Psych 101, Exam 1 Study Guide Chapt. 1 & 2
Psych 101, Exam 1 Study Guide Chapt. 1 & 2 PSY-101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cynthia Cao on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-101 at San Diego State University taught by Dr. Laumakis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at San Diego State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Psychology 101 Chapters 1 & 2 Study online at quizlet.com/_2j4teb 1. ablation technique involved destroying 14. astrology which uses a chart of the heavens called parts of the brain of living a horoscope to predict everything from animals and then determining the weather to romantic relationships. whether some functioning was 15. autonomic The branch of the peripheral nervous lost following this surgery. nervous system system that controls involuntary 2. Above the cerebellum is forebrain processes within the body, such as the ___________, which is contractions in the digestive tract, and divided into two regions: activity of glands. the subcortical structures 16. axon Skinny tubelike structure of a neuron that and the cerebral cortex extends from the cell body, and which 3. acetylcholine a neurotransmitter that relays sends messages to other neurons. messages from motor neurons to muscles, enabling movement 17. basic research occurs in university laboratories, focusing on collecting data to support (or refute) 4. action potential The spike in electrical energy theories that passes through the axon of a neuron, the purpose of which 18. behaviorism The scientific study of observable behavior is to convey information. 19. B.F. Skinner insisted on studying behaviors that could 5. adrenal glands Part of the endocrine system be observed and documented instead of involved in responses to stress looking at mental processes such as as well as the regulation of salt memory and emotion balance. 20. biological uses knowledge about underlying 6. Agonists ex: nicotine boost normal neurotransmitter perspective physiology to explain behavior and mental activity (How do my eyes processes. Psychologists who take this 7. all-or-none A neuron either fires or does not and brain work approach explore how biological factors, fire; action potentials are always together to sense such as hormones, genes, and the brain, the same strength. and perceive this are involved in behavior and cognition. 8. amygdala A pair of almond-shaped tree?) structures in the limbic system 21. biological The subfield of psychology concerned that processes basic emotions, psychology with understanding how the brain and such as fear and aggression, as other biological systems influence human well as associated memories behavior 9. Antagonists block normal neurotransmitter 22. biopsychosocial Explains behavior through the interaction activity by blocking receptors perspective of biological, psychological, and social ex: curare- the paralyzing (What biological, factors. poison used on blowgun darts psychological, ex: botox- paralyzes facial and social factors muscles influence the way I manage my 10.applied research focuses on changing behaviors and outcomes-often leads to allergy to tree pollen?) real world applications 23. Broca's Area An area of the cortex that is critical for 11.association areas Regions of the cortex that integrate information from all speech production. over the brain, allowing us to 24. cell body The region of the neuron that includes a learn, think in abstract terms, nucleus containing DNA, protein- and carry out other intellectual producing mechanisms, and other tasks. structures that nourish the cell. 12.Astrocytes type of glial cell that supports 25. cerebellum Structure located behind the brain stem communication between neurons that is responsible for muscle as well coordination and balance; Latin for "little brain." 13.astrocytes type of glial cell that restores the barrier between the brain 26. cerebrum The largest part of the brain, includes and blood virtually all parts of the brain except primitive brain structures; has two distinct hemispheres. 27.classical responding to stimuli or events in the 38.Deterioration of neurons that Parkinson's disease conditioning environment produce dopamine is linked to _________, an incurable disorder 28.cognitive explores physiological explanations for neuroscience mental processes, searching for that causes trembling of the hands, arms, legs, and face, and perspective connections between behavior and the human nervous system, especially the brain difficulty with movement, coordination, and balance. 29.cognitive examines mental processes that direct 39.Dopamine also plays a key role in reinforcement, attention, perspective behavior, focusing on concepts such as (How am I able thinking, memory, and language learning through and regulating body movements to remember where this tree 40.double-blind study Type of study in which is in the neither the researchers forest?) who are administering 30.common sense ability that helps us survive and adapt the independent variable nor the participants based on casual observations; should not take place of scientific things know what type of treatment is being given 31.confounding A type of extraneous variable that changes 41.dualism the body and mind variable in sync with the independent variable, making it difficult to discern which one is interact as two separate entities causing changes in the dependent variable. 42.electrostatic pressure causes similarly charged 32.corpus The thick band of nerve fibers connecting ions to spread apart and callosum the right and left cerebral hemispheres; oppositely charged ions principal structure for information shared to move toward each between the two hemispheres. other (like the behavior 33.correlational A type of descriptive research examining of magnets) method the relationships among variables. 43.empirical evidence data from systematic 34.critical thinking The process of weighing various pieces of observations or evidence, synthesizing them, and experiments evaluating and determining the contributions 44.empiricism we know reality through of each. our perceptions and we 35.Culture The relative importance of cultural learn through our influences on behaviors, personality sensory experiences characteristics, and so on 45.endocrine system The communication 36.dendrites Tiny, branchlike fibers extending from the system that uses glands cell body that receive messages from other to convey messages by neurons and send information in the releasing hormones into direction of the cell body. the bloodstream 37.descriptive Research methods that describe and 46.Endorphins group of naturally research explore behaviors, although the findings produced opioids that cannot definitively state cause-and-effect regulate the secretion of relationships other neurotransmitters 47.evolutionary perspective behaviors and mental (Is my fear of heights inherited? processes are shaped Could it have contributed to my by the forces of survival?) evolution based on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and the principles of natural selection. 48.examples of applied research helped generate behavioral interventions for children with sensory issues and autism 49.Examples of basic -human sensory abilities 65.hippocampus A pair of seahorse-shaped structures research -trauma located in the limbic system; primarily -memory responsible for creating new memories. 50.experiment A controlled procedure that involves 66.hormones Chemical messengers released into the careful examination through the use of bloodstream that influence mood, scientific observation and/or manipulation cognition, appetite, and many other of variables (measurable characteristic). processes and behaviors. 51.extraneous A variable in the environment or of the 67.humanistic human nature is essentially positive and variable participants that could unintentionally perspective people are naturally inclined to grow and influence the outcome of the study. (Will tending to change for the better 52.frontal lobe The area of the cortex that organizes and nurturing this tree help me information among the other lobes of the brain and is responsible for higher-level reach my fullest potential?) cognitive functions and behavior 68.humanistic An approach suggesting that human 53.functionalism An early school of psychology that (how does resting focused on the function of thought psychology nature is by and large positive, and the human direction is toward growth. under this tree processes, feelings, and behaviors and promote my long- how they help us adapt to the 69.hypothalamus A small structure located below the term survival?) environment. thalamus that maintains a constant internal environment within a healthy 54.GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter (it puts the brakes on firing) range; helps regulate sleep-wake cycles, sexual behavior, and appetite 55.glial cells Cells that support, nourish, and protect 70.inferential allow us to make inferences and determine neurons; produce myelin that covers statistics the probability of certain events occurring axons. 71.interneurons A type of neuron that resides exclusively 56.Glutamate excitatory neurotransmitter, so its main job is to kick neurons into action (make in the brain and spinal cord; acts as a bridge connecting sensory and motor them fire) neurons. 57.glutamate's its strokes overactivity may 72.In the brain, arousal and sleep norepinephrine is be associated with involved in 58.glutamate's schizophrenia regulating underactivity is 73.introspection the examination of one's own conscious theorized to be involved in some activities of the symptoms of 59.goal #1: describe report what is observed using the findings to help plan future research 60.goal #2: explain organize and understand observations and behaviors; to make sense of what was observed 61.goal #3: predict predict behaviors and outcomes of what will happen in the future 62.goal #4: control use research findings to shape, modify, and control behavior 63.goals of -to describe psychology -to explain -to predict -to control behavior 64.hindbrain controls most bodily functions and contains the cerebellum, the area involved in fine motor function: Includes areas of the brain responsible for fundamental life-sustaining processes 74.Known to play a role in problems with Dopamine 82. motor cortex A band of tissue toward the rear of drug use. Repeated use of drugs the frontal lobes that works with other overstimulates and damages the brain regions to plan and execute functioning of the neurons in the brain's voluntary movements reward circuit, theoretically making it 83. motor neurons Neurons specialized for transmitting more difficult to enjoy non-drug-related information from the central nervous activities that would otherwise be system to other parts of the body, rewarding. such as muscles and glands. 75.lateralization The idea that each 84. myelin sheath Fatty substance that insulates the cerebral axon and speeds the transmission of hemisphere neural messages processes certain 85. naturalistic A type of descriptive research that types of information and observation studies participants in their natural environment through systematic excels in certain activities. observation. 76.limbic system A horseshoe- 86. Natural selection The process through which inherited shaped collection traits in a given population either of structures that increase in frequency because they are adaptive or decrease in frequency regulates emotions and basic drives because they are maladaptive. like hunger, and 87. Nature and Nurture The relative weight of heredity and aids in the environment in relation to behaviors, creation of personality characteristics, etc. memories 88. nerves Bundles of neurons that carry 77.medulla A structure that information to and from the central oversees vital nervous system; provide functions, communication between the central including nervous system and the muscles, breathing, glands, and sensory receptors. digestion, and heart rate. 89. neurogenesis The generation of new neurons in the brain 78.The membrane is impermeable to positive sodium 90. neurons The building blocks of the nervous ________________ and ______________ ions and negative (it does not allow these ions to enter or protein ions system that transmit electrical and chemical signals in the body. exit) 91. neuroplasticity The brain's ability to heal, grow new 79.meninges which envelop and protect the brain connections, and reorganize in order to adapt to the environment. and spinal cord 92. neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that neurons 80.microglia type of glial cell that multiplies and use to communicate at the synapse. secretes 93. Norepinephrine has a help prepare the body for stressful substances to variety of effects in situations. defend the brain the nervous system, from infection and but one of its most inflammation important functions is to 81.midbrain The part of the brain stem 94. objective free of opinions, beliefs, expectations, involved in levels and values of arousal; 95. occipital lobe The area of the cortex in the back of responsible for generating the head that processes visual information. movement patterns in 96. operant conditioning a type of learning that occurs when response to behaviors are rewarded or punished sensory input. 97. operational definition The precise manner in which a variable of interest is defined and measured 98. parasympathetic The division of the autonomic 112.reflex arc An automatic response to a sensory nervous system nervous system that orchestrates stimulus, such as the "knee jerk" the "rest-and-digest" response to reaction; a simple pathway of bring the body back to a noncrisis communication from sensory neurons mode. through interneurons in the spinal cord 99. parietal lobe The area of the cortex that receives back out through motor neurons. and processes sensory information 113.Released in Endorphins such as touch, pressure, response to pain, temperature, and spatial orientation. thereby blocking pain receptor sites 100.phrenology An early approach to explaining the to prevent the pain functions of the brain by trying to message from being link the physical structure of the sent. skull with a variety of characteristics. 114.reliability consistency of a measure 101.pituitary gland The pea-sized gland located in the 115.replicate To repeat an experiment, generally center of the brain just under the with a new sample and/or other hypothalamus; secretes hormones changes to the procedures, the goal that dictate the release of hormones of which is to provide further support by other glands; known as the for the findings of the first study master gland. 116.resting potential The electrical potential of a cell "at 102.plays a central role Glutamate rest"; the state of a cell when it is not in learning and activated. memory 117.reticular formation A network of neurons running through 103.polarity The difference in the charges inside the midbrain that controls levels of and outside of the neuron arousal and quickly analyzes sensory information on its way to the cortex. 104.pons A hindbrain structure that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and 118.reuptake Process by which neurotransmitters coordinate movement between the are reabsorbed by the sending right and left sides of the body. terminal bud 105.potassium channels allow ions to flow out of the axon 119.Schwann cells type of glial cells that makes the 106.pseudopsychology An approach to explaining and myelin that envelops axons predicting behavior and events that 120.scientific method The process scientists use to conduct appears to be psychology, but has research, which includes a continuing no empirical or objective evidence to cycle of exploration, critical thinking, support it. and systematic observation. 107.psychoanalytic behavior and personality are 121.sensory neurons Neurons specialized for receiving perspective influenced by the conflict between information about the environment (how do your feelings one's inner desires (such as sexual from the sensory systems and about the size of this and aggressive impulses) and the transmitting this information to the tree relate to your expectations of society brain for further processing. unconscious aggression toward 122.Serotonin a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in controlling appetite, your father?) aggression, and mood, and also 108.Psychology the scientific study of behavior and regulates sleep and breathing mental processes 123.sociocultural suggests that we must examine the 109.psychomythology the collective body of misinformation perspective influences of social interactions and about human nature (How do cultures culture, including the roles we play 110.Rasmussen's a rare disease that causes severe differ in their attitudes toward encephalitis swelling in one side of the brain, impairing movement and thinking and nature?) causing seizures that come as often 124.sodium channels allow ions to flow into the axon as every few minutes 125.sodium-potassium restore proper ion concentration 111.receptor sites The location where neurotransmitters pumps attach on the receiving side of the synaptic gap. 126.somatic The branch of the parasympathetic nervous 142. variable ins -personality characteristics "related to the system that includes sensory nerves and psychology -cognitive characteristics body" nervous motor nerves; gathers information from -# of siblings in a family system sensory receptors and controls the skeletal -gender muscles responsible for voluntary -socioeconomic status movement. etc. 127.somatosensory A band of tissue running parallel to the 143. Wernicke's area A region of the cortex that plays a cortex motor cortex that receives and integrates pivotal role in language sensory information from all over the body. comprehension 128.split-brain A rare procedure used to disconnect the 144. what is the resting -70 mV operation right and left hemispheres by cutting the voltage? corpus callosum. 145. what is the threshold -55 mV 129.stem cells Cells responsible for producing new potential? neurons. 146. what was the first acetylcholine 130.structuralism An early school of psychology that used neurotransmitter (Describe in introspection to determine the structure discovered? detail each and most basic elements of the mind 147. Who is the "father of Wilhelm Wundt element of this psychology?" tree, including color, shape, size, etc.) 131.The subcortical houses the limbic system, whose region structures are involved in memory, emotion, and motivational drives 132.sympathetic The division of the autonomic nervous nervous system system that mobilizes the "fight-or-flight" response to stressful or crisis situations. 133.synapse The tiny gap between a terminal bud of one axon and a neighboring dendrite of the next neuron; junction between neurons where communication occurs. 134.synaptic small membrane sacs that contain vesicles neurotransmitters 135.temporal lobes The area of the cortex that processes auditory stimuli and language. 136.thalamus A structure in the limbic system that processes and relays sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex 137.theories Synthesizes observations in order to explain phenomena and guide predictions to be tested through research 138.thyroid gland Gland of the endocrine system that regulates the rate of metabolism by secreting thyroxin. 139.too little causes paralysis acetylcholine 140.Too much leads to muscle spasms acetylcholine 141.validity truthfullness of a measure
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