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Anatomy & Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Courtney Luber

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These are ALL of the notes covered in class for exam 2 information.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Tissues  Tissue - 2 or more cells put together that work together for a common task  Histology – study of tissues  Epithelial tissue o Covering and lining  ALL free body surfaces are covered with this  Exposed to external environment  i.e. skin; inside of mouth (food is external); lining of respiratory and reproductive tracts  tissue with a whole bunch of white space next to it o glandular  i.e. glands; adrenal gland  if it produces something that is secreted, probably glandular  functions of epithelial tissue o establish boundaries – separates internal from external o protection – pathogens have to get through epithelial tissue to do harm o absorption o filtration – (selective absorption); based on size o excretion o secretion – produces something to be released; i.e. glandular o sensory reception – ability to respond to stimuli  boundaries o apical surface – free surface; exposed to external environment; superficial surface o basal surface – deep portion; part that is away from the external environment; attached to something underneath it  usually connective tissue is under epithelial tissue  there are usually connections such as desmosomes between cells making up tissues  basement membrane o basal lamina  thin line  non-cellular sheet of glycoproteins  adhesive sheet of proteins  holds tissue in place; selective filter  all living cells need to be supplied with blood but epithelial tissues are avascular (no blood vessels) – blood delivered to connective tissue and then diffuses through tissue in order to get to epithelial tissue o reticular lamina  collection of collagen fibers  right under basal lamina  strengthens attachment between epithelium and underlying tissue  covering and lining epithelium o simple  only have one layer  typically function for absorption and filtration  areas that aren’t exposed to a lot of friction o stratified  composed of more than one layer of cells  major function is protection  areas that are exposed to a lot of friction (i.e. skin on bottom of foot)  stratified = 2 or more layers o pseudostratified  only one layer thick but looks like more because nuclei are all over  found in parts of the body that aren’t exposed to a lot of movement; like lining the respiratory tract o squamous  flat  shape of cells on apical surface o cuboidal  box-like  same width as height o columnar  column-shaped  taller than it is wide o transitional  dome cells on apical surface  line hollow cavities (i.e. urinary bladder)  when cavity is empty, cells are dome-shaped  when cavity is full, cells change to flat  no stretch in cavity  glandular epithelium o composes glands – cell or group of cells of specialized epithelium that secrete substances into ducts, onto surfaces or into the blood o where they secrete it depends on gland  some secrete right where it needs to act  some release secretion onto surface of cell  some secrete into bloodstream, which travels to another part of the body o requires energy to produce its secretory products  package it up to secrete it out of epithelium o most glands produce a water-based secretion, but some fat- based  types of glands o exocrine  secrete into a duct  sometimes secretes onto own cell surface  i.e. sweat glands, gallbladder o endocrine  do not have ducts; duct-less  secrete hormones  hormones travel in the bloodstream to go somewhere else  i.e. thyroid, pancreas (part endocrine, part exocrine)  structural classification of glands o unicellular  one cell  i.e. mucous glands  produces mucus (contains protein mucin)  find this lining the digestive tract; prevents us from digesting our own digestive tract  goblet cells o multicellular  more than one cell  can break down these into further distinctions  functional classification (how its released) o merocrine gland  cells produce their secretory product, package it in golgi apparatus, and release vesicle through exocytosis into duct, then it travels  cell stays around & active  i.e. salivary gland, sweat gland, pancreas o holocrine gland  cell produces product and stores it as a cellular inclusion; cell is then sloughed off into duct; cell bursts open and releases contents; cell dies  mitosis replaces the cell  i.e. sebaceous glands (oil glands associated with hair)  connective tissues o all derived from same embryonic tissue  mesenchyme  middle embryonic layer o connective tissue proper  areolar, elastic, dense regular, etc… o cartilage  elastic, fibro, etc… o bone  compact or spongy o blood  only liquid tissue of the body o all contain same structural elements  structural elements o ground substance – background matrix  blood - liquid  bone – solidified o fibers  collagen fibers give it strength  elastic fibers give it ability to stretch o cells  fibroblast, osteocyte, chondrocyte, etc  Muscle tissue o Tissue that is modified for contraction o Respond to a stimulus by contracting o Provide movement and/or heat  As muscle contracts, it generates heat o All contain:  Sarcolemma – plasma membrane of muscle cell  Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of a muscle  Muscle types o Skeletal  Striated  Each muscle fiber is a muscle cell; they all run right next to each other very compactly  Multinucleated - more than one nucleus per cell  Nuclei get pushed toward edges  Voluntary – can determine when it contracts and how much force it contracts with o Cardiac  Striated  Uninucleated - only one nucleus per cell  Involuntary  Intercalated discs – communicating junction between neighboring cells (channel protein of one cell has fused with channel protein of other cell, forming a gap junction and conexon) o Smooth  Non-striated  Uninucleated  Nuclei are stretched  Involuntary  Classification Criteria o Striations o Nervous control o Number of nuclei  Nervous tissue o Neurons – create electrical impulses; 50% of tissue o Allows us to detect stimuli; turns energy into electrical impulses and transfers them o Neuroglia – nerve glue; holds neurons together; supports and protects them; 50% Membranes  Latin – membrum o “limb” – extension off of tree  Definition o Continuous multicellular sheet composed of at least two types of tissue  Epithelium bound to underlying connective tissue  Exception is non-covering or non-lining membranes  i.e. synovial membranes – ends of bones and joints; no epithelium, only connective tissue (2 diff types of connective tissue)  covering and lining membranes o cutaneous  skin; outside of body o mucous  cavities on inside of body; open to external environment o serous  lining the inside of the body; not open to the environment  shiny on inside of rat – serous membrane  cutaneous membrane o keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to dense irregular connective tissue o accumulated keratin protein  cellular inclusion in squamous epithelium o function – protection; protects what is underneath our skin o constant renewal of skin o exposed to air – outside of body o is a dry membrane  mucous membrane o most contain stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium attached to areolar connective tissue o line body cavities that open to exterior o moist – secretes mucus (rich in mucin) o stomach, esophagus, trachea – lined by mucous membrane o function – absorption & secretion  serous membrane o simple squamous epithelium resting on areolar connective tissue o line closed ventral body cavities o thoracic cavity, pelvic cavity, etc. o moist – secretes serous fluid o capillaries run through these  capillaries can leak some of the fluid (plasma) which makes up part of the serous fluid o epithelial tissue produces hyaluronic acid (carbohydrate rich secretion); combines with capillary fluid  makes a liquid that is really slippery (viscus)  provides lubrication o double layered membrane – cavity and organs have this  Layers o parietal  belongs to the body cavity o visceral  belongs to the organ  Serosae o pleura  serous membrane of thoracic cavity  parietal pleura lines cavity  visceral pleura is outmost covering of lungs  pleural fluid sits between them o pericardium  special membrane that surrounds the heart  peri – around; cardium – heart  parietal pericardium – sac around heart  visceral pericardium – outer layer covering heart  allows heart to beat without tugging on the wall  dissipates heat from contractions o peritoneum  parietal peritoneum – abdominal cavity  visceral peritoneum – surrounds organs  synovial membranes o no epithelium o joint cavity – line cavities of joints o secretes synovial fluid o fluid in synovial membrane lubricates ends of bones so they can slide across one another without a lot of friction  also provides a cushion between bones  Tissue related defenses o Mechanical barriers  Things can’t get into body because these membranes won’t allow it  First line of defense o Cilia  Acts as a trap o Chemical barriers  Tissues that line stomach produce nasty chemicals (i.e. strong acid) which can destroy bacteria and other contaminants on our food  Skin produces acid mantle – covering of our skin is slightly acidic  Lining of female reproductive tract is acidic o If these are breached, we get an inflammatory response, which isolates pathogen and destroys it o Other defense responses after that  Tissue repair o Regeneration  Replacing the damaged tissue with the same kind of tissue  Cell division  Granulation tissue o Fibrosis  Replaces damaged tissue with fibrous connective tissue  Forms a scar o Not all tissues are equal in their regenerative abilities  Epithelial like to regenerate  Predisposed to healing  Cardiac muscle does not like to regenerate  Predisposed to scaring o Process can take years  Steps (whenever we have a breach) o Inflammation o Organization o Regeneration and fibrosis  Inflammatory events o Chemicals released by injured tissue cells, macrophages and mast cells  Act as chemical attractant o Capillaries dilate and become permeable  Swelling – accumulation of fluid to the site of damage  Edema – accumulation of exidate o White blood cells and plasma fluids leak into injured area o Clotting proteins construct clot  Stops bleeding  Plugs hole where pathogens could have gotten in  Margins of the wound are held in place – helps heal o Scab forms  Blood clot dries out  Pulling off a scab increases fibrosis  Organization events o Blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue  Light pink tissue; connective; fibrous proteins  Creates framework o New capillary bed is established  Reestablishment of proper blood flow through tissue o Fibroblasts close margins of wound  Secrete things that help close wound  Secrete growth factors  cells produce cyclins which combine with cdks to make MPFs  Produce collagen fibers – hold everything together o Macrophages digest blood clot o Collagen fibers deposited o THEN, regeneration and fibrosis happens  Nutrition & Healing o Vitamin A – epithelium repair o Vitamin B – NS & cardiac muscle tissue repair  Prenatal vitamins o Vitamin C – blood vessels and connective tissue o Vitamin D – bone repair and growth o Vitamin E – prevents scaring; reduces fibrosis  Stretch marks don’t scar as much o Vitamin K – assisting blood clotting o Blood circulation – delivers necessary nutrition o Age – as you get older, you don’t heal as quickly  Embryonic tissue development o Primary germ layers  Ectoderm  Outside  Epidermis of our skin  Nervous tissue (detects external stimuli)  Endoderm  Inside  Mucous membranes  Mesoderm  Middle  Muscle tissue  All connective tissues come from here o Epithelial tissues come from all three germ layers Integumentary Systems  Organ system o Group of organs that operate collectively to perform specialized functions o Function is dependent of organs that make it up  Cells  tissues  organs  Integumentary system o Skin o Skin derivatives  Hair  Nails  Glands  Receptors  Skin factoids *not on test* o Covers entire body  Dry, composed of epithelial tissue o Weighs 9-11 pounds o Accounts for 7% of total body mass o Has surface area of 1.2-2.2 square meters o Varies in thickness from 1.5-4.0 mm  Thinnest part on head  Thickest part on sole of feet  depends on friction  Dermatology – study of skin  Regions o Epidermis – skin  Stratified squamous epithelial tissue  Protection  Outer skin layer/exposed to outside  Avascular – no blood vessels o Dermis – skin  Deep to the epidermis  Compromised of fibrous connective tissue  Dense irregular, areolar, etc  Composed of at least 2 different types  Has blood vessels – vascularized o Hypodermis – beneath the skin  Composed of adipose tissue  Protection of things underneath skin  Covers muscle underneath skin  Changes as we age  Thickness increases  more & more fat stored  Amount of fibers decreases  lose elasticity  Epidermal cells o Keratinocytes  Make up majority of epidermis  Cell that produces keratin  Undergo keratinization  produces keratin, builds up in cell, gets rid of organelles, cell dies  Deep cells replicate which pushes other cells toward surface  Cells at the top die and are sloughed off  Takes about 2 weeks  Our entire epidermis is replaced every 25-45 days  Yellow cells in powerpoint picture  Most of the cells in the epidermis o Melanocytes  Melanin producing cells  Grey in powerpoint picture  Few  Melanin is a pigment  coloration molecule  In deep layers  Melanin causes darkening of the skin  as we tan, we increase the amount of melanin o Langerhan’s cell  Blue in powerpoint picture  Produced in bone marrow  Where blood is produced  White blood cells provide an immune function for us  Provides an immune function for the skin  Biochemical protection\ o Merkel cells  Purple in powerpoint picture  Deep in the epidermis at the very bottom layer  Border between epidermis and dermis  Special sensory receptor cells  Respond to light touch  i.e. bottom of forearm; back of neck  epidermal layers (thin skin) o stratum basale  deepest layer  “basal” or “bottom” - latin  Function: maintain ability to go through mitosis and replicate; germ cells  single layer of cells  also called “stratum germinatibum” o stratum spinosum  several layers thick  “prickly” – latin  Function: cumulating keratin proteins; have a web-like system of intermediate filaments inside their cells which attach to desmosomes  Resists things like friction  Cells shrink as they age  As they shrink, desmosomes stay attached which makes them look prickly o Stratum granulosum  3-5 layers of cells  “granular layer” – latin  Function: cells contain granuals  produces vesicle stored substances  Represents last of the living cells  Types of granuals  Keratohyaline granual – contain keratin (protection)  Lamellated granual – contain glycolipids (functions like a water-proofer  helps prevent loss of water from inside our bodies) o Stratum corneum  “horn” – latin  20-30 layers of dead cells  Function: provides protection  Epidermal layers (thick skin) o Stratum lucidum  “clear” – latin  Only found where skin is really thick/high friction areas  i.e. palms of hands, soles of feet  dermal layers o papillary  composed of areolar connective tissue  holds dermis to epidermis o reticular  composed of dense irregular connective tissue  dermal papillae – where the dermis extends up above onto the epidermis; irregularities  development of integument o epidermis = ectoderm o dermis = mesoderm o hypoderm = mesoderm  Skin color o determined by pigments  melanin  epidermal pigment  gives us dark coloration  cells respond to UV radiation by producing melanin o enzyme tyrosinase is produced  catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine (amino acid) to melanin  differences in race  carotene  dermal pigment  results in yellow/orange colors  Asian populations  Hemoglobin  Blood pigment  Pinkish-white look comes from seeing hemoglobin through outer skin  Surface features o Ridges  Ridges on epidermis due to ridges on dermis  Determined genetically  no two people have the same ridges  gives our fingers and toes better grip  increase friction  ridges hold oils on skin  when we touch something, leaves fingerprint o grooves  appear all over the surface of our body  make “diamonds”  hair grows out of intersection of grooves  these grooves are left over from when we had scales on the surface of our body – evolution  skin appendages o sudoriferous glands  sweat glands  eccrine  cover most of the surface of our body  function throughout life  main function is thermoregulation  apocrine  found in only high saturation areas  between legs, under arms, etc  don’t begin functioning until puberty  not involved in thermoregulation o trigger related to hormones  in high friction areas  provides lubrication which allows things to slide past each other  secretions from these glands are odorless  bacteria feed on these secretions and produce a product that has an odor  ceruminous  found in ear canal  production of cerumen  wax  modified apocrine gland  secretion is waxy & thick  protects our inner ear o traps foreign things o also a sound protectant  mammary  produce modified sweat  sweat is rich with proteins and fats and lactose  milk  breast milk o sebaceous glands  produce sebum  oil  hair follicles; oil coats hair and keeps it from being brittle  softens and lubricates both hair and skin  helps to prevent water loss so we don’t dehydrate  things like pathogens get trapped in oil  sebum has bactericidal properties  will kill bacteria  respond to hormonal secretions  androgens (testosterone)  lots of oily production when boys hit puberty o nails  scale-like modifications of epidermis  protect the ends of our fingers and toes  toes would split without nails  nail parts  nail body – part we see when we look at our nails  free edge – distal portion; part we snip back  lanula – proximal edge  nail fold – all of the skin that surrounds the nail body  nail bed – skin underneath nail body  nail matrix – contains cells that are undergoing division; pushes old cells forward; proximal end of nail body; actively grows  eponychium – tissue that covers nail matrix  hyponichium – tissue that covers free edge o hair  scale-like appendage  functions:  allows us to sense things  acts as a cushion – protects against physical trauma  insulator – prevents loss of heat  filter – protects us against UV radiation; hair in nose prevents outside things from getting in  hair structure:  shaft – part we can see; above skin  root – part we can’t see; underneath skin  follicle – skin parts that surround the root  shaft layers:  medulla – middle portion  cortex – surrounds medulla; dark circles represent pigment (melanin & theomelanin)  cuticle – outer layer of dead, stacked cells  structure of hair follicle:  external root sheath – made up of connective tissue  internal root sheath – epidermal; immediately surrounds root; hair growth occurs from here  bulb – base  papilla – indentation in bulb  arrector pili – smooth muscle; involuntary; if we get cold, this contracts and pulls on the base of the hair follicle  causes hair to stand up; keeps us from losing heat; also responds to excitement  touch sensitive nerve endings at base of hair follicle  functions of integument o protection  biological, chemical, mechanical o regulation of body temperature  skin contains sweat glands which keep us cool and hair which keeps us warm o sensation  merkel’s discs o metabolic functions  skin produces inactive form of vitamin D  without vitamin D, we can’t absorb calcium; also important in normal immune function o maintains blood reservoir  redirects blood to active tissues  i.e. when working out o excretion  can get rid of waste products when we sweat  primarily nitrogenous from breakdown of proteins  Tactile sensors o Merkel’s discs  Very deep in stratum spinosum  Epidermal receptor  Basically at dermis border but on epidermal side  Respond to light touch o Meissner’s corpuscles  Dermal papillae  On border; but dermal side  Touch sensitive nerve endings that are activated by light touch o Pacinian corpuscles  Deep in dermis  Respond to deep pressure  Adapt very rapidly  Burn o German  Brennen – to consume by fire o Definition – tissue damage caused by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or chemicals that results in protein denaturation o Can lead to cell death o More severe burn  more significant side effects o Dehydration and loss of electrolytes is major concern o Systematic effects:  Water loss  Bacterial infection  Shock – BP issue  Destroys blood vessels – reduces blood flow  Decreased urinary output and kidney failure  Burn classification o First degree  Any burn that results in redness, swelling, and pain  Only partial thickness burn – only portion of skin  most superficial layers  Pain receptors in skin are activated  Will heal on own w/o intervention is 2-3 days  Sun, chemicals, steam, etc cause this o Second degree  Redness, swelling, pain & blisters  Partial thickness burn  Epidermis and parts of upper dermis  Heal on own w/o intervention  3-4 weeks to heal o Third degree  Full thickness burns  Skin is charred  Skin has lost entire function because it is completely damaged  No pain  sensory receptors are destroyed  When you get a third degree burn, you will also have first and second most likely which do cause pain  Does not heal  tissue graft  Skin disorders/abnormalities o Acne  Inflammation of sebaceous glands  Staph infection of sebaceous glands  Bacteria feed on oils  Antibiotics are best  Acne is prevalent in pubescent boys o Lupus  Autoimmune disease  Immune system attacks healthy part of body – immune system attacks skin in lupus  Get lesions or markings on skin  Butterfly rash across face is indicative  Primarily post-pubescent female issue o Psoriasis  Itchy, scaly skin  Research suggests that it is also an autoimmune disease  Something triggers these reactions  Trauma – traumatic damage to skin  Bacterial infection (of any part of body)  Hormonal changes  Stress  Photo therapy – putting someone in front of sun lamps  Also, steroidal drugs (things that shut off immune system) o Decubitus ulcers (bed sores)  Open sores  Constant interruption of blood flow  Immobile patients  Rotting flesh  produces odor  Could also get this by having a cast too tight  Happens when blood flow is restricted o Vitiligo  Pigment disorder  Patchy distribution of melanocytes  Lack of pigment in some places of skin  Probably autoimmune  Looks like a healed burn, but just an absence of pigment o Albinism  Body can’t make any pigment at all  Inherited condition  genetic  No gene that allows for the production of tyrosinase  Person looks really pink/white, eyes are bright red, hair is white o Freckles  Patchy concentration of melanocytes  Opposite of vitiligo  More common in fair skinned people  Common in redheads because red hair and fair skin have a genetic component  Irish o Birthmarks  Born with pigmented area of skin  Cause is unknown  Dense collection of dermal blood vesicles in a particular spot Bone  Skeletal tissues o Cartilage  Almost all bone starts out as this, then gets converted to bone tissue o Bone  Skeletal cartilages o Cartilage tissue  No blood vessels or nerves running through it  Damage is hard to heal because no blood supply o Perichondrium  Connective tissue layer covering the outer surface of cartilage tissue  Dense irregular connective tissue  Rich in blood vessels and nerves o Hyaline cartilage  Most abundant in the skeletal system  Ends of bones are covered in hyaline cartilage  Costal cartilage, rings of trachea, cartilage that forms larynx, external nose, etc. o Elastic cartilage  Make sup external ear (pinna), and epiglottis o Fibrocartilage  Cartilage found at bones and joints  Extra pad of cartilage at some joints  Growth of cartilage o Appositional growth  From the edge  growth that is produced by the perichondrial cells  Perichondrial cells secrete new matrix; matrix then leads to new space, invaded by chondrocytes, etc. o Interstitial growth  Grows from within the cartilage itself  Due to chondrocytes in the lacunae  divide and secrete new matrix o Almost all cartilage stops growing at adolescence due to production of sex hormones  Not nose or ears  Skeletal divisions o Axial skeleton  Function: protection and support  Skull, vertebral column, ribs o Appendicular  Function: locomotion/movement  Everything that attaches to axial skeleton  Bones of limbs and girdles  Bone classifications o Long bone  Longer than it is wide  Upper limb bones & lower limb bones are almost all long bones  NOT patella, carpals, & tarsals  Every other bone in limbs ARE  Diaphysis – central portion of long bone  Hollow – medullary cavity o Lightens the bone  Filled with marrow o Yellow marrow - marrow on medullary cavity of diaphysis of long bone; composed of adipose tissue o Red marrow - found mostly in spongy bone; blood vessels  Dense, hard bone  compact bone  Membranous bone  spongy bone  Epiphyses – ends of long bones  Proximal & distal  No medullary cavity  Epiphyseal line – if thin, adult bone; if thick, child  Site of growth for bones  Can predict height from epiphyseal line  Membranes  Periosteum - layer of dense irregular connective tissue that covers outside of bone o Outer portion & inner portion o Inner - osteogenic tissue  “bone producing”  Osteoblasts – build matrix that becomes bone; bone producing cells  Osteoclasts – consume bone; break down bone  Endosteum – lining that covers inside of bone o Composed of mainly hyaline cartilage o Also osteogenic tissue  Bone textures o Compact bone  Dense  Provides strength and protection  Made up of harversian system o Spongy bone  Made up of little plates of bone called trabeculae  A lot of blood vessels  Bone classifications o Short bone  As wide as they are long  Carpals, tarsals  Sesamoid bone – grows within a tendon o Flat bone  Sternal, manubrium, skull, scapula, ribs o Irregular bone  Bones that don’t fit in any other category  Vertebrae, hip bones  Bone functions o Support  Rib cage supports chest muscles which allow us to breathe o Protection  Skull protects brain; vertebra protect spinal cord o Movement  Skeletal muscle attaches to bones  locomotion o Mineral storage  Ca & Po o Hematopoiesis  Blood cell production  Produced in red marrow  Compact bone anatomy o Osteons – functional unit of bone  Concentric ring of bone o Lamellae  Matrix part of bone  Hardened o Harversian canal  “central” canal  Hollow opening on middle of osteon  Nerves and blood vessels run through this  Blood vessels that go into our bones come from periosteum and penetrate in o Volkman’s canals  “Perpendicular” canals  Perpendicular to central canal o Lacunae  Area that houses the osteocyte o Osteocytes  Cell o Canaliculi  Little canals  Small channels that connect the osteocytes  Chemical composition of bone o Organic components  Cells  Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts  Osteoid  Matrix w/o middle  Consists of collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans (central core of proteins & carbohydrate parts that stick off; mesh with each other; hold background matrix together) o Inorganic components  Hydroxyapatites  Mineral salt  65% of the mass of the bone  Mostly calcium phosphate (CaPo ) 4  Ossification o Latin  Os o Process of bone formation  Ossification processes o Intramembranous  Ossification from within a fibrous membrane  Fibrous tissue  bone o Endochondral  Ossification from within cartilage (specifically hyaline cartilage)  Far more common  Forming bone in the first place is basically the same process as growth and repair of bone  Intramembranous ossification o Membrane is center for ossification to begin o Mesoderm gives rise to bone (mesenchyme is tissue) o Accumulation of osteoblasts within membrane into a cluster in the middle of the membrane (center of ossification) o Osteoblasts start to produce bone matrix o Mineral salts are deposited in matrix and matrix hardens – calcification  Mineral salts are calcium rich o Individual osteoblasts are surrounded by calcified matrix  They get cut off from an oxygen supply  they die  = spongy bone & trabecular plates  Holes in trabeculae start to fill with blood vessels o Spongy bone fills with red bone marrow o **Bone formation always starts with spongy bone** o Trabecular plates become compact  leads to compact bone o Mesenchymal cells become periosteum  Dense irregular connective tissue  Endochondral ossification o Occurs within a cartilage model  hyaline cartilage o Bone templates made of hyaline cartilage  these become bone o All of the bones in your body except skull bones and clavicles are formed through endochondral ossification o Perichondrium (dense irregular connective) surrounds hyaline cartilage model o Need stimulus to get cartilage to change  Arrival of a blood vessel = stimulus o Blood vessel arrival changes local conditions of tissue o Blood vessel penetrates perichondrium in the middle of hyaline cartilage template and stimulates process o Osteoblasts start to form at that site of blood vessel arrival o Osteoblasts form ring (bone collar) around center of hyaline cartilage template o Primary center of ossification – osteoblasts build up in that place o Middle begins to ossify before the ends o Osteoblasts cause cartilage cells to burst  raises pH  changes solubility of Ca o Bone collar starts to calcify (harden) o Cavities form  early production of spongy bone in ring around center of template o Blood vessel finally gets to the middle of the template  now called periosteal bud  Artery, vein, and a bunch of nerves o Center is opened up to become medullary cavity  Osteoclasts break down spongy bone and make this cavity o Secondary centers of ossification form as ossification extends toward ends o Plate forms between ends of bones and middle of bones o Plates are wide and don’t close until puberty o Secondary ossification process is same process as primary ossification  But, no bone remodeling occurs  No medullary cavity o Center of bone gets turned into compact bone through bone remodeling while ends stay predominantly as spongy bone except for the part just deep of the periosteum  Bone growth o Length  Longitudinal bone growth  Typically the long bones that grow longer o Width  Appositional bone growth  Maintain medullary cavity and ratio of compact and spongy bone  Growth in length o Occurs in cartilage in epiphyseal plates o Cells on diaphyseal side divide and push plate away o Older cells deeper toward diaphysis enlarge, die and calcify o Bone produced is modified into compact bone o Spongy bone is formed FIRST o Osteoclasts digest cells to lengthen medullary cavity  Growth in width o Osteoblast beneath periosteum deposit bone one external surface o Osteoclast on endosteal surface remove bone o Marrow cavity enlarges  Bone remodeling o Bone deposit o Bone reabsorption o Coordinated activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts o Can occur at periosteum and at endosteum o Can aslo occur to help us remain mineral balance in body (specifically Ca) o If we have a surplus of Ca we’ll store it in bone o If we need Ca, we’ll take it from bone  Bone deposit o Osteocytes (osteoblasts) produce matrix devoid of minerals  Osteoid seam – matrix w/o minerals o Mineral accumulates – Ca & Po ions  form hydroxyapatite  accumulation comes from blood flow and nutrient you consume o Change in conditions o Minerals go out of solubility and crystalize  calcification which lead to bone  Bone reabsorption o T lymphocytes activate osteoclasts to secrete enzymes that digest matrix o Also secrete acid that converts Ca salts to soluble form o Digested matrix and dissolved minerals released into interstitial fluid on non-bone side of osteoclast o Eventually block bloodstream  Factors controlling bone growth o Diet  Foods high in calcium o Vitamins  Need vitamin D to allow calcium absorption  Vitamin D also produced by the skin o Hormones  Affect bone growth  Hormonal control of calcium o Parathyroid hormones and thyroid secretions function in feedback loop  Function: regulates blood calcium levels  Parathyroid = PTH  Thyroid = calcitonin o Low calcium levels trigger release of PTH which activates release of osteoclasts, which release calcium o Stresses determine location of hormonal influence  Only active at sites of stress o Calcitonin released when blood calcium levels are high  Shuts off osteoclasts  promotes calcium deposition into matrix  Other hormones o Growth hormone  Stimulates growth  Increases bone production o Testosterone/estrogen  Aid in bone growth  Close epiphyseal plates  Growth spurt as sex hormones are secreted  Growth stops after puberty  Faces/noses/jaws keep growing  Fractures o Partial  Break doesn’t go all the way through  “incomplete fracture” o Complete  Break goes all the way through o Simple (closed)  Break doesn’t cause bone to go through skin o Compound (open)  Break causes bone to go through skin  Creates an opening for pathogens into both body and bone o Displaced  Complete fracture where bones aren’t aligned anymore  Have to “set” the fracture o Comminuted  Causes bone to become splintered at break  Broken into tiny pieces o Spiral  Bones twist and separate apart o Greenstick  Common in children because bones are flexible  Partial fracture – one side of bone is broken and other side is bent o Impacted  One part of the bone is driven forcefully into another part o Pathologic  Due to disease  Weakening of bone (i.e. bone cancer)  Fracture repair o Fracture hematoma forms  Special blood clot o Prevents loss of blood from broken blood vessels o Callus forms  Fibrocartilagenous – “soft” callus  Puts other connective tissue in at site of break  Fibrocartilage  Reestablishment of blood vessels  Phagocytic cells clean area  Osteoblasts begin reconstruction  Bony o Remodeling  Osteoclasts reopen medullary cavity and eat away excess outside part  Spongy bone  compact bone  Where the break occurred is stronger after it is repaired than before  Effects of Aging o Decrease in protein formation  Matrix won’t be as strong  Leads to brittle bones  Can break without a trauma o Loss of calcium  Osteoblast activity decreases as a result of the reduction of sex hormones  Particularly important when loss of estrogen occurs  Loss of calcium/bone  osteoporotic bone  Effects of bone thinning after menopause can be offset by changing what you do in 20’s  Bone disorders o Rickets  Not enough vitamin D  Bones stay soft – diaphysis fail to ossify & epiphyseal plates enlarge  Bowed legs  weight of body forces bones to bend o Osteomalacia  Not enough vitamin D as an adult  Causes demineralization of bone which causes bones to soften and weaken o Padget’s disease  Excessive bone deposition and reabsorption  Bone constantly goes through remodeling  Lots of deformities  Clothes never look like they fit  Initially stimulated by getting a viral infection in the bone Skeletal System  Greek o Skellein – to dry up  Skeletal divisons o Axial skeleton o Appendicular skeleton  Axial o 80 bones  28 skull  8 head  14 face  6 ossicles  Hyoid bone  26 vertebrae  25 thoracic bones  Appendicular o 126 bones  6 girdles (points of attachment for the limbs; pectoral & pelvic)  60 upper extremity  60 lower extremity  206 total bones in our body  Pectoral girdle o Attaches upper extremities to axial skeleton  Clavicle  Scapula o Not much holding it there  Pelvic girdle o Stronger attachment o Attaches lower extremities to axial skeleton o forms pelvis from 2 os coxae and sacrum  ilium  pubis  ischium  surface markings o fissure  space between parts of the same bone  blood vessels and nerves pass through this  i.e. interior orbital fissure o foramen  hole in a bone  blood vessels, nerves, & ligaments pass through  i.e. foramen magnum  foramina = plural form o meatus  tunnel-like tube through which nothing passes  i.e. external auditory meatus o sinus  air-filled space  reduce weight of front of face so neck muscles don’t have to be as strong  size of sinuses vary from individual to individual  i.e. paranasal sinuses  paired, mucosa-lined cavities found in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones o lighten skull o warm and humidify air (helps with thermoregulation) o resonate sound (tonal qualities of voice) o groove  depression that houses blood vessels, nerves, & tendons  i.e. intertrabecular groove o sulcus  another name for a groove  same thing o fossa  depression on bone that contains nothing  i.e. infraspinous fossa o condyle  rounded extension on bone that is used for articulation  medial & lateral o head  large articulating portion of a bone that sits on the end of a constricted portion of a bone o facet  smooth flat surface that is used for articulation  attachment sites for ligaments & tendons o ligament – structure that attaches a bone to a bone o tendon – structure that connects muscle to bone o tubercle  bump on bone  i.e. greater and lesser tubercle o tuberosity  larger, rounded area for attachment o trochanter  bump (tubercle) on femur o crest  deep ridge  i.e. iliac crest o line  shallow ridge  i.e. anterior & posterior gluteal line o spine  sharp extension (point)  i.e. iliac spine o epicondyle  above/upon condyle  medial & lateral  fontanels o old French  fontaine – fountain o thin membrane in skulls of babies o can feel blood pumping through membrane  fetal fontanels o incomplete skull bones present at birth o form through intramembranous ossification – does not complete prior to birth o takes between 1.5-2 years for a baby’s skull to completely ossify o reasons to not be completely formed at birth:  allow for enlargement of skull as baby develops  birth – skull can pass through more easily o only in embryos and newborns Joints  Latin o Articulare – to join  Definition o Joining of two bones o Point of contact between bones or between bones and cartilage  Any movement that causes a change in the position of a bone has to occur at an articulation (joint) o Joints are the center of movement o The closer bones are to one another, the stronger the joint but the less movement they can do  Functional classification – amount of movement that exists at the joint o Synarthroses  Immovable  i.e. suture joints in skull o amphiarthroses  slightly movable  i.e. pelvis o diarthroses  “freely movable” but not really (just much more movable than the others)  i.e. knee  Structural classification – type of connective tissue used/whether or not there is a joint cavity o Fibrous  No joint cavity  No space between bones  Fibrous connective tissue – usually dense irregular  Most fibrous joints are synarthritic joints  Examples:  sutures – joints between skull bones (synarthritic)  syndesmoses – joint in which the two bones are connected by a ligament (amphiarthritic)  gomphoses – peg and socket joint; teeth are held in place by fibrous connective tissue (synarthritic) o cartilaginous  no joint cavity  bones connected by cartilage  little or no movement  Examples:  synchondroses – hyaline cartilage at point of attachment  symphyses – fibrocartilage (amphiarthritic) o i.e. joints between vertebrae o synovial  does contain a joint cavity – space between bones  movable (diarthritic joint)  articular (hyaline) cartilage covers ends of bones but don’t connect them  articular capsule – connects bones together  2 layers – inner and outer  Fibrocapsule – outer layer o Fibrocapsule is connection of periosteum from the two bones o Dense irregular connective tissue  Synovial membrane – deep to fibrocapsule; inner o Lining of synovial joint cavity o Made of areolar connective tissue  Produces fluid called synovial fluid which accumulates in the cavity o Joint cavity is fluid filled – functions:  Helps to prevent friction  Mild cushion  Phagocytic cells in it  Ligaments – connect one to bone; outside  Capsular ligament – thickened fibrocapsules  Extracapsular ligament – thickened dense irregular connective tissue (fibrocapsules)  Menisci – extra wedge of fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces of bones at joint  “cushion” of cartilage  Movement o Laltin  Movere  Friction reducers o Bursae  Sack filled with synovial fluid found between bone & skin, bone & muscle, or bone & ligaments o Tendon sheath  Modified bursae that surrounds tendon  Factors limiting movement o Structural limit  Non-boney parts – movement is limited by muscles and such  Articulating bones – bones limit the amount of movement that can occur o Ligaments  Number – more ligaments, less movement  Increase strength  decrease movement  Tension – increase first limits mobility, but then breaks ligament if stretched too far o Muscle tone  NONE of our muscles are ever completely relaxed (always partially contracted)  Muscle tone = state of partial contraction  The stronger the muscle tone, the less movement  Types of movement o Gliding  Simplest of all movements  Bones at joints moving side to side or back and forth  i.e. intercarpal, intertarsal, intervertebral o Angular  Change the angle between two bones  i.e. legs stepping  flexion – decreasing the angle  extension – increasing the angle to return to anatomical position  hyperextension – extension beyond the anatomical position  abduction – pulling away from the midline of the body  adduction – pulling toward the midline  circumduction – distal end of a bone moves in a circle around the stationary proximal end o rotation  movement of bone around its own longitudinal axis  medical rotation – moves toward midline  lateral rotation – moves away from midline o special movements  inversion – “dog poop movement”; sole of foot is twisted inward at the ankle  eversion – sole of foot is twisted outward at the ankle  protraction – clavicle or mandible is thrust forward  retraction- recovery from protraction; clavicle or mandible pulled back  supination – elbow bent; palm up  pronation – elbow bent; palm down  elevation – move joint upward (shrugging shoulders)  depression – move joint downward  opposition – ability to touch thumb to other fingers (opposable thumb)  joint disorders o sprain  forceful twisting of joint  partial tearing of attachments  injury to a joint; strain is injury to muscle o dislocation  displacement of a bone in a joint  completely destroys ligaments and tendons  healing: reestablish the joint – snaps back into place; then immobilize  subluxation – half dislocation o bursitis  inflammation of bursae due to friction or trauma o tendonitis  inflammation of tendon sheath due to overuse (not usually trauma) o arthritis  inflammation of joint  osteoarthritis  wear & tear disease; joint has been used so much that it wears out and becomes inflamed; seen predominantly in weight-bearing joints  can accelerate by long distance running or being overweight  get bone spurs that are very painful  usually only on one side  rheumatoid arthritis  immune system attacks joints  causes deposition of bone  leads to disfigurement of joint  if bilateral, probably rheumatoid arthritis  gouty arthritis  excess of uric acid in a person’s bloodstream  eating foods rich in nucleic acid  uric acids crystalizes and collects at the joint  uric acid combines with sodium  debilitating


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