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Quiz 2 A&P

by: Samantha Mandell

Quiz 2 A&P Biol 1075

Samantha Mandell
Curry College

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These notes cover what will be on quiz 2.
Anatomy and Physiology I
Dr. Hafer
Study Guide
Proteins, Enzymes, Nucleic Acids
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Mandell on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1075 at Curry College taught by Dr. Hafer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Science at Curry College.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Quiz 2 9-30 Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Proteins:  Contain between 10-2,000 amino acids  May have 1+ polypeptide chains  Large range of functions: o Structured- making  Collagen: connective tissue o Regulatory- regulate physiological process (growth, nervous response) o Contractile- muscles o Immunological o Transport- carry things around body o Catalytic- enzymes  Always contain C, H, O, N o Sometimes sulfur  Made of molecules called amino acids  Each Amino Acid has: 1. Central carbon atom 2. Amino group (NH2) 3. Carboxyl group (COOH) Each can form a bond with each amino group 4. Side chain ®  Peptide group- covalent bond between amino acids  Polypeptides- many amino acids in proteins  Levels of organization: o Primary structure- sequence of amino acids o Secondary Structure- repeated folding/twisting of the polypeptide chain because of amino acids having charges o Tertiary structure- 3D shape of molecule varying in shape o Quaternary structure- how 1+ polypeptides bond & orientate together  Variations in structure lead to different functions  Denaturing- when proteins lose shape & biological function Enzymes: 1. Specific -1 catalyst for 1 particular reaction 2. Efficient -increase speed of reaction by 100 million-10 billion 3. Control -cells can inhibit enzymes -Cells can have +/- charged co-factors/co-enzymes which allow enzymes to function *Vitamins may be co-factors, but enough is enough & extra has no extra benefit Nucleic Acids:  Found in cell nuclei  DNA & RNA- hereditary material  Huge molecules  Made of C, H, O, N  DNA  Forms genetic code  Determines what traits we inherit  Gene- segment of DNA  Replicates  RNA breaking H bonds in the center of ladder  Splits ladder in half  Creates new half for each part of the ladder to create two ladders *1:10 billion chance of people having the exact same DNA  Double helix- twisted ladder  Sides are formed by alternating units of Deoxyribose & Phosphate groups  Rungs are formed by 4 nitrogen bases: (always bonded with same partner)  Adenine  Thymine  Cytosine  Guanine  RNA  Guides formation of cell's proteins by using instructions from DNA  Carries out instructions from DNA on forming proteins  Single stranded in humans  Side is formed by alternating units of Ribose & Phosphate groups  Rungs are formed by 4 nitrogen bases:  Adenine  Uracil  Cytosine  Guanine *3 different kinds ATP- Adenosine Triphosphate:  Adenosine= Adenine + Ribose  Triphosphate= 3 Phosphate Groups  Provides energy for moment-to-moment cell activities  Broken down with water= Hydrolyzed  Reaction releases energy  ATP + water = AD(iphosphate)P + Phosphate + Energy  Cellular Respiration= making ATP  2 Processes  Anaerobic respiration  No oxygen  Aerobic respiration  Requires oxygen Cells:  Cell Theory- all living things are made up of 1+ cells  "cells"- small individual units  Unusually not seen with the naked eye  History:  Microscope was invented  Mid 1600's Robert & Hook used compound microscope & looked at thin sliced of cork & other plant materials  Saw box-like structures & named them cells  Anton Van Leuwenhoek  Looked at pond water  Saw microorganisms (mainly single-celled)  Described blood cells  Cell Division- cells arising from other living cells  2 cell types:  Prokaryotic Cells  Lack of true nucleus  Limited sexual reproduction  1/10 smaller than Eukaryotic Cells  Only single celled organisms  Eukaryotic Cells  True nucleus  Cells are more compartmentalized  Cells have organelles  Can be single/multi cellular organisms  Cell membrane defines what's inside & outside the cell  Fluid inside= cytoplasm  Fluid outside= interstitial fluid


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