Science of Human Nutrition Review Guide for Exam 1
Science of Human Nutrition Review Guide for Exam 1 NUTR 23511-009
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathryn Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Tanya R. Falcone (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Review guide test 1 What are the 6 nutrient classifications? o carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water Which of the 6 nutrient classifications is/are energy providing? o carbs (primary), fats, proteins which of the 6 nutrient classifications is/are energy assisting o vitamins, minerals what is the role of vitamins and minerals o transporting energy What is the role of carbohydrates? o energy What is the primary source of energy? o carbs Can we use protein and fat as energy if necessary? o yes, not good what are the sub classifications of carbohydrates o simple sugar, starch, fibers o Which is/are energy providing? sugars, starch (4 cal per gram) Does fiber provide energy? Why or why not? o no, we cannot digest it What are the 3 foods that contain carbohydrates? o starch/grains- pasta, rice, couscous, fruits, vegetables What are the sub classifications of fats? o trans fats, saturated, unsaturated o What are the healthy ones? give 3 examples- unsaturated avocados, nuts, salmon, vegetable oils o Which are should we eat less often? Give 3 examples? saturated; meats, meat byproduct, butter, eggs, cheese o Which should we avoid? give examples trans fats- hydrogenated oils, fried foods (chicken, French fries), baked goods What are the sub classifications of protein? o none, proteins are proteins What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins? give 3 food examples of each o complete have all 9 amino acids, incomplete have 8 or less; chicken (all meats), soy, eggs, milk, yogurt o incomplete: nuts, beans, quinoa If a product says “no trans fats” can the product still contain trans fats? o If yes, how would one be able to tell if the product contains trans fats? yes, hydrogenated oils What does hydrogenated mean? o unhealthy, What is the difference between food security and food insecurity? examples o the individual or group of individuals not only have the means to acquire foods, but also have access; most college students, live near markets, o food insecure: lack of access or lack of financial needs or both; homeless, food desserts, natural disasters How can you destroy botulism toxin? o boil water for 15-20 mins Are phytochemicals essentials? Are they healthy? Where do we find them? o no, they are healthy, skin of fruits and vegetables Is cholesterol essential? o no, our body produces it, need it to survive Is sodium essential? o yes, our body doesn’t make it, need to survive What causes oxidation? How can we prevent it or decrease the damage? o stress, pollution, exercise, smoking, red meats, trans-fats o antioxidants, especially Brussel sprouts What are individual requirements based on? o age, height, gender, pregnant/breastfeeding, income, health, genetics, environment DRI is? RDA is? o DRI- required intake for optimal health o RDA- to prevent deficiencies o What are our building blocks made of? o proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, minerals, water what are signs and symptoms of: o vitamin D deficiency in children- rickets: bowed legs o vitamin D deficiency in adults-osteoporosis; low calcium (primary), exercise reduces risks (primary), vitamin D reduces o vitamin C deficiency- causes scurvy o vitamin c toxicity- causes diarrhea o niacin deficiency- pellagra-, dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death Are deficiencies in children reversible? Why/why not? How about adults? o no, because of growth o sometimes Where do health problems originate from? o in the cells, make their way out explain the ripple effect (carbohydrates and vitamins) o deficient in one thing will lead you to be deficient in another A client comes to see you due to difficulties with night vision. Explain the steps that led to this problem. What deficiency or toxicity does this represent? o deficiency in vitamin A o decreased oral intake>body stores depleted>free flowing in the blood>goes for the organs and tissues o non reversible Explain the feast or famine cycle. give an example o A mechanism we’ve retained where we adapt to the situation we are in. o kids who skip breakfast, diets, causes overweight and deficiency What is malnutrition? o poor nutrition- over or under ingestion of food Who is at highest risk of malnutrition? o kids, they are dependent diets high in___________ increase the risk of heart disease o saturated and trans fats _________ increases the risk of diabetes o obesity diets low in ________ increases the risk of cancer o fruits and vegetables diets low in ___________ and _________ increases the risk of osteoporosis o calcium, exercise diets high in ___________ increases the risk of hypertension o salt, sodium specifically give an example of calorie dense food o doughnut example of nutrient dense food: o vegetable or fruit give an example of a food that would be considered calorie dense and nutrient dense: o salmon, avocados When choosing foods to eat: what 3 criteria should we base our food options on? o quality, quantity and frequency health and longevity is based on: o genetics, health, diet, environment, healthcare What is the leading cause of death? o heart disease Who is at highest risk of iron deficiency? What is a potential symptom of low iron in children? o children; intellectual disabilities, low attention spans What is cruciferous vegetable can help to decrease the risk of cancer if consumed on a regular basis? o Brussel sprouts Is everyone sensitive to dietary cholesterol? Why/ why not? o no, it is genetic How does our current diet compare to what our diet should be? o complete opposite o should be high in fruits and vegetables, eat lean meats, low-fat dairy products, low sodium, low sugar, whole grains What are some mechanisms that we have retained that used to be beneficial to our survival? o feast/famine cycle, presence of food body will trigger hunger, absorption of sodium, gastrointestinal tracts function better on high fiber diet, preference for sweets and carbs What is a structure and function claim? What products can use this? give an example o specific to supplements, zinc helps with immune health What is a health claim? What product can use this? give an example (whole grains and calcium. exercise) o specific to diseases, supplements or food items o whole grains help to reduce the risk of heart disease; calcium and exercise help reduce risk of osteoporosis How long can a product advertise a claim approved by the FDA while under investigation? o 9 months In what instance are nutrition labels voluntary? o individual packaging, 1 ingredient, fresh foods, small bakeries/stores, Is it mandatory for labels to include vitamin D content? Vitamin C? Trans fats? o no;yes;yes If a product is labeled low fat how many grams of fat does this product contain? o less than 3 grams What does fresh mean? o never frozen, or manipulated What calorie content are the food label daily value percentages based on? o 2000 What is the difference between enriched and fortified? o enriched-a product that has had the bran removed, and added vitamins and minerals to replace it o fortified- food is untouched, added nutrients to it If a product is deemed organic, does this mean the product is healthy? o no, depends on food and where it was grown Why do people choose certain foods? slides 1-10 unit 5 o culture, religion, preference, health, ethical, associations Are we born knowing what foods to eat? If not, what mechanism are we in fact born with? o no, hunger, fullness, what nutrient we need to eat, quantity be able to identify a client’s stage of change o pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, relapse fits anywhere What is the difference between an unconcerned consumer, vacillating consumer and committed consumer? o unconcerned- eat what they want, vacillating- majority of population try to eat healthy here and there, committed-scheduled leeway, extremist- very strict When does fetal alcohol syndrome occur? What amount of alcohol is safe during pregnancy and during which trimester? o 1 trimester; none know the carbohydrate-tryptophan-serotonin mechanism o high carb meals eaten alone causes tryptophan levels to rise, which increase levels of serotonin, which affects mood, causes tiredness Does sugar cause hyperactivity? o no What was the dash diet originally used for? What is it used for now? What foods does it focus on? o hypertension; chronic diseases; foods we are supposed to eat What are the 5 food groups? o fruits, vegetables, dairy, protein, grain Most cases of diarrhea are caused because of? o lack of immunizations
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