Exam 2/Chapter 4 Study Guide
Exam 2/Chapter 4 Study Guide Anthro 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro 101 at Washington State University taught by Erin Thornton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology (Anthro 101) in Arts and Sciences at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chicxulub Impact event 200mya first mammals 65mya first primates The KT boundary separates the “age of reptiles” (dinosaurs) and the “age of mammals” Flowering plants World is about 4 billion yrs old Primate Timeline: 1st primates (60 mya) Apes (Miocene; 20+mya) African great apeshominin split (58 mya) Hominins (late miocene/early pliocene; 78 mya) Time periods/Epoach Paleocene (7060 mya) Eocene: (6030 mya): first undisputed primates Oligocene: (3025 mya) Miocene (255 mya): Apes Pliocene (52.5 mya): Hominins, first stone tool use Pleistocene (2.5 mya12000 BP): ice age Holocene (12000 BPnow) Lower Paleolithic (2.5mya 250000BP) Paleoanthropology Methods Excavation and recovery: Fossil: organic material that is mineralized (remains; imprints) Artifacts: objects that have been made/altered by hominins Ecofacts: natural plant & animal remains of human activity Dating Methods (How does an anthropologists get a date?) Relative Dating: older or younger by comparison Stratigraphy and the Law of Superstition one s lower into the soil is older than the ones higher Absolute Dating (Chronometric Dating): actual date Radiocarbon ( C) Dating: <50,000yrs Organics Radioactive clock Decay starts at death (Half life=5730 yrs) Loss of electrons over time to date time of death PotassiumArgon Dating: “Radioactive Clock” 40 40 K Ar Volcanic Rocks Build up of argon in the fossils Half life=1.3 billion yrs 200,000bya Thermoluminescence Dating: <200,000yrs ago Lithics (stone tool): if heat treated Sediments (caves) ID fake ceramics (older it is the more it glows when you heat it) Primate analogy Genetics African Origins: All hominin origins come for africa Mainly east and south East: Volcanic stone; Olduvai Gorge, Great Rift Valley South: Limestone Molecular Clock Dates divergence based on # of mutations that have accrued Background mutations occur at a constant rate The First Hominins Human Origins: (How we became anatomically modern? Vs. How we became behaviorally modern? Answer: anatomically) Intersection of Physical Anthropology and Archaeology Behaviorally modern? When did we first become “Human”? (and) What defines “Humanity”? Economic behaviors (trade/interaction) Social behaviors (art/music, language, shelter/basecamp, religion, marriage/altruism) Cognition (cooperation, tool use/production, hunting/scavenging/cooking, clothing) Company Until very recently (40,000 BP) Multiple bipedal hominins roamed the landscape at the same time Brains or Bipedalism first? Original expectation: Apelike bodies and large brains Piltdown Hoax (1912): completely debunked in 1953 Current Evidence: Small Brains on top of bipedal bodies First hominin discovered in the 1920s by Raymond Dart: Taung Child Anatomy of Bipedalism Bipedalism leaves its signature on the skeleton from head to toe (literally) Foramen Magnum: more anterior Spinal Column: more curved & Sshaped Pelvis: wider/broadened, more bowl shaped Angle of femur & knee: Longer legs vs. arms; femur angles to knee Foot: adducted hallux (nonopposable); shorter toes; arched; heel strike/toeoff step Laetoli Footprints (Tanzania) 3.6mya Volcanic ash (KAr dating) 23 individuals Modern gait Australopithecus Afarensis Why? (What selective pressures favored it?) Running/stamina; wading; patchy resources (foraging); flexibility (trees and ground); frees the hands (food, infants, tools/production); visual surveillance; cooler (less solar radiation); scrambling over uneven terrain Consequences: More visible to predators; slower; lower back; knee & circulatory problems; more difficult childbirth Candidates for the first Hominins: Australopithecines Sahelanthropus sp. (~7 mya) Orrorin sp. (~6 mya) Ardipithecus sp (~4.5 mya) Gracile Australopithecines (4.22 mya) Genus: Australopithecus Approx. 6 species East and South Africa (mainly) Laetoli Footprints Lucy: 1974 by Donald Johanson <5ft tall Retain some arboreal adaptations (longer arms, curved hand bones) Evolved into Hominins Robust Australopithecines (2.51 mya) Genus: Paranthropus Approx. 3 species East and South Africa (mainly) Specialized Diet (tubers, nuts?, grasses) Large molars Sagittal Crest (jaw muscles that attach to the top of the head) Flared Zygomatics Face Lower Evolutionary Dead end Did Australopithecines use and make tools? (probably YES) Stone tools (with little to no modification) Any other materials would have decayed and we wouldn’t know Based on Great Ape abilities Dikika, Ethiopia (3.4 mya) McPherron et al. (2010) Nature Lomekwi 3 West Turkana Kenya (3.3 mya) S Harmand et at. Nature 521, 310315 (2015) Origin of the Genus Homo Homo habilis (2.51.6 mya) East Africa Similar To Australopithecines, but Smaller teeth Slightly larger brain (650750cc) Temporal overlap with Australopithecines (Habited earth at the same time) Earliest found use of tools why they are in genus homo Losing arboreal adaptations The Archaeological Record Begins 2.5 mya World’s earliest stone tools East Africa Oldowan Tool Tradition Hammerstones, Choppers & Flakes, Cores Take core and use hammer to break of flakes (which were also used as a sharp tool) then the core is shaped from the flake scars. Hunter vs Scavengers Primate Behavior intelligence, cooperation, communication Order of cut marks and tooth marks on bone Bite marks first then stone tool marks = scavengers (we got there after larger carnivores) Tool marks before tooth marks = hunters (most likely small game) Base Camps? DK1 Site (Olduvai Gorge) “Living Site”? Stone circle Associated with animal bones and stone tools Possible Hut? Movement of stone by water? Summary Slide for Hominin timeline Bipedal Tool Production Hunting = small/medium game, large? Cooperation = likely Food sharing at home base = maybe Homo Erectus (1.8 mya 150000 BP) Overlaps with homo habilis Africa and Eurasia Fully bipedal (longer legs and shorter arms) Tall (modern body prop.) Less body hair? Maybe Using things like fire H. Ergaster: african/proceeded Erectus & those who moved to asia evolved into erectus Cranial Capacity (1000cc) Endocast available Increase in Broca’s area related to language Low, sloping Forehead Heavy bow ridge (supraorbital torus) Smaller teeth/jaws (but Ig. vs. Anatomically modern humans [AMH]) No chin Sagittal ridge/Kleel Nuchal torus Slightly prognathic “Nariokotome Boy” (discovered 1984) Kenya 1.6 mya Nearly complete skeleton (911 yrs old; 5’3” at death) More protein = more height = more meat Hunting? Most likely due to 1000cc brain capacity and nitrogen in bones But not large game Cooking? Fire? Zao Cao Chien site Wonderwork Cave, S. Africa ~1mya Oldest known site for fire Communication? inconclusive on there way Handedness Broca’s area (well developed) Hypoglossal Canal (larger but not quite there) African Diaspora (at least 1.8 mya) Why not earlier? Due to morphology (better structured for travel) Following prey animals Movement to colder climates due to use of fire Dmanisi, Georgia (1.8 mya) Earliest foundings for homo erectus in medieval sites Asian erectus sites Java (1.7 mya) **via land bridge China (1 mya) Zhoukoudian Earliest sites of fire Europe (1.2 mya) Technology & Behavior Lower Paleolithic Tool Traditions Oldowan (appears 2.5 mya) Acheulean (appears 1.6 mya) More effort more planning Thinking before striking “Mental Template” Teaching and experimentation Acheulean Tool Kit Handaxes (most used), Cleaver (most used), Scraper, Flake Core Used for butchering and wood cutting Homo Heidelbergensis or :Archaic Homo Sapiens” 800000200000BP Africa, Asia, and Europe Transitional Between Homom Erectus and Modern Humans Persistence of Oldowan & like technologies Earliest H. Erectus (east african & Dananisi) used oldowan Movius line (divided the H Erectus placement in the world) Acheulean in africa MidNorthern area non acheulean (likely to have migrated before Acheulean) East asian chopper tool complex Bifaces are rare Cruder and smaller oldowan techniques Multiple waves of migration and back migration could have intermingled the tech Neanderthals/Modern Humans Pleistocene epoch Glaciation helped hominins across land bridges to europe and south asia Homo Neanderthalensis Overlapped with homosapiens First fossil found was sick and deformed ergo the misinformed retardation We did not evolve from neanderthals 12500030000 BP Middle paleolithic Europe/Middle east Cold adapted Most likely not evolved from africa Evolved from asian H Heidel The “Old man” of La Chapelle Cranial (and post) facial anatomy Low receding forehead Large brow ridges Large nasal aperture Projecting “Puffy” midface No chin Retromolar gap Large cranial capacity (1500cc) Occipital bun Postcranial Anatomy Shorter and broader and more robust Heavily muscled Lots of trauma (= large game) Calturn: Stone Tool Tech Mousterian Tool Tradition: 12500040000 BP Retouched flakes Levallois technique ( prepared cores) Hafting (composite tools) Teeth as tools Ground down enamel Working hide Culture: Diet/Hunting Large game Hafted spears Body trauma = close range hunting Embedded points in boe of animals Stable Isotope Analysis High nitrogen count (hypercarnivore?) Fire/Base Camp Caves as base camps (maybe open air, harder to find) Highly mobile, lowdensity populations Clothing Boxgrove, England ~500,000 BP Acheulean Bifaces Evidence of large game hunting and butchery Homo Heidelbergensis Not enough evidence for a base camp Schoningen Cawmanus ~400000 BP World's oldest wooden spear Meat drying evidence
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