COMM 3200 Exam One Study Guide
COMM 3200 Exam One Study Guide COMM 3200
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liana Sandell on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3200 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Amanda Denes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communications at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Liana Sandell September 26, 2016 Comm 3200: Interpersonal Communication Exam 1 Study Guide Week 1 and Chapter 1 Types of communication (intrapersonal, public, organizational, etc.) 1. intrapersonal a. communicating with oneself, otherwise known as self think 2. public a. occurs when the speaker addresses a large audience in person 3. organizational a. communication that occurs in the workplace 4. mass communication a. occurs when one person sends the same message to many individuals (little or no opportunity for listener to give feedback) 5. small group communication a. communication between 3-15 people 6. intergroup communication a. communication between people from two social, cultural or demographic groups 7. intercultural communication a. communication between people form two different cultures Needs that interpersonal communication helps you meet 1. social inclusion 2. behavioral control 3. effection Competent communication 1. competent communicators are… 1. clear 2. consider time and place and context 3. adapt 4. involved Features/characteristics of relational types (e.g., role relationships, close relationships, intimate relationships, etc.) 1. role relationships 1. behavioral indépendance is not unique (barista and customer relationship) 2. close relationships a. two people in an interpersonal relationship with enduring bonds b. we are connected through emotional attachment and we rely on one another for our need to be fulfilled How verbal and nonverbal messages work together 1. substitution (thumbs up rather than saying good job) 2. repetition (verbal and non verbal mean the same thing) 3. complementing (doing an action that represents what you are saying) 4. accenting (doing an action which emphasizes what you are saying) 5. regulating (raising your hand) Different “space” zones (see proxemics) 1. intimate space (0-1.5ft) 1. intimate interactions 2. personal space (1.5-4ft) 1. friends, colleagues, family 3. social space (4-12ft) 1. group interactions 4. public space (12 or more ft) 1. one to many Kinesics (what it is and categories) 1. kinesics are human body movement, posture and gestures 2. categories emblems (commonly misunderstood meaning) 1. 2. illustrators (accompany a verbal message either contradict, accent or compliment it) 3. adaptors (channel energy) 4. regulators (control the flow of information) 5. affect displays (different ways we use our bodies to communicate) Three types of nonverbal cues 1. immediacy (liking or pleasure) 2. arousal (interest or excitement) 3. dominance (status or control) Characteristics of nonverbal communication 1. leakage cues (nonverbal behaviors that indicate someone may be lying) 2. look for micro expressions 1. eye movement 2. hiding eyes or mouth 3. adjusting hair or clothes 4. playing with ears 3. continuous 4. multi channeled 1. bodily cues 2. facila cues 3. distance 4. touch 5. appearance and artifacts 6. voice Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 1. we create our own reality through the words we use to describe things Triangle of meaning 1. symbol (word) 2. referent (object) 3. thought (concept) Denotation and connotation 1. denotation 1. dictionary meaning 2. connotation 1. how we think of a word or how we define it Concrete vs. vague language 1. words can be anywhere between abstract and concrete 2. equivocation a. intentionally vague statement that can be interpreted in multiple ways 3. exaggerate language a. allness (using language to make sweeping generalization) b. polarization (extreme language) Malapropisms, bypassing, euphemisms, and jargon 1. language mistakes 1. malapropism 2. using an incorrect word that sounds like the one you meant to use 2. bypassing 1. same word has different meaning to different people 3. jargon 1. vocal that a certain group understands but others do not Historical context of words 1. we are bound by the words of our generation 2. an increasing complex word— increasing complex forms of communication 3. on fleek Week 2 and Chapter 2 Identity, self-concept and self-esteem 1. identity a. the person we think we are and the person we communicate to others 2. self concept a. the way you describe yourself and your perception of how others see you 3. self esteem a. how negatively or positively we see ourselves b. high or low self esteem Narcissism 1. people who act inflated but have a fragile ego Six identities 1. who you think you are 2. who you think the other person is 3. who you think the other person thinks you are who the other person thinks they are 4. 5. who they think you are 6. who they think you think they are Looking glass self 1. part of your self concept that you learn based on your interaction with others that reflect yourself back to you Social comparison 1. process of noticing how you compare and contrast to other individuals you interact with 1. upward communication (you are similar to the people you look up to) 2. downward communication (you are different from the people who are worse than you) Reference groups 1. people to whom you can realistically compare yourself to Self-fulfilling prophecies 1. the idea that if you think something will happen, it has a better chance of coming true Selective exposure 1. we tend to put ourselves in situations that reinforce who we think we are (self concept) and the outcomes we expect Impression management 1. impressions are collections of perceptions about others that we maintain and use to interpret their behaviors 1. cognitively complex (people consider more variables or details when categorizing others and do not categorize as quickly or easily) 2. cognitively simple: people have very few categories for understanding and categorizing others (the basis for racism, sexism, etc) Four frames of identity 1. personal frame 2. enactment frame relationship frame 3. 4. communal frame Types of face (positive/negative) 1. positive face 1. the idea that we want to give a favorable image that people portray to others and hope to have validated (it is our desire to be well liked) 2. negative face 1. refers to the perception that a person can do what he or she wants without having to worry about other people reactions According to the politeness theory, people face a constant struggle between doing what they would like and doing what makes them look good to others Corrective face work strategies (e.g., avoidance, accounts) 1. they are efforts to repair an identity that has already been damages 2. different kinds… 1. avoidance: we pretend something did not happen 2. humor: we laugh it off or make jokes about it 3. apologies: we apologize if we do something wrong 4. accounts excuses: “i had to do this because…” 1. 2. justification: “it wasn’t a big deal that…” 5. physical remediation: physically fix the problem 6. aggression: react badly, act out and get mad (because we are embarrassed) Week 3 and Week 4 Difference between intergroup and interpersonal communication 1. intergroup 1. communication where individuals are focused on their grip memberships as opposed to their unique individual personalities 2. interpersonal 1. communication where individuals are focused on their individual characteristics and not driven by the social groups or categories to which they belong Social identity 1. the idea that in-groups impact identity and self esteem (our groups influence how we think of ourselves) 1. positive distinctiveness (we tend to look at other groups and naturally think of them as different to make ourselves feel like we are unique) 2. minimal group paradigm (random grouping results in in-group favoritism and out group discrimination Five dimensions of cultural values and what they mean 1. cultural values are that which a given group of people values or appreciates 1. comfort with uncertainty/ uncertainty avoidance 1. high avoidance: many social rules, homogeneous populations 2. degree of power distance high distance: many nonverbal forms of respect 1. 3. individual or group orientation 1. prioritize personal goals 4. masculine vs. feminine orientation 1. masculine: prioritize acheivement, unequal sex roles 2. feminine: prioritize relationships; sexes are equal 5. concept of time long term 1. 2. short term 3. monochromic (time limited) 4. polychromic (time is plentiful) Ethnocentrism 1. evaluating other cultures based on your own Out-group homogeneity effect, discrimination, prejudice, and stereotyping 1. out group homogeneity effect 1. all of “them” are the same 2. sometimes we become so involved in our group, we tent to see variability in only our groups but not others 2. discrimination 1. unfair or inappropriate treatment based on group membership 3. prejudice 1. judgement formed before knowing all of the facts 4. stereotyping 1. judging someone solely on membership in a certain group Characteristics of different generations The Matures (1900-1946) 1. affected by world war 2 2. witnessed great depression 3. very strong work ethic 4. love community expect opens 5. 6. respected authority Baby boomers (1946-1964) 1. positivity 2. strong work ethic 3. anti war 4. yippies or hippies Generation X (1956-1982) 1. went through the cold war 2. valued skepticism 3. looked forward to independence 4. did not like superficiality 5. look towards individuality 6. not a huge strain on work ethic Generation Y (1982-1999) and Millennials (2000- present) 1. born with technology 2. self presentation is most important 3. care about image and how they represent themselves 4. cause of conflict between millennial and generation X more liberal 5. 6. witnessed helicopter parents Communication accommodation theory (convergence and divergence) 1. people adapt verbal and nonverbal styles to seem either similar or dissimilar to the person with whom they are interacting with, depending on whether or not they consider the person to be an in-group member Linguistic intergroup bias 1. negative behavior displayed by an in-group member is described in more concrete forms (your team member “hit someone” it was a mistake and they're are a good person (specific behavior, one time) 2. the same negative behavior shown by an outgrip member will be described in more general terms (the other team member is “violent.” Using a character trait and generalizing across contexts) 3. this all occurs on a subconscious level— when tested people report no differences in their descriptions Perceptual biases (over-generalizing, oversimplifying, confirmation bias, etc.) 1. over generalizing/ oversimplifying 1. treat small information as if it represents all situations 2. principle of parsimony: the simplest explanation is also the most likely 2. halo effect 1. attributing positive qualities to someone because you already like them 3. horn effect attributing a variety of negative characteristics to someone because you already 1. dislike them 4. confirmation bias 1. you see what you had already set out to find 5. self-serving bias 1. occurs when we assume that because something went right, it was because of our own skills rather than luck or help from anyone else the fundamental attribution error 6. 1. the tendency to underestimate the cause for others negative behavior, blame the actor instead 7. perceptual bias 1. hiders us from gathering information accurately Passive and active perception 1. passive perception: simple observations by our senses which we tend to take no notice of 2. active perception: occurs when you are making an extra effort to pay attention to the details of interaction Attribution theory (locus of control, stability, controllability) 1. to make sense of the world around with we must come up with explanations of others behaviors 1. determining cause of action 2. making judgement about the action There are three dimensions on which we evaluate peoples action 1. locus of control: determines the degree to which a persons behavior is thought to be caused by either internal attributes or external circumstances (what is at the center or what is the main reason) examples: is it their own doing that something happened or is it something out of their control (why is someone late? is it their fault or is it someone else fault) 2. stability: was the behavior a predictable, global reaction to the event, or was the behavior specific to this person (is this unique to the situation or is this something that always happens) example: is this common or is this a new occasion (are they late a lot or is are they late just today?) 3. controllability: was the event within or outside of the persons control (was the event within or outside of their control) example: whether the individual could have changed it (could you have left earlier to avoid traffic and avoid being late) Selective recall and egocentric memory 1. occurs when we remember details that we want to remember and forget those that we don't Punctuation 1. how we make sense of stimuli by grouping and dividing information into segments with beginnings and ends 1. two people may punctuate the same situation differently 2. there are always two different sides Heuristic and systematic processing 1. heuristic: cognitive short cuts and cognitive misers (these rely on stereotypes, and assumptions about people) a. sometimes you think you know someone but you may not Implicit personality theory 1. our mental framework of personality traits that we each have in our minds ‘clustered’when we recognize a trait that we’ve formerly seen linked with another, we will automatically assume that the two are linked in the new situation as well 2. certain personality traits comes as a “package deal” 3. these are heuristic tools/shortcuts based on schema Perception checking and I-language 1. describe your behavior without evaluating it (“I noticed you made plans with someone else for the past two Fridays.”) 2. Explain your interpretation of the behavior (“My interpretation is that you want to spend less time with me, or you’re not into this relationship anymore.”) 3. Describe your interpretation makes you feel (“Because my interpretation is that you are withdrawing, I’m feeling kind of bad about myself and our relationship.”) 4. Describe the consequences of these feelings (“I’ve noticed myself becoming clingier because I’m feeling insecure about the relationship. I hate when I’m clingy like that; it’s not who I really am. Can you tell me what’s really going on? Week 5 and Chapter 3 Science of Sex Appeal 1. video shown in class (see last posted notes) Types of attraction (e.g., task, physical, etc.) 1. task (we get drawn towards someone because we are trying to fulfill some of our instrumental goals) 2. physical (you like their hair, clothes, how they present themselves) 3. social (this is when we want to be friends with someone) Fatal attraction 1. the very qualities that we initially are attracted to cause is to disengage from the person (we like that someone is different than us, then later we think that we have nothing in common) 2. we begin to dislike the qualities that we originally likes (someone who has charisma who is the life of the party, later you think that it is a bad thing that they like to be at the center of attention) Similarities in attraction 1. demographically: age, religion, education 2. personality: dominating, submissive, nurturing a. greater marital happiness when there are two similar personalities b. similar personalities get along better most times 3. attitudinal: opinions, beliefs, and evaluations 4. tend to like those who are of a similar status because they reinforce our identity Matching hypothesis 1. the idea that you are in relationships with people who are as attractive as you Opposites attract vs. birds of a feather 1. commentary in nature 2. complementary persoanlity behaviors a. dominant in certain situations while the partner is submissive 3. in resources 4. if you have opposite views or beliefs this will be a hardship (example, religious views) Excitation transfer a. you may transfer physical reactions to the person even though it might not be about the person b. you fall and someone catches you, have fast heart beat and look at person who saved you and think that those feelings are for them c. this may be why relationships that start out high risk likely die down in the future “Hard to get” phenomena 1. does this work a. must be moderate (if too hard to get we will not be interested because they are TOO out of our league 2. works when portrayed/perceived as moderately selective versus very selective or nonselective 3. we want a challenge 4. especially if they are easy for us to attain but difficult for others to attain
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