c. Harsh­ very short, vocal folds are very close d. Breathy­ vocal folds are close but not too close e. Whisper­ vocal folds are farther apart  f. Falsetto Know the characteristics of these types of phonations! Vowel Production Know the height, frontness, and roundedness of each vowel sound


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