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UNO / Gerontology / GER 3490 / How do managers learn how to manage?

How do managers learn how to manage?

How do managers learn how to manage?


School: University of Nebraska at Omaha
Department: Gerontology
Course: Management
Professor: Robert ottemann
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: MGMT Study Guide Exam1
Description: Here is the study guide for exam 1, along with essay questions from last springs test. They will NOT be the essay questions on the test but they are guidance to what he is looking for.
Uploaded: 09/29/2016
7 Pages 37 Views 3 Unlocks

Exam 1 Study Guide

How do managers learn how to manage?

Chapter 1, 2, & 4

Highlight- Important Term Highlight- Important concept Highlight Important person

Chapter 1

Intro to Management

◊ Basic Management Function 

o Planning- the process of setting objectives and determining in  advance exactly how the objectives will be met

o Organizing- the process of delegating and coordinating tasks and allocating resources to achieve objectives

o Leading-the process of influencing employees to work toward  achieving ability

 Managers must communicate the objectives to employees  & motivate them to achieve those objectives by developing positive relationships

When does group decision making make sense?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of phosphorylation?

o Controlling- the process of monitoring and measuring progress  and taking corrective action when needed to ensure that  

objectives are achieved

◊ Fundamental Skills 

o Technical Skills- the ability to use methods and techniques to  perform a task

o Interpersonal Skills- the ability to understand, communicate with, and work well with individuals and groups through developing  effective relationships We also discuss several other topics like What are reportable or notifiable diseases?

o Decision-Making Skills- the ability to conceptualize situations and select alternatives to solve problems and take advantage of  opportunities

◊ Skill Differences by Management Level 

What do you mean by rational decision making?

Evolution of Management

◊ Classical Management Perspective

o Scientific ManagementDon't forget about the age old question of Whose responsible for refining religion?

 Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)

 Father of Scientific Management

 Replaced rule of thumb method with scientifically based  work methods to eliminate “soldiering”

 Believed in selecting, training, teaching, & developing  workers

 Used time studies, standards planning, exception rule,  slice-rules, instruction cards, & piece-work pay systems to  control & motivate employees

o Administrative Management 

 Henri Fayol (1841-1925)

 Father of Modern Management

 Made a clear distinction between operating and managerial activities

 5 major functions of management:

∙ planning, coordinating, organizing, controlling, and  


 Developed 14 principles

◊ Behavioral School Perspective

o Hawthorne Studies 

 Conducted by Elton Mayo & associates at Western Electric  (1927-1935)

∙ Illumination study of changes in workplace lighting  

unexpectedly affected both the control group & the  

experimental group of production employees

∙ Group Study- the effects of a piecework incentive  

plan on production workers

o Workers established informal levels of  We also discuss several other topics like What is transpiration explain?

acceptable individual output

∙ Interview Program

o Confirmed the importance of human behavior  

in the work place

o Human Relations Approach 

 Grew out of the Hawthorne Studies

 Proposed that workers respond primarily to the social  context of work

 Abraham Maslow (psychologist)

∙ Advanced a theory that employees are motivated by  hierarchy of needs that they seek to satisfy Don't forget about the age old question of How much input, y, is produced for any given amount of factor inputs?

 Douglas McGregor 

∙ Proposed Theory X and Theory Y concepts of  

managerial beliefs about people and work

◊ Contingency Management Perspective

o Contingency Theorists- researchers who focus on determining  the best management approach for a given situation  

o Situational Approach 

 2 types of management systems:

∙ mechanistic- works well in stable environment

∙ organic- works well in innovative environment

Chapter 2

Environment of Organizations We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of stratification?

◊ The Internal Environment: Includes the factors that affect its  performance from within its boundaries

o Mission- its purpose or reason for being

o Management & Culture: managers are responsible for the  organization’s performance as they develop the visionary  mission, strategies, and plans to achieve success

 Organizational Culture- consists of the values, beliefs, and  assumptions about appropriate behavior that members of  an organization share

 o Resources- human, financial, physical, and information; used to  achieve the organization’s mission and objectives

 o Structure-the way in which an organization groups its resources  to accomplish its mission

 o System Process- the technology used to transform inputs into  outputs to make and deliver products and services

  Inputs- organization’s resources that are transformed into  products or services

  Transformation- the conversion of inputs into outputs

  Outputs- the products or services offered to customers   Feedback- provides a means of control to ensure that the  inputs and transformation process are producing the  

desired results

◊ Task Environment Components 

o Customers- business success is based on customer relationships  and providing the products customer want

o Competition- organizations must compete for customers o Suppliers- organizations buy resources from suppliers

o Labor force/unions- the employees of an organization have a  direct effect on its performance

o Shareholders- the owners of a corporation influence  


◊ General Environment Components 

o Society- determines what are acceptable business practices o Technology- has changed the speed and the manner in which  organizations conduct and transact business

o The economy- no organization has control over economic growth, inflation, interest rates, foreign exchange rate, and so on

o Governments- national, state and local governments all set laws  and regulations that businesses must obey

◊ How Companies adjust to their Environment 

o Info Management in organizations

 Boundary spanners

 Environmental scanning- searching the environment for  important events or issues that might affect the firm

 Information systems

o Strategic Response

 Maintaining the status quo, altering the current strategy, or adopting a new strategy

o Mergers, Acquisitions, Alliances

 Firms combine (merge), purchase (acquisition), or form  new venture partnerships or alliances with another firm  

◊ Ethical and Social Environment 

o Individual Ethics & Social Responsibility

 The classical view: view that the management’s only social responsibility is to Maximize profit

 Socioeconomic View: managements social responsibility  goes well beyond the making of profits to include  

protecting & improving society’s welfare

o Social Responsibility & Organizations

 Social Responsibility- the conscious effort to operate in a  manner that creates a win-win situation for all stakeholders  Areas of social responsibility

∙ Stakeholders

∙ The natural environment

∙ The general social welfare

 Organizational Shareholders

∙ People and organizations directly affected by the  

behaviors of an organization and that have a stake in

its performance

Chapter 3

The Global Environment

◊ Classifying Businesses 

o Global Business- the buying and selling of goods and services  among different countries

o Global Village- refers to companies conducting business  worldwide without boundaries

◊ Managing Different Forms 

o Domestic business- conducts business in only one country  International Company- an organization based primarily in  one country but transacts business in other countries

o Multinational Corporation (MNC)- an organization that has  ownership in operations in two or more countries

o Foreign Company (foreign subsidiary)

 Subsidiary- a company owned and controlled by another  company, making up a combined company, called the  

holding company

o Transnational Company

 A type of MNC that eliminates artificial geographical  

barriers without having a real single national headquarters ◊ Managing Foreign Trade 

o Trade Barriers

 Dumping- selling products in one country at a high profit  and selling in another country at a loss with the intention  

of driving out competition

 Protectionism- trade barriers to protect domestic  

companies and their workers from foreign completion

o World Trade Organization (WTO)

 An international organization dedicated to global free trade o Trade Agreements

 6 major trade agreements around the globe

Chapter 4

Decision Making and Problems

◊ Types of Decisions 

o Programmed Decisions 

 A decision that is a fairly structured decision or recurs with  some frequency or both

∙ Ex. Starting your car in the morning

o Non-programmed Decisions 

 A decision that is relatively unstructured and occurs much  less often a programmed decision

∙ Ex. Choosing a vacation destination

◊ Conditions for Decision Making 

o Certainty- know the outcome of each alternative in advance  Can take quick action

o Risk- do not know the exact outcome of each alternative in  advance but can assign probabilities to each outcome

o Uncertainty- lack of information or knowledge makes the  outcome of each alternative unpredictable

 Cannot accurately determine probabilities

◊ Rational Decision Making- Classical Model 

o Maximizers- tend to make rational decisions

 Taking their time and weighing a wide range of options  before choosing

◊ Behavioral Aspects of Decision Making 

o Bounded Rationality 

 Decision makers are limited by their values and  

unconscious reflexes, skills, and habits

o Satisficing 

 The tendency to search for alternatives only until one is  found that meets some minimum standard of sufficiency to resolve the problem

o Coalition 

 A positive or negative political force in decision making  which consists of an informal alliance of individuals or  

groups formed to achieve a goal

o Intuition 

 An innate belief about something without conscious  


o Escalation of commitment 

 Staying with a decision even when it appears to be wrong o Risk Propensity 

 The extent to which a decision maker is willing to gamble  when making a decision

◊ Group and Team Decision Making 

o Forms of group decision making

 Interacting group or team

∙ Consists of an existing group or newly formed team  

interacting and then making a decision

 Delphi groups

∙ Developing a consensus of expert opinion from a  

panel of experts who individually contribute through  

a moderator

 Nominal groups

∙ The process of generating and evaluating  

alternatives using a structured voting method

Essay questions from last spring (NOT on the test but good  guidance as to what he will ask)

1. 5pts How do managers learn how to manage? Ch.1

2. 5pts Summarize the classical school perspective to  


3. 10pts Discuss the mechanism through which companies adapt  to their environment  

4. 5pts When does group decision making make sense?

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