Anatomy & Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide
Anatomy & Physiology Exam 2 Study Guide 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Tissues Tissue - 2 or more cells put together that work together for a common task Histology – study of tissues Epithelial tissue o Covering and lining ALL free body surfaces are covered with this Exposed to external environment i.e. skin; inside of mouth (food is external); lining of respiratory and reproductive tracts tissue with a whole bunch of white space next to it o glandular i.e. glands; adrenal gland if it produces something that is secreted, probably glandular functions of epithelial tissue o establish boundaries – separates internal from external o protection – pathogens have to get through epithelial tissue to do harm o absorption o filtration – (selective absorption); based on size o excretion o secretion – produces something to be released; i.e. glandular o sensory reception – ability to respond to stimuli boundaries o apical surface – free surface; exposed to external environment; superficial surface o basal surface – deep portion; part that is away from the external environment; attached to something underneath it usually connective tissue is under epithelial tissue there are usually connections such as desmosomes between cells making up tissues basement membrane o basal lamina thin line non-cellular sheet of glycoproteins adhesive sheet of proteins holds tissue in place; selective filter all living cells need to be supplied with blood but epithelial tissues are avascular (no blood vessels) – blood delivered to connective tissue and then diffuses through tissue in order to get to epithelial tissue o reticular lamina collection of collagen fibers right under basal lamina strengthens attachment between epithelium and underlying tissue covering and lining epithelium o simple only have one layer typically function for absorption and filtration areas that aren’t exposed to a lot of friction o stratified composed of more than one layer of cells major function is protection areas that are exposed to a lot of friction (i.e. skin on bottom of foot) stratified = 2 or more layers o pseudostratified only one layer thick but looks like more because nuclei are all over found in parts of the body that aren’t exposed to a lot of movement; like lining the respiratory tract o squamous flat shape of cells on apical surface o cuboidal box-like same width as height o columnar column-shaped taller than it is wide o transitional dome cells on apical surface line hollow cavities (i.e. urinary bladder) when cavity is empty, cells are dome-shaped when cavity is full, cells change to flat no stretch in cavity glandular epithelium o composes glands – cell or group of cells of specialized epithelium that secrete substances into ducts, onto surfaces or into the blood o where they secrete it depends on gland some secrete right where it needs to act some release secretion onto surface of cell some secrete into bloodstream, which travels to another part of the body o requires energy to produce its secretory products package it up to secrete it out of epithelium o most glands produce a water-based secretion, but some fat- based types of glands o exocrine secrete into a duct sometimes secretes onto own cell surface i.e. sweat glands, gallbladder o endocrine do not have ducts; duct-less secrete hormones hormones travel in the bloodstream to go somewhere else i.e. thyroid, pancreas (part endocrine, part exocrine) structural classification of glands o unicellular one cell i.e. mucous glands produces mucus (contains protein mucin) find this lining the digestive tract; prevents us from digesting our own digestive tract goblet cells o multicellular more than one cell can break down these into further distinctions functional classification (how its released) o merocrine gland cells produce their secretory product, package it in golgi apparatus, and release vesicle through exocytosis into duct, then it travels cell stays around & active i.e. salivary gland, sweat gland, pancreas o holocrine gland cell produces product and stores it as a cellular inclusion; cell is then sloughed off into duct; cell bursts open and releases contents; cell dies mitosis replaces the cell i.e. sebaceous glands (oil glands associated with hair) connective tissues o all derived from same embryonic tissue mesenchyme middle embryonic layer o connective tissue proper areolar, elastic, dense regular, etc… o cartilage elastic, fibro, etc… o bone compact or spongy o blood only liquid tissue of the body o all contain same structural elements structural elements o ground substance – background matrix blood - liquid bone – solidified o fibers collagen fibers give it strength elastic fibers give it ability to stretch o cells fibroblast, osteocyte, chondrocyte, etc Muscle tissue o Tissue that is modified for contraction o Respond to a stimulus by contracting o Provide movement and/or heat As muscle contracts, it generates heat o All contain: Sarcolemma – plasma membrane of muscle cell Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of a muscle Muscle types o Skeletal Striated Each muscle fiber is a muscle cell; they all run right next to each other very compactly Multinucleated - more than one nucleus per cell Nuclei get pushed toward edges Voluntary – can determine when it contracts and how much force it contracts with o Cardiac Striated Uninucleated - only one nucleus per cell Involuntary Intercalated discs – communicating junction between neighboring cells (channel protein of one cell has fused with channel protein of other cell, forming a gap junction and conexon) o Smooth Non-striated Uninucleated Nuclei are stretched Involuntary Classification Criteria o Striations o Nervous control o Number of nuclei Nervous tissue o Neurons – create electrical impulses; 50% of tissue o Allows us to detect stimuli; turns energy into electrical impulses and transfers them o Neuroglia – nerve glue; holds neurons together; supports and protects them; 50% Membranes Latin – membrum o “limb” – extension off of tree Definition o Continuous multicellular sheet composed of at least two types of tissue Epithelium bound to underlying connective tissue Exception is non-covering or non-lining membranes i.e. synovial membranes – ends of bones and joints; no epithelium, only connective tissue (2 diff types of connective tissue) covering and lining membranes o cutaneous skin; outside of body o mucous cavities on inside of body; open to external environment o serous lining the inside of the body; not open to the environment shiny on inside of rat – serous membrane cutaneous membrane o keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to dense irregular connective tissue o accumulated keratin protein cellular inclusion in squamous epithelium o function – protection; protects what is underneath our skin o constant renewal of skin o exposed to air – outside of body o is a dry membrane mucous membrane o most contain stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium attached to areolar connective tissue o line body cavities that open to exterior o moist – secretes mucus (rich in mucin) o stomach, esophagus, trachea – lined by mucous membrane o function – absorption & secretion serous membrane o simple squamous epithelium resting on areolar connective tissue o line closed ventral body cavities o thoracic cavity, pelvic cavity, etc. o moist – secretes serous fluid o capillaries run through these capillaries can leak some of the fluid (plasma) which makes up part of the serous fluid o epithelial tissue produces hyaluronic acid (carbohydrate rich secretion); combines with capillary fluid makes a liquid that is really slippery (viscus) provides lubrication o double layered membrane – cavity and organs have this Layers o parietal belongs to the body cavity o visceral belongs to the organ Serosae o pleura serous membrane of thoracic cavity parietal pleura lines cavity visceral pleura is outmost covering of lungs pleural fluid sits between them o pericardium special membrane that surrounds the heart peri – around; cardium – heart parietal pericardium – sac around heart visceral pericardium – outer layer covering heart allows heart to beat without tugging on the wall dissipates heat from contractions o peritoneum parietal peritoneum – abdominal cavity visceral peritoneum – surrounds organs synovial membranes o no epithelium o joint cavity – line cavities of joints o secretes synovial fluid o fluid in synovial membrane lubricates ends of bones so they can slide across one another without a lot of friction also provides a cushion between bones Tissue related defenses o Mechanical barriers Things can’t get into body because these membranes won’t allow it First line of defense o Cilia Acts as a trap o Chemical barriers Tissues that line stomach produce nasty chemicals (i.e. strong acid) which can destroy bacteria and other contaminants on our food Skin produces acid mantle – covering of our skin is slightly acidic Lining of female reproductive tract is acidic o If these are breached, we get an inflammatory response, which isolates pathogen and destroys it o Other defense responses after that Tissue repair o Regeneration Replacing the damaged tissue with the same kind of tissue Cell division Granulation tissue o Fibrosis Replaces damaged tissue with fibrous connective tissue Forms a scar o Not all tissues are equal in their regenerative abilities Epithelial like to regenerate Predisposed to healing Cardiac muscle does not like to regenerate Predisposed to scaring o Process can take years Steps (whenever we have a breach) o Inflammation o Organization o Regeneration and fibrosis Inflammatory events o Chemicals released by injured tissue cells, macrophages and mast cells Act as chemical attractant o Capillaries dilate and become permeable Swelling – accumulation of fluid to the site of damage Edema – accumulation of exidate o White blood cells and plasma fluids leak into injured area o Clotting proteins construct clot Stops bleeding Plugs hole where pathogens could have gotten in Margins of the wound are held in place – helps heal o Scab forms Blood clot dries out Pulling off a scab increases fibrosis Organization events o Blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue Light pink tissue; connective; fibrous proteins Creates framework o New capillary bed is established Reestablishment of proper blood flow through tissue o Fibroblasts close margins of wound Secrete things that help close wound Secrete growth factors cells produce cyclins which combine with cdks to make MPFs Produce collagen fibers – hold everything together o Macrophages digest blood clot o Collagen fibers deposited o THEN, regeneration and fibrosis happens Nutrition & Healing o Vitamin A – epithelium repair o Vitamin B – NS & cardiac muscle tissue repair Prenatal vitamins o Vitamin C – blood vessels and connective tissue o Vitamin D – bone repair and growth o Vitamin E – prevents scaring; reduces fibrosis Stretch marks don’t scar as much o Vitamin K – assisting blood clotting o Blood circulation – delivers necessary nutrition o Age – as you get older, you don’t heal as quickly Embryonic tissue development o Primary germ layers Ectoderm Outside Epidermis of our skin Nervous tissue (detects external stimuli) Endoderm Inside Mucous membranes Mesoderm Middle Muscle tissue All connective tissues come from here o Epithelial tissues come from all three germ layers Integumentary Systems Organ system o Group of organs that operate collectively to perform specialized functions o Function is dependent of organs that make it up Cells tissues organs Integumentary system o Skin o Skin derivatives Hair Nails Glands Receptors Skin factoids *not on test* o Covers entire body Dry, composed of epithelial tissue o Weighs 9-11 pounds o Accounts for 7% of total body mass o Has surface area of 1.2-2.2 square meters o Varies in thickness from 1.5-4.0 mm Thinnest part on head Thickest part on sole of feet depends on friction Dermatology – study of skin Regions o Epidermis – skin Stratified squamous epithelial tissue Protection Outer skin layer/exposed to outside Avascular – no blood vessels o Dermis – skin Deep to the epidermis Compromised of fibrous connective tissue Dense irregular, areolar, etc Composed of at least 2 different types Has blood vessels – vascularized o Hypodermis – beneath the skin Composed of adipose tissue Protection of things underneath skin Covers muscle underneath skin Changes as we age Thickness increases more & more fat stored Amount of fibers decreases lose elasticity Epidermal cells o Keratinocytes Make up majority of epidermis Cell that produces keratin Undergo keratinization produces keratin, builds up in cell, gets rid of organelles, cell dies Deep cells replicate which pushes other cells toward surface Cells at the top die and are sloughed off Takes about 2 weeks Our entire epidermis is replaced every 25-45 days Yellow cells in powerpoint picture Most of the cells in the epidermis o Melanocytes Melanin producing cells Grey in powerpoint picture Few Melanin is a pigment coloration molecule In deep layers Melanin causes darkening of the skin as we tan, we increase the amount of melanin o Langerhan’s cell Blue in powerpoint picture Produced in bone marrow Where blood is produced White blood cells provide an immune function for us Provides an immune function for the skin Biochemical protection\ o Merkel cells Purple in powerpoint picture Deep in the epidermis at the very bottom layer Border between epidermis and dermis Special sensory receptor cells Respond to light touch i.e. bottom of forearm; back of neck epidermal layers (thin skin) o stratum basale deepest layer “basal” or “bottom” - latin Function: maintain ability to go through mitosis and replicate; germ cells single layer of cells also called “stratum germinatibum” o stratum spinosum several layers thick “prickly” – latin Function: cumulating keratin proteins; have a web-like system of intermediate filaments inside their cells which attach to desmosomes Resists things like friction Cells shrink as they age As they shrink, desmosomes stay attached which makes them look prickly o Stratum granulosum 3-5 layers of cells “granular layer” – latin Function: cells contain granuals produces vesicle stored substances Represents last of the living cells Types of granuals Keratohyaline granual – contain keratin (protection) Lamellated granual – contain glycolipids (functions like a water-proofer helps prevent loss of water from inside our bodies) o Stratum corneum “horn” – latin 20-30 layers of dead cells Function: provides protection Epidermal layers (thick skin) o Stratum lucidum “clear” – latin Only found where skin is really thick/high friction areas i.e. palms of hands, soles of feet dermal layers o papillary composed of areolar connective tissue holds dermis to epidermis o reticular composed of dense irregular connective tissue dermal papillae – where the dermis extends up above onto the epidermis; irregularities development of integument o epidermis = ectoderm o dermis = mesoderm o hypoderm = mesoderm Skin color o determined by pigments melanin epidermal pigment gives us dark coloration cells respond to UV radiation by producing melanin o enzyme tyrosinase is produced catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine (amino acid) to melanin differences in race carotene dermal pigment results in yellow/orange colors Asian populations Hemoglobin Blood pigment Pinkish-white look comes from seeing hemoglobin through outer skin Surface features o Ridges Ridges on epidermis due to ridges on dermis Determined genetically no two people have the same ridges gives our fingers and toes better grip increase friction ridges hold oils on skin when we touch something, leaves fingerprint o grooves appear all over the surface of our body make “diamonds” hair grows out of intersection of grooves these grooves are left over from when we had scales on the surface of our body – evolution skin appendages o sudoriferous glands sweat glands eccrine cover most of the surface of our body function throughout life main function is thermoregulation apocrine found in only high saturation areas between legs, under arms, etc don’t begin functioning until puberty not involved in thermoregulation o trigger related to hormones in high friction areas provides lubrication which allows things to slide past each other secretions from these glands are odorless bacteria feed on these secretions and produce a product that has an odor ceruminous found in ear canal production of cerumen wax modified apocrine gland secretion is waxy & thick protects our inner ear o traps foreign things o also a sound protectant mammary produce modified sweat sweat is rich with proteins and fats and lactose milk breast milk o sebaceous glands produce sebum oil hair follicles; oil coats hair and keeps it from being brittle softens and lubricates both hair and skin helps to prevent water loss so we don’t dehydrate things like pathogens get trapped in oil sebum has bactericidal properties will kill bacteria respond to hormonal secretions androgens (testosterone) lots of oily production when boys hit puberty o nails scale-like modifications of epidermis protect the ends of our fingers and toes toes would split without nails nail parts nail body – part we see when we look at our nails free edge – distal portion; part we snip back lanula – proximal edge nail fold – all of the skin that surrounds the nail body nail bed – skin underneath nail body nail matrix – contains cells that are undergoing division; pushes old cells forward; proximal end of nail body; actively grows eponychium – tissue that covers nail matrix hyponichium – tissue that covers free edge o hair scale-like appendage functions: allows us to sense things acts as a cushion – protects against physical trauma insulator – prevents loss of heat filter – protects us against UV radiation; hair in nose prevents outside things from getting in hair structure: shaft – part we can see; above skin root – part we can’t see; underneath skin follicle – skin parts that surround the root shaft layers: medulla – middle portion cortex – surrounds medulla; dark circles represent pigment (melanin & theomelanin) cuticle – outer layer of dead, stacked cells structure of hair follicle: external root sheath – made up of connective tissue internal root sheath – epidermal; immediately surrounds root; hair growth occurs from here bulb – base papilla – indentation in bulb arrector pili – smooth muscle; involuntary; if we get cold, this contracts and pulls on the base of the hair follicle causes hair to stand up; keeps us from losing heat; also responds to excitement touch sensitive nerve endings at base of hair follicle functions of integument o protection biological, chemical, mechanical o regulation of body temperature skin contains sweat glands which keep us cool and hair which keeps us warm o sensation merkel’s discs o metabolic functions skin produces inactive form of vitamin D without vitamin D, we can’t absorb calcium; also important in normal immune function o maintains blood reservoir redirects blood to active tissues i.e. when working out o excretion can get rid of waste products when we sweat primarily nitrogenous from breakdown of proteins Tactile sensors o Merkel’s discs Very deep in stratum spinosum Epidermal receptor Basically at dermis border but on epidermal side Respond to light touch o Meissner’s corpuscles Dermal papillae On border; but dermal side Touch sensitive nerve endings that are activated by light touch o Pacinian corpuscles Deep in dermis Respond to deep pressure Adapt very rapidly Burn o German Brennen – to consume by fire o Definition – tissue damage caused by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or chemicals that results in protein denaturation o Can lead to cell death o More severe burn more significant side effects o Dehydration and loss of electrolytes is major concern o Systematic effects: Water loss Bacterial infection Shock – BP issue Destroys blood vessels – reduces blood flow Decreased urinary output and kidney failure Burn classification o First degree Any burn that results in redness, swelling, and pain Only partial thickness burn – only portion of skin most superficial layers Pain receptors in skin are activated Will heal on own w/o intervention is 2-3 days Sun, chemicals, steam, etc cause this o Second degree Redness, swelling, pain & blisters Partial thickness burn Epidermis and parts of upper dermis Heal on own w/o intervention 3-4 weeks to heal o Third degree Full thickness burns Skin is charred Skin has lost entire function because it is completely damaged No pain sensory receptors are destroyed When you get a third degree burn, you will also have first and second most likely which do cause pain Does not heal tissue graft Skin disorders/abnormalities o Acne Inflammation of sebaceous glands Staph infection of sebaceous glands Bacteria feed on oils Antibiotics are best Acne is prevalent in pubescent boys o Lupus Autoimmune disease Immune system attacks healthy part of body – immune system attacks skin in lupus Get lesions or markings on skin Butterfly rash across face is indicative Primarily post-pubescent female issue o Psoriasis Itchy, scaly skin Research suggests that it is also an autoimmune disease Something triggers these reactions Trauma – traumatic damage to skin Bacterial infection (of any part of body) Hormonal changes Stress Photo therapy – putting someone in front of sun lamps Also, steroidal drugs (things that shut off immune system) o Decubitus ulcers (bed sores) Open sores Constant interruption of blood flow Immobile patients Rotting flesh produces odor Could also get this by having a cast too tight Happens when blood flow is restricted o Vitiligo Pigment disorder Patchy distribution of melanocytes Lack of pigment in some places of skin Probably autoimmune Looks like a healed burn, but just an absence of pigment o Albinism Body can’t make any pigment at all Inherited condition genetic No gene that allows for the production of tyrosinase Person looks really pink/white, eyes are bright red, hair is white o Freckles Patchy concentration of melanocytes Opposite of vitiligo More common in fair skinned people Common in redheads because red hair and fair skin have a genetic component Irish o Birthmarks Born with pigmented area of skin Cause is unknown Dense collection of dermal blood vesicles in a particular spot Bone Skeletal tissues o Cartilage Almost all bone starts out as this, then gets converted to bone tissue o Bone Skeletal cartilages o Cartilage tissue No blood vessels or nerves running through it Damage is hard to heal because no blood supply o Perichondrium Connective tissue layer covering the outer surface of cartilage tissue Dense irregular connective tissue Rich in blood vessels and nerves o Hyaline cartilage Most abundant in the skeletal system Ends of bones are covered in hyaline cartilage Costal cartilage, rings of trachea, cartilage that forms larynx, external nose, etc. o Elastic cartilage Make sup external ear (pinna), and epiglottis o Fibrocartilage Cartilage found at bones and joints Extra pad of cartilage at some joints Growth of cartilage o Appositional growth From the edge growth that is produced by the perichondrial cells Perichondrial cells secrete new matrix; matrix then leads to new space, invaded by chondrocytes, etc. o Interstitial growth Grows from within the cartilage itself Due to chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete new matrix o Almost all cartilage stops growing at adolescence due to production of sex hormones Not nose or ears Skeletal divisions o Axial skeleton Function: protection and support Skull, vertebral column, ribs o Appendicular Function: locomotion/movement Everything that attaches to axial skeleton Bones of limbs and girdles Bone classifications o Long bone Longer than it is wide Upper limb bones & lower limb bones are almost all long bones NOT patella, carpals, & tarsals Every other bone in limbs ARE Diaphysis – central portion of long bone Hollow – medullary cavity o Lightens the bone Filled with marrow o Yellow marrow - marrow on medullary cavity of diaphysis of long bone; composed of adipose tissue o Red marrow - found mostly in spongy bone; blood vessels Dense, hard bone compact bone Membranous bone spongy bone Epiphyses – ends of long bones Proximal & distal No medullary cavity Epiphyseal line – if thin, adult bone; if thick, child Site of growth for bones Can predict height from epiphyseal line Membranes Periosteum - layer of dense irregular connective tissue that covers outside of bone o Outer portion & inner portion o Inner - osteogenic tissue “bone producing” Osteoblasts – build matrix that becomes bone; bone producing cells Osteoclasts – consume bone; break down bone Endosteum – lining that covers inside of bone o Composed of mainly hyaline cartilage o Also osteogenic tissue Bone textures o Compact bone Dense Provides strength and protection Made up of harversian system o Spongy bone Made up of little plates of bone called trabeculae A lot of blood vessels Bone classifications o Short bone As wide as they are long Carpals, tarsals Sesamoid bone – grows within a tendon o Flat bone Sternal, manubrium, skull, scapula, ribs o Irregular bone Bones that don’t fit in any other category Vertebrae, hip bones Bone functions o Support Rib cage supports chest muscles which allow us to breathe o Protection Skull protects brain; vertebra protect spinal cord o Movement Skeletal muscle attaches to bones locomotion o Mineral storage Ca & Po o Hematopoiesis Blood cell production Produced in red marrow Compact bone anatomy o Osteons – functional unit of bone Concentric ring of bone o Lamellae Matrix part of bone Hardened o Harversian canal “central” canal Hollow opening on middle of osteon Nerves and blood vessels run through this Blood vessels that go into our bones come from periosteum and penetrate in o Volkman’s canals “Perpendicular” canals Perpendicular to central canal o Lacunae Area that houses the osteocyte o Osteocytes Cell o Canaliculi Little canals Small channels that connect the osteocytes Chemical composition of bone o Organic components Cells Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts Osteoid Matrix w/o middle Consists of collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans (central core of proteins & carbohydrate parts that stick off; mesh with each other; hold background matrix together) o Inorganic components Hydroxyapatites Mineral salt 65% of the mass of the bone Mostly calcium phosphate (CaPo ) 4 Ossification o Latin Os o Process of bone formation Ossification processes o Intramembranous Ossification from within a fibrous membrane Fibrous tissue bone o Endochondral Ossification from within cartilage (specifically hyaline cartilage) Far more common Forming bone in the first place is basically the same process as growth and repair of bone Intramembranous ossification o Membrane is center for ossification to begin o Mesoderm gives rise to bone (mesenchyme is tissue) o Accumulation of osteoblasts within membrane into a cluster in the middle of the membrane (center of ossification) o Osteoblasts start to produce bone matrix o Mineral salts are deposited in matrix and matrix hardens – calcification Mineral salts are calcium rich o Individual osteoblasts are surrounded by calcified matrix They get cut off from an oxygen supply they die = spongy bone & trabecular plates Holes in trabeculae start to fill with blood vessels o Spongy bone fills with red bone marrow o **Bone formation always starts with spongy bone** o Trabecular plates become compact leads to compact bone o Mesenchymal cells become periosteum Dense irregular connective tissue Endochondral ossification o Occurs within a cartilage model hyaline cartilage o Bone templates made of hyaline cartilage these become bone o All of the bones in your body except skull bones and clavicles are formed through endochondral ossification o Perichondrium (dense irregular connective) surrounds hyaline cartilage model o Need stimulus to get cartilage to change Arrival of a blood vessel = stimulus o Blood vessel arrival changes local conditions of tissue o Blood vessel penetrates perichondrium in the middle of hyaline cartilage template and stimulates process o Osteoblasts start to form at that site of blood vessel arrival o Osteoblasts form ring (bone collar) around center of hyaline cartilage template o Primary center of ossification – osteoblasts build up in that place o Middle begins to ossify before the ends o Osteoblasts cause cartilage cells to burst raises pH changes solubility of Ca o Bone collar starts to calcify (harden) o Cavities form early production of spongy bone in ring around center of template o Blood vessel finally gets to the middle of the template now called periosteal bud Artery, vein, and a bunch of nerves o Center is opened up to become medullary cavity Osteoclasts break down spongy bone and make this cavity o Secondary centers of ossification form as ossification extends toward ends o Plate forms between ends of bones and middle of bones o Plates are wide and don’t close until puberty o Secondary ossification process is same process as primary ossification But, no bone remodeling occurs No medullary cavity o Center of bone gets turned into compact bone through bone remodeling while ends stay predominantly as spongy bone except for the part just deep of the periosteum Bone growth o Length Longitudinal bone growth Typically the long bones that grow longer o Width Appositional bone growth Maintain medullary cavity and ratio of compact and spongy bone Growth in length o Occurs in cartilage in epiphyseal plates o Cells on diaphyseal side divide and push plate away o Older cells deeper toward diaphysis enlarge, die and calcify o Bone produced is modified into compact bone o Spongy bone is formed FIRST o Osteoclasts digest cells to lengthen medullary cavity Growth in width o Osteoblast beneath periosteum deposit bone one external surface o Osteoclast on endosteal surface remove bone o Marrow cavity enlarges Bone remodeling o Bone deposit o Bone reabsorption o Coordinated activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts o Can occur at periosteum and at endosteum o Can aslo occur to help us remain mineral balance in body (specifically Ca) o If we have a surplus of Ca we’ll store it in bone o If we need Ca, we’ll take it from bone Bone deposit o Osteocytes (osteoblasts) produce matrix devoid of minerals Osteoid seam – matrix w/o minerals o Mineral accumulates – Ca & Po ions form hydroxyapatite accumulation comes from blood flow and nutrient you consume o Change in conditions o Minerals go out of solubility and crystalize calcification which lead to bone Bone reabsorption o T lymphocytes activate osteoclasts to secrete enzymes that digest matrix o Also secrete acid that converts Ca salts to soluble form o Digested matrix and dissolved minerals released into interstitial fluid on non-bone side of osteoclast o Eventually block bloodstream Factors controlling bone growth o Diet Foods high in calcium o Vitamins Need vitamin D to allow calcium absorption Vitamin D also produced by the skin o Hormones Affect bone growth Hormonal control of calcium o Parathyroid hormones and thyroid secretions function in feedback loop Function: regulates blood calcium levels Parathyroid = PTH Thyroid = calcitonin o Low calcium levels trigger release of PTH which activates release of osteoclasts, which release calcium o Stresses determine location of hormonal influence Only active at sites of stress o Calcitonin released when blood calcium levels are high Shuts off osteoclasts promotes calcium deposition into matrix Other hormones o Growth hormone Stimulates growth Increases bone production o Testosterone/estrogen Aid in bone growth Close epiphyseal plates Growth spurt as sex hormones are secreted Growth stops after puberty Faces/noses/jaws keep growing Fractures o Partial Break doesn’t go all the way through “incomplete fracture” o Complete Break goes all the way through o Simple (closed) Break doesn’t cause bone to go through skin o Compound (open) Break causes bone to go through skin Creates an opening for pathogens into both body and bone o Displaced Complete fracture where bones aren’t aligned anymore Have to “set” the fracture o Comminuted Causes bone to become splintered at break Broken into tiny pieces o Spiral Bones twist and separate apart o Greenstick Common in children because bones are flexible Partial fracture – one side of bone is broken and other side is bent o Impacted One part of the bone is driven forcefully into another part o Pathologic Due to disease Weakening of bone (i.e. bone cancer) Fracture repair o Fracture hematoma forms Special blood clot o Prevents loss of blood from broken blood vessels o Callus forms Fibrocartilagenous – “soft” callus Puts other connective tissue in at site of break Fibrocartilage Reestablishment of blood vessels Phagocytic cells clean area Osteoblasts begin reconstruction Bony o Remodeling Osteoclasts reopen medullary cavity and eat away excess outside part Spongy bone compact bone Where the break occurred is stronger after it is repaired than before Effects of Aging o Decrease in protein formation Matrix won’t be as strong Leads to brittle bones Can break without a trauma o Loss of calcium Osteoblast activity decreases as a result of the reduction of sex hormones Particularly important when loss of estrogen occurs Loss of calcium/bone osteoporotic bone Effects of bone thinning after menopause can be offset by changing what you do in 20’s Bone disorders o Rickets Not enough vitamin D Bones stay soft – diaphysis fail to ossify & epiphyseal plates enlarge Bowed legs weight of body forces bones to bend o Osteomalacia Not enough vitamin D as an adult Causes demineralization of bone which causes bones to soften and weaken o Padget’s disease Excessive bone deposition and reabsorption Bone constantly goes through remodeling Lots of deformities Clothes never look like they fit Initially stimulated by getting a viral infection in the bone Skeletal System Greek o Skellein – to dry up Skeletal divisons o Axial skeleton o Appendicular skeleton Axial o 80 bones 28 skull 8 head 14 face 6 ossicles Hyoid bone 26 vertebrae 25 thoracic bones Appendicular o 126 bones 6 girdles (points of attachment for the limbs; pectoral & pelvic) 60 upper extremity 60 lower extremity 206 total bones in our body Pectoral girdle o Attaches upper extremities to axial skeleton Clavicle Scapula o Not much holding it there Pelvic girdle o Stronger attachment o Attaches lower extremities to axial skeleton o forms pelvis from 2 os coxae and sacrum ilium pubis ischium surface markings o fissure space between parts of the same bone blood vessels and nerves pass through this i.e. interior orbital fissure o foramen hole in a bone blood vessels, nerves, & ligaments pass through i.e. foramen magnum foramina = plural form o meatus tunnel-like tube through which nothing passes i.e. external auditory meatus o sinus air-filled space reduce weight of front of face so neck muscles don’t have to be as strong size of sinuses vary from individual to individual i.e. paranasal sinuses paired, mucosa-lined cavities found in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones o lighten skull o warm and humidify air (helps with thermoregulation) o resonate sound (tonal qualities of voice) o groove depression that houses blood vessels, nerves, & tendons i.e. intertrabecular groove o sulcus another name for a groove same thing o fossa depression on bone that contains nothing i.e. infraspinous fossa o condyle rounded extension on bone that is used for articulation medial & lateral o head large articulating portion of a bone that sits on the end of a constricted portion of a bone o facet smooth flat surface that is used for articulation attachment sites for ligaments & tendons o ligament – structure that attaches a bone to a bone o tendon – structure that connects muscle to bone o tubercle bump on bone i.e. greater and lesser tubercle o tuberosity larger, rounded area for attachment o trochanter bump (tubercle) on femur o crest deep ridge i.e. iliac crest o line shallow ridge i.e. anterior & posterior gluteal line o spine sharp extension (point) i.e. iliac spine o epicondyle above/upon condyle medial & lateral fontanels o old French fontaine – fountain o thin membrane in skulls of babies o can feel blood pumping through membrane fetal fontanels o incomplete skull bones present at birth o form through intramembranous ossification – does not complete prior to birth o takes between 1.5-2 years for a baby’s skull to completely ossify o reasons to not be completely formed at birth: allow for enlargement of skull as baby develops birth – skull can pass through more easily o only in embryos and newborns Joints Latin o Articulare – to join Definition o Joining of two bones o Point of contact between bones or between bones and cartilage Any movement that causes a change in the position of a bone has to occur at an articulation (joint) o Joints are the center of movement o The closer bones are to one another, the stronger the joint but the less movement they can do Functional classification – amount of movement that exists at the joint o Synarthroses Immovable i.e. suture joints in skull o amphiarthroses slightly movable i.e. pelvis o diarthroses “freely movable” but not really (just much more movable than the others) i.e. knee Structural classification – type of connective tissue used/whether or not there is a joint cavity o Fibrous No joint cavity No space between bones Fibrous connective tissue – usually dense irregular Most fibrous joints are synarthritic joints Examples: sutures – joints between skull bones (synarthritic) syndesmoses – joint in which the two bones are connected by a ligament (amphiarthritic) gomphoses – peg and socket joint; teeth are held in place by fibrous connective tissue (synarthritic) o cartilaginous no joint cavity bones connected by cartilage little or no movement Examples: synchondroses – hyaline cartilage at point of attachment symphyses – fibrocartilage (amphiarthritic) o i.e. joints between vertebrae o synovial does contain a joint cavity – space between bones movable (diarthritic joint) articular (hyaline) cartilage covers ends of bones but don’t connect them articular capsule – connects bones together 2 layers – inner and outer Fibrocapsule – outer layer o Fibrocapsule is connection of periosteum from the two bones o Dense irregular connective tissue Synovial membrane – deep to fibrocapsule; inner o Lining of synovial joint cavity o Made of areolar connective tissue Produces fluid called synovial fluid which accumulates in the cavity o Joint cavity is fluid filled – functions: Helps to prevent friction Mild cushion Phagocytic cells in it Ligaments – connect one to bone; outside Capsular ligament – thickened fibrocapsules Extracapsular ligament – thickened dense irregular connective tissue (fibrocapsules) Menisci – extra wedge of fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces of bones at joint “cushion” of cartilage Movement o Laltin Movere Friction reducers o Bursae Sack filled with synovial fluid found between bone & skin, bone & muscle, or bone & ligaments o Tendon sheath Modified bursae that surrounds tendon Factors limiting movement o Structural limit Non-boney parts – movement is limited by muscles and such Articulating bones – bones limit the amount of movement that can occur o Ligaments Number – more ligaments, less movement Increase strength decrease movement Tension – increase first limits mobility, but then breaks ligament if stretched too far o Muscle tone NONE of our muscles are ever completely relaxed (always partially contracted) Muscle tone = state of partial contraction The stronger the muscle tone, the less movement Types of movement o Gliding Simplest of all movements Bones at joints moving side to side or back and forth i.e. intercarpal, intertarsal, intervertebral o Angular Change the angle between two bones i.e. legs stepping flexion – decreasing the angle extension – increasing the angle to return to anatomical position hyperextension – extension beyond the anatomical position abduction – pulling away from the midline of the body adduction – pulling toward the midline circumduction – distal end of a bone moves in a circle around the stationary proximal end o rotation movement of bone around its own longitudinal axis medical rotation – moves toward midline lateral rotation – moves away from midline o special movements inversion – “dog poop movement”; sole of foot is twisted inward at the ankle eversion – sole of foot is twisted outward at the ankle protraction – clavicle or mandible is thrust forward retraction- recovery from protraction; clavicle or mandible pulled back supination – elbow bent; palm up pronation – elbow bent; palm down elevation – move joint upward (shrugging shoulders) depression – move joint downward opposition – ability to touch thumb to other fingers (opposable thumb) joint disorders o sprain forceful twisting of joint partial tearing of attachments injury to a joint; strain is injury to muscle o dislocation displacement of a bone in a joint completely destroys ligaments and tendons healing: reestablish the joint – snaps back into place; then immobilize subluxation – half dislocation o bursitis inflammation of bursae due to friction or trauma o tendonitis inflammation of tendon sheath due to overuse (not usually trauma) o arthritis inflammation of joint osteoarthritis wear & tear disease; joint has been used so much that it wears out and becomes inflamed; seen predominantly in weight-bearing joints can accelerate by long distance running or being overweight get bone spurs that are very painful usually only on one side rheumatoid arthritis immune system attacks joints causes deposition of bone leads to disfigurement of joint if bilateral, probably rheumatoid arthritis gouty arthritis excess of uric acid in a person’s bloodstream eating foods rich in nucleic acid uric acids crystalizes and collects at the joint uric acid combines with sodium debilitating
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