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Comprehensive study guide covering chapters 16, 20 and 21!
Human Physiology & Anatomy II
Austin Hicks
Study Guide
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy II in Biology, Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
***BSC 216 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE***  all info for exam 2 included: learning outcomes are highlighted by margin comments! Good luck! Chapter 16: ENDOCRINE Hormone= chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another tissue or organ, often a considerable distance away Endocrine System: glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones adaptation to stress Organs of the Endocrine System Endocrine Organs: Neuroendocrine Organs: Anterior Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Thyroid Gland Pineal Gland Parathyroid Glands Posterior Pituitary Gland Thymus Gland Adrenal Medulla Adrenal Cortex Pancreas Ovaries Testes 2 Supplemental charts for understanding: ENDOCRINE STRUCTURE & FUNCTION **Nervous and endocrine systems communicate with neurotransmitters and hormones Comparison b/t Endocrine and Nervous Nervous System Endocrine System Internal Communication Both electrical & chemical Only Chemical Speed & Persistence of Response Reacts quickly, stops quickly Reacts slowly, effects can continue for weeks Adaptation to Long Term Stimuli Response Declines (adapts Response Persists (adapts quickly) slowly) Area of Effect Targeted & Specific (1 organ) General, widespread (many organs)  Many chemicals= both hormones and neurotransmitters  Some hormones secreted by neuroendocrine cells  Both systems with overlapping effects on same target cells  Systems reg. each other  Target organs/ cells Endocrine Versus Exocrine Glands Exocrine Glands: External Secretions Endocrine Glands: Internal Secretions **Liver cells defy rigid classification- hormones, bile into ducts, albumin & clotting factors 4 Mechanisms of Communication between cells  Gap Junctions o Pores in cell membrane allow movement cell-cell communication (molecules, nutrints, electrolytes)  Neurotransmitters o Released from neurons, across synaptic cleft to 2ndcell  Paracrine (local) hormones o Into tissue fluid to affect close cells  Hormones Types of Signals: Overview of Endocrine System  Endocrine System- glands, tissues, cells that secrete hormones  Endocrinology  Organs- traditional sources of hormones o Primary: ONLY endocrine  Ant. Pituitary  Thyroid  Parathyroid  Etc. o Secondary: Endocrine and Various Functions  Heart  Kidneys  Small Intestine o Neuroendocrine Organs: nervous tissue and hormone like secretions  Hormones- chem. Messengers transported by bloodstream Classes of Hormones 2 Types: -Amino based (Hydrophilic) -Steroid (Hydrophobic)  whether hydrophilic or phobic determines mech. Of action  Hydrophilic o Secondary messenger usually initiates cellular change o Signal amp o Some hormones bind ion channel receptors  Phobic o Diffuse across membrane o Bind an intracellular receptor o Hormone/ Receptor complex binds DNA and promotes transcription **Hormone Action effects  Stimulate secretion from exo/endo cell  Activate/ inhibit enzymes  Stim/inhibit cell division  Open/ close ion channels  Activate/inhibit DNA transcription Hormone secretion hormonal, humoral neural Regulation of Secretion POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE feedback loop  Hormonal: endocrine cells increase/decrease secretion in response to other hormones  Humoral: response to concentration of ions in blood, ECF  Neural: response to signals from nervous system HYPOTHALAMUS & PITUITARY Hypothalamus  Regulates primitive body functions  Many functions carried out by pituitary Pituitary  2 structures  Anterior, Posterior Anterior Versus Posterior Pituitary Anterior Posterior -6 releasing/inhibiting -store & release, NO hormones, SYNTHESIS & SYNTHESIS SECRETION 2 Gonadotropins: FSH &LH Oxytocin and ADH (antidiuretic): Hormones Thyroid Stimulating Receive hormones produced Hormone (TSH), in hypothalamus by Adrenocorticotropic hormone hypothalamo-hypophyseal (ACTH), Prolactin (PRL), tract Growth Hormone (GH) OVERVIEW OF HORMONES HORMONE DETAILS **8 Hormones produced in hypothalamus -SIX releasing/ inhibiting the anterior pituitary -TWO others: oxytocin & antidiuretic hormone  both stored /released by posterior pituitary  posterior pituitary does NOT synthesize Posterior Pituitary Hormones  Produced in hypothalamus: ADH & Oxytocin o ADH- antidiuretic  Increases water retention, prevents dehydration  Vasoconstricts o Oxytocin (OT)  Released during arousal & orgasm  Satisfaction and bonding  Labor contractions  Milk flow  Emotional bonding between mother and child Anterior Pituitary Hormones  6 principle hormones  2 Gonadotropin: target gonads/ovaries o Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)- secretion of ovarian sex hormones, development of ovarian follicles, and sperm production o Leutenizing Hormone (LH)- ovulation, stimulates corpus luteum to secrete progesterone, stimulates testes to secrete testosterone  Both from GnRH!!!  Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)- secretion of thyroid hormone  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)- secrete glucocorticoids  Prolactin (PRL)- stimulates mammary glands to synthesize milk; enhances secretion of testosterone by testes   Growth Hormone (GH)- mitosis and cell division o Widespread effect on body tissues o Induces liver to produce growth stimulants  Insulin Like Growth Factors (IGF-I)/ somatomedins (IGF-II) o Mechanisms of GH-IGF action include:  Protein synthesis  Lipid Metabolism increase  Carb metabolism  Electrolyte balance o Most concpicuous effects:  Childhood- bone, cartilage, muscle growth  Adulthood- bone thickening, remodeling o Secretion fluctuates  High first 2 hours  Peak in response to exercise  Decline with age Control of Ptuitary secretion  Rates of secretion not constant  Hypothalamic and cerebral control: o Anterior lobe control  Neuroendocrine reflex- hormone release in response to nervous system signals o Hormone release in response to higher brain centers Anatomy of Thyroid Gland  Anterior neck, suprficial to larynx  Butterfly shaped o 2 lobes connected by isthmus  2 types of hormones o thyroid o calcitonin Anatomy of Parathyroid Glands  posterior surface of thyroid gland (3-5 glands)  secretes parathyroid hormone secreted by chief cells Thyroid and Parathyroid structure  thyroid follicles  Follicular cells  Colloid  Parafollicular cells Thyroid Hormones  Amino acid core bound to iodine atoms o T3 & T4  both are active BUT T3 has higher phys. Activity  Effects: o Regulate metabolic rate & thermoregulation o Promotion of growth & development o Synergism with the sympathetic nervous system Disorders: -Graves’ disease -Hypothyroidism REGULATION BY NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP Parathyroid Hormone:  Produced by chief cells in parathyroid glands  Response to calcium concentration o Stimulation of osteoclasts o Activation of vitamin D to D3 o Increases reabsorption o  Calcitonin: produced by parafollicular cells regulation of Ca ion homeostasis= negative feedback loop Adrenal Gland Anatomy  Pyramid shaped, on superior end of kidney  2 regions: o outer cortex o inner medulla  Produce 2 hormone types: o Steroid o Catecholamines Adrenal cortex Layers 1. Capsule 2. Zona glomerulosa 3. Zona fasciculate 4. Zona reticularis Mineralcorticoids: regulate mineral concentration in body - Aldosterone - Effects o Maintain extracellular sodium & potassium o Reg. ECF volume o Maintain bp o Maintain ph o Glucocorticoids: mediate body’s response to stress and regulate blood glucose levels -cortisol -Effects  gluconeogenesis in liver  release of amino’s from muscle  release of fatty acids from adipose  Anti- inflame androgenic steroids: bi product of cortisol synthesis **Cushing’s syndrome: over- production of cortisal Hormones of Adrenal Medulla  stimulated by acetylcholine released from sympathetic nervous system -chromaffin cells -products released= catecholamines: -epinephrine -noreprinephrine similar effects on target cells: increase HR, bronchiole dilation, pupil dilation, decreased digestion ANATOMY OF PANCREAS PANCREATIC ISLETS - Glucagon: secreted by alpha cells o Raise blood glucose - Insulin: released by beta cells o Lower blood glucose Diabetes Mellitus: most prevalent metabolic disease in the world -symptoms: polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia transport maximum- how fast glucose transporters can work to reabsorb Type 1=unable to uptake glucose, always hungry Treated with INSULIN • -Keton+ria pro+otes osmotic diuresis, loss of Na and K , irregular heartbeat, and neurological issues • Ketoacidosis occurs as ketones decrease blood pH – Deep, gasping breathing and diabetic coma are terminal result Type2 = insulin resistance, Treated with DIET & EXCERCISE  pathogenesis: cells cannot absorb glucose Chapter 20: LYMPH AND IMMUNE 3 main functions of the lymphatic system: 1. Fluid recovery- fluid filters from blood capillaries into tissue spaces constantly 2. Immunity- excess fluid picks up foreign cells/chemicals 3. Lipid absorption- lacteals in small intestine absorb Components: 1. Lymph Fluid 2. Lymphatic vessels 3. Lymphoid tissues/organs LYMPH VESSELS Vs. BLOOD VESSELS  More irregular structure  More permeable  Able to absorb larger particles due to structure **Lymph flows in one direction towards the heart Lymphatic Capillaries: highly permeable Cisterna chyli: gateway to thoracic duct, merger of 2 lumbar trunks & intestinal trunk Chyle= fatty lymph absorbed from digestive organs Lymph Flow depends on: - Skel. Muscle milking - Resp. pumps - Valves - Close assoc. with arteries - Smooth muscle - Activity levels Lymphatic Cells  Lymphocytes  Macrophages  Dendritic cells  Reticular cells Lymphatic Tissue: critical for proper functioning 1. Site for proliferation of lymphocytes 2. Fibrous network= surveillance Diffuse lymphatic tissue: all organs, scattered reticular tissue Mucossa- assoc. lymphatic tissue (MALT): protects open passageways from infection Lymphoid follicles (nodules): germinal centers- proliferation of dendritic cells & B lymphocytes -Peyer patches- clusters in small intestine & appendix trap bacteria, help with memory function Lymphatic Organs PRIMARY: (where T/B become immunocompetent) -Red Bone Marrow -Thymus SECONDARY: (Immunocompetent cells populate these tissues) -Lymph nodes -Tonsils -Spleen TONSILS: palatine, lingual, pharyngeal -tonsillar crypt- invaginated epithelium that traps bacteria/particles Lymph Nodes: rest stops where fluid filtration occurs -clustered around vessels, embedded in connective tissues -surrounded by dense fibrous capsules -trabeculae -cortex + inner medulla… medullary cords, lymph sinuses Afferent lymphatic vessels subscapular sinusmedullary sinus Hilum efferent lymph vessels Spleen - L side of abdominal cavity, beneath diaphragm - Served by splenic artery& splenic vein - Functions: o 1.Site of lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance, immune activation o 2.Resident macrophages cleanse blood o 3. Recycles iron from hemoglobin o 4. Site of fetal erythrocyte production o 5. Stores platelets Thymus -bilobed organ in inferior neck; overlies heart -prominent during childhood abundant T-lymph, no B-lymph IMMUNE SYSTEM INNATEstEFENSES  1 line: SKIN & MUCOUS MEMBRANES surface barriers  2ndline: when surface is breached o Phagocytes- huge appetite for foreign matter  5 leukocytes involved:  neutrophilsphag. Digestion, chemical cloud o kill more with chemicals than phagocytosis; NEUTROPHIL DIES TOO  eosinophils guard against parasites, allergens, other pathogens o promote basophils & mast cells o phagocityze complexes  basophils secretions that aid mobility of actions and other leukocytes o leukotriene, histamine, heparin  lymphocytes: 3 categories ( immune surveillance, specific immunity) o T cells, B cells, Natural Killer Cells  Monocytes- become macrophages o Wandering and fixed o Fever o NK cells o Antimicrobial Proteins- inhibit microbial reproduction & give short, non specific resistance  INTERFERONS  COMPLEMENT SYSTEM o Inflammation- local defensive response to tissue injury of any kind, including trauma and infection o Purpose limit spread, remove debris, initiate repair o Signsred, swell, heat, pain Mobilization of defenses: - Local Hyperemia - CYtokinines - Vaosactive chemicals - Neutrophil behavior o Margination o Diapedesis **Priority of inflammation is to prevent pathogen spread **Neutrophils= chief enemy of bacteria -respiratory burst -phagocytosis -cytokinines -macrophages and T cells *Monocytes- primary agents of tissue cleanup/ repair  edema  pus  platelet derived growth factor  hyperemia heat  fibrin clot  pain **Adaptive Immunity: must come in contact with foreign substance (antigen) @ least 1 time before body can be protected Difference between innate & adaptive 1. Specific: immunity against particular pathogen 2. Memory: when re exposed KNOW 3 LINES 2 Branches: 1. Cellular: T cells (direct attack) 2. Humoral: B cells ( general attack) Antigens - Epitopes (determinants) - Haptens: too small to be antigenic in themselves Cells of Adaptive Immunity 1. T lymph’s 2. B lymph’s 3. Antigen presenting cells **immunocopmetence: ability to recognize and bind ** Self tolerance: do not attack self Cellular Immunity: - Cytotoxic T cells - Helper T cells - Reulatory T cells - Memory T cells Cellular & Humoral Immunity 3 stages: 1. Recognition 2. Attack 3. Memory CHAPTER 21: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange between blood & air 2. Speech, vocalization 3. Smell 4. Affect pH by eliminating CO2 5. Affect bp by pressure synthesis of vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II 6. Breathingpressure gradients flow of lymph & venous blood 7. Holding breath expel abdominal contents Principle organs of Respiratory System 1. Nose 2. Pharynx 3. Larynx 4. Tachea 5. Bronchi 6. Lungs MAJOR DIVISIONS 1. CONDUCITNG DIVISION: a. airflow only passages b. no gas exchange c. nostrils major bronchioles 2. RESPIRATORY DIVISION: a. ALL alveoli and other gas exchanges o Upper Respiratory Tract- head &neck o Nose through larynx o Lower Respiratory Tract- organs of the thorax o Trachea through lungs PATH OF AIRFLOW (Conducting) 1. Nasal Cavity 2. Pharynx 3. Larynx 4. Trachea 5. Main Bronchi (R&L) 6. Lobar (secondary) bronchi 7. Segmental (tertiary) bronchi 8. Bronchioles 9. Terminal bronchioles (Respiratory) 10. Respiratory Bronchioles 11. Alveolar Ducts 12. Alveolar sacs ANATOMY OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT o Nasal Cavity o FUNCTIONS  Warm, cleanse, humidify  Direct odors  Resonation o From nostrils to posterior nasal apertures o Nasal fossae- R/L  DIVIDED by nasal septum o 3 FOLDS OF TISSUE: NASAL CONCHAE (superior, middle, inferior)  meatus= air passage beneath each one o OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM- smell  Roof of nasal fossa, adj. parts of septum & superior concha  CILIATED PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM WITH GOBLET CELLS(secrete mucus & cilia propel toward pharynx)  RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM LINES REST OF NASAL CAVITY EXCEPT VESTIBULE  ERECTILE TISSUE- extensive venous plexus in inferior concha  Flow of air shifts between R/L every hour o Pharynx o From choanae to larynx o 3 REGIONS  Nasopharynx  Only air passing  Oropharynx  Passes air, food, fluid  Palatine tonsils  Laryngopharynx  Passes air, food, fluid  Esophagus begins where larynx ends o Larynx o VOICE BOX (cartilaginous)  PRIMARY FUNCITON= keep food/drink out of airway  Also: phonation!!! o Epiglottis- tissue flap guarding superior laryngeal opening o Vestibular folds: keep food/drink out of airway ANATOMY OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT o Trachea o WINDPIPE  Support= C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage  Keep trachea from collapsing on inhale o Trachealis muscle spans rings o o inner lining= ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium  mucus secreting cells, ciliated cells, stem cells o Mucocillary escalator: debris removal o TRACHEOSTOMY: make temporary opening in trachea, inferior to larynx, insert tube for airflow  Reasons= ventilator, blockage, paralysis, cancer, trauma o Lungs o Do not fill entire ribcage, are not symmetrical o RIGHT:  Shorter than left b/c liver  3 lobes:superior, middle, inferior separated by horizontal & oblique fissure o LEFT:  Taller & narrower b/c heart  Indentation: cardiac impression  2 lobes: superior, inferior separated by single oblique fissure o THE PLEURAE o Visceral- serous membrane covering lungs o Parietal- mediastinum, ribcage surface, superior surface of diaphragm o Pleural Cavity: potential space between pleura o FUNCTIONS  Reduce friction  Create pressure gradient  Compartmentalization  o The Bronchial Tree o Branching system of air tubes in each lung  MAIN BRONCHI: 5  Primary, supported by C- rings  LOBAR BRONCHI: 6  Secondary, supported by plates  3 RIGHT o superior, middle, inferior (one per R lung lobe)  2 LEFT o superior, inferior (one per L lung lobe)  SEGMENTAL BRONCHI: 7  Tertiary, supported by plates  10 RIGHT, 8 LEFT  each vents one Bronchopulmonary segment: funct. Independent of lung  BRONCHIOLES: 8  No cartilage  Pulmonary lobule: portion of lung vented by one bronchiole  CILIATED CUBOIDAL EPUTHELIUM  smooth muscle  divides into 50-80 TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES: 9 o FINAL BRANCHES  RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES: 10  Alveoli budding from walls  !!beginning of respiratory division!!! (b/c alveoli in gas exchange)  div. into 2-10 alveolar ducts (11)  end in alveolar sacs (12) clusters around “atrium” o ALVEOLI  150 mil./lung  each alveolus surrounded by blood cap.’s supplied by pulmonary artery  respiratory membrane: barrier b/t alveolar air & blood  PULMONARY VENTILATION=BREATHING  repetitive cycle: one inspiration (inhale) & one expiration (exhaling)  RESPIRATORY CYCLE: one complete insp.& exp. o Quiet respiration: @ rest, effortless, automatic o Forced respiration: deep, rapid, during exercise  Flow of air in & out depends on pressure difference  Breathing muscles change lung volumes & create differences in p relative to atmosphere o Diaphragm= prime mover of respiration  Contraction- dia. Flattens, enlarge thoracic cavity, pull air in  Relaxation- dia. Bulges up, compress lungs, expel air  2/3 of airflow o INSPIRATION  Sternoclemastoid: elevates sternum  Scalenes: fix/ elevate ribs 1-2  External Intercostals: elevate ribs 2-12, widen thoracic cavity  Pectoralis Minor: elevate ribs 3-5  Internal intercostals, intercartilaginous part: aid in elevation o FORCED EXPIRATION  Internal intercostals, interosseous part: depress ribs 1-11, narrow thoracic cavity  Diaphragm: ascends & reduces depth of thoracic cavity  Rectus Abdominus: depress lower ribs, push diaphragm up  External abdominal oblique: same as rectus abdominus **Valsalva Maneuver- deep breath, hold by closing glottis, contract abdominal muscles to raise abdominal pressure & push organ contents out. NEURAL CONTROL  no autorhythmicity -Neurons in medulla oblongata & pons control unconscious breathing  Inspiratory neurons: fire during inspiration  Expiratory: fire during expiration INNERVATION -phrenic nerve diaphragm -Intercostal nerves intercostal muscles **Unconscious cycle controlled by THREE pairs of respiratory centers in medulla oblangata & pons  Medulla oblongata 1. Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)- primary generator 2. Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)- external influence, modifies depth  Pons 3. Pontine respiratory group (PRG)- special circumstances ( crying) 3 CENTERS DO NOT CONTROL BREATHING ALONE  respond to input 1. Central Chemoreceptors a. Brainstem neurons; respond to pH changes 2. Peripheral Chemoreceptors a. Carotid, aortic bodies i. Respond to CO2 & O2 3. Stretch Receptors a. Smooth muscles of bronchi, bronchioles, visceral pleura 4. Irritant Receptors a. Nerve endings amid epithelial cells of airway i. Respond to smoke, dust, pollen etc. ii. Protective reflexes CO2 detection Hyperventilation: anxiety triggered state, rapid breathing, co2 out faster than in  remedy: breathe in bag **Voluntary control originates in: Motor cortex of frontal lobe of cerebrum -bypass brainstem LIMIT: breaking point when CO2 levels rise too much and automatic controls override PRESSURE, RESISTANCE, AIRFLOW  same principles of flow, pressure, resistance as blood  Flow= directly proportional to p difference between 2 points  Flow= inversely proportional to resistance ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE drives respiration -weight of air above Boyle’s Law!!!!! -at constant temp., pressure is inversely proportional to volume lung volume increases, internal pressure falls lung volume decreases, internal pressure rises Charles’s Law!!! -quantity of gas directly proportional to absolute temp. -inhaled air is warmed and pressure increases Pressure & Resistance determine FLOW greater resistance, slower flow THREE factors influencing resistance 1. Diameter of bronchioles- bronchodilation& bronchoconstriction 2. Pulmonary Compliance- ease of expansion 3. Surface tension of alveoli & distal bronchioles Spirometry: measure of pulmonary function -spirometer= device that measures -restrictive disorders= reduce pulmonary compliance  Limit inflation  Black lung, TB -Obstructive Disorders= narrow, block  Hard to inhale/ exhale  Asthma, chronic bronchitis **Emphysema is BOTH^^^^ KNOW THIS!!!!!!!!!!! contributions of individual gasesressure is the sum of the -partial pressure exerted by one gas in a mix dissolved in water determined by solubility and partial pressure in air -greater PO2, more O2 blood picks up -@alveolus, blood unloads CO2 and loads O2 -gases= independent Alveolar Gas Exchange: back and forth traffic of O2 and Cos across respiratory membrane for oxygen to enter, must dissolve in water  for carbon dioxide to leave, must pass other way **PULMONARY ARTERIES CONTAIN BLOOD W/O O2 -STEEP CONCENTRATION GRADIENT  O2 from alveoli to blood diffusion until equilibrium happens FAST !!!!!CO2 is 20 times as soluble as O2!!!!! -equal amounts are exchanged because CO2 diffuses more rapidly GAS TRANSPORT  Oxygen o 98.5% bound to hemoglobin  Carbon Dioxide o 70% as bicarbonate ion OXYGEN TRANSPORT CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT 1. Most CO2 hydrated to form carbonic acid 2. Some binds to amino groups of plasma proteins & hemoglobin compounds 3. Some carried by blood as dissolved gas SYSTEMIC GAS EXCHANGE  O2 and CO2 interacting with RBC’s  CO2 Loading o Diffuses into blood from tissues o Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes o Chloride shift  O2 unloading o Hemoglobin releases oxygen which travels to tissues **Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: CO binds to ferrous ion of hemoglobin and holds on so oxygen cant bind!!!! LUNG CANCERS 1. Squamous cell carcinoma: most common a. Dividing cells invade bronchial wall, cause bleeding lesions 2. Adenocarcinoma a. Originates in mucous of lamina propria 3. Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma: rare, dangerous a. Clusters of cells that resemble oat grains b. Orig. in primary bronchi other organs


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