Study Guide for Exam 2 (ZOOL 4380)
Study Guide for Exam 2 (ZOOL 4380) Zool 4380
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa C Escapita on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Zool 4380 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Kristin Gosselink in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Physiology in Bio/Zoology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Study Guide 2 (Zoology 4380) Chapters 6-7 Central Nervous System Organization Afferent neurons: Send signals to the brain from the body. (Sensory receptors such as mechanoreceptors and photoreceptors). Efferent neurons: Sends signals away from the brain to the rest of the body. (Effector organs such as muscles and glands). Central Nervous System: Receives input from the afferent neurons which then activates interneurons (Brain and ganglia). The interneuron then activates the efferent neurons to send output signals. Peripheral Nervous System contains: Autonomic pathway and the Sensory Pathway. Autonomic pathway has three distinctions: Sympathetic Parasympathetic Enteric These pathways are involuntary such as heartbeat, breathing, digesting and etc. Voluntary pathway (Motor) is moving our leg forward to climb up the stairs. Spinal Cord Anatomy: Gray matter: Is the unmyelinated area, it has cell bodies. White matter: Is the myelinated area. Spinal Cord anatomy continued: Cervical is closer to the head and neck region Thoracic is the middle area of the spine Lumbar is the lower area of the spine Sacral is near the buttocks and the coccyx. (SEE Figure below) Brain Anatomy: Gyri: Folds Sulcus: Grooves Four lobe acronym (FPOT) Frontal: Decision Making Parietal: Sensory and motor Temporal: Auditory and smell Occipital: Vision Important area CEREBELLUM: fine movements Regions of the Brain: Hypothalamus: Important for feeding/sexual behavior/hormones/heart rate Thalamus: Sensory integration Amygdala: Emotion/fear Basal Ganglia: Movements Hippocampus: Memory Cerebrum: Information Processing Olfactory Bulb: Sense of smell Accessory olfactory bulb: Detection of pheromones. Tectum (optic lobes): Processes auditory, touch and visual information Tegmentum: Response reflex to touch, visual and auditory information. Medulla oblongata: Rhythmic breathing and regulates heart rate and blood pressure. Pons: Regulates breath holding and integrates among areas Cerebellum: Fine movements Highlighted means part of the Limbic System. Peripheral Nervous System: 1. Dual Innervation between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. These are involuntary systems. Somatic nervous system is voluntary (motor pathway) Controls movement Release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine Usually under conscious control Effect on the muscle is always excitatory Monosynaptic in the CNS Axon splits into a cluster of axon terminals at the NMJ Animal behaviors: Reflex behaviors Involuntary and simple Rhythmic behaviors Underlie locomotion, breathing and hear rate Central Pattern Generators/ neuronal networks Voluntary behaviors Most complex and diverse Plasticity and Learning and memory Invertebrate: They learn by habituation which is once the subject is given the stimulus so many times it no longer has a strong effect on the subject. Caused by inactivation of Ca+2 channels Another type of learning is sensitization which is the increase of response to a gentle stimulus after being exposed to a strong stimulus. Which is caused by a change in the presynaptic axon terminal, here is the breakdown: o Serotonin released by facilitating interneuron o Binds to receptors o Activation of G-proteins o Inactivation of K channels o AP duration o Ca 2+ influx o neurotransmitter release by sensory neuron Vertebrate: Hippocampus is important for long term memory but memory is stored in the cerebrum. Long term potentiation: repetitive stimulation of hippocampal region leads to an increase in the response of the postsynaptic neuron. Sensory Systems: 1. Telereceptors: Detect distant stimuli (Vision and Hearing) 2. Interoreceptors: Detect stimuli inside the body (blood pressure and blood oxygen) 3. Chemoreceptors: Detect chemical stimuli (Detects different chemical concentrations of our blood and what we eat and smell). 4. Mechanoreceptors: Detect mechanical stimuli (sound and touch) and transform it to electrical signals. 5. Electroreceptors: Detect electrical stimuli (electric fields) 6. Magnetoreceptors: Ability to detect magnetic fields 7. Thermoreceptors: Detect temperature 8. Photoreceptors: Ability to detect visible light Signaling types of these receptors: Listed above. Not too sure how to answer this one. Subgroups of receptors: Olfactory uses chemoreception. Auditory uses mechanoreception. Touch and pressure also uses mechanoreception. Visual uses photoreception. Snakes use thermoreception to detect their enemies. Migratory animals use magnetoreception. Olfaction signaling: All use GPCRs that are G-alpha-s and cAMP mechanisms The diversity and breath of our ability to sense in this way comes from odorant-receptor binding specificity. *Each olfactory neuron expresses only one odorant receptor protein. *Each receptor can recognize more than one odorant. *Each odorant can stimulate more than on receptor. Gustatory Signaling: Hearing and Balance: Hearing: Detect and interpret sound waves Balance: Equilibrium, detects the position of the body relative to gravity. Hair cells and how they work: The stereocilia sense the change in direction of the fluid. (Mechanosensitive ion channels which lead to movement changing the ion permeability then the ions change membrane potentials. A change in membrane potential cause neurotransmitter release. Stereocilia deflect, pulls the membrane which then pulls open channels or pushes them closed. K + channels are under the cilia. Tip links connect the stereocilia Kinocelium senses everything. Movement of Hair cells: At rest K + binds to the hair cell. (TRP channel is activated) Ca +2 channels are open on the body of the hair cell A neurotransmitter is released and binds to one receptor on the primary afferent neuron. At rest the hair cell is partially depolarized When depolarized all the K+ ion flood in through the stereocilia Several calcium channels are open which allows calcium to bind All of the neurotransmitters are released and bind to the receptors on the primary afferent neuron. When hyperpolarized the hair cell doesn’t have many K + ions coming into the hair cell Ca +2 channels are closed No neurotransmitters are being released. Inner ear anatomy: Semicircular Canals Macula of the utricle Macula of the saccule **Macula contains the hair cells. In the macula: Otolith: Crystal like substance present in the ear that sense gravity and movement. Gelatinous matrix: Allows the hair cells to move freely. Hair cells: Contain all the receptors that detect the change in membrane potential. Supporting cells: Support the hair cell and keep it in place. Maculae detect linear acceleration and tilting. Cristae detect angular acceleration. Basilar Membrane has hair cell embedded in it which vibrates with sound waves and with high frequency at the proximal end. Stereocilia are embedded at the tectorial membrane. Cochlear duct filled with endolymph (high K+ and low Na+) Tympanic and vestibular ducts filled with perilymph (high Na+, low K+) A round window has a pressure valve. Visual system: The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum for humans is between 350- 750 nm. Phototransduction: **Activation comes from HYPERPOLARIZATION in the vertebrate photoreceptor. Structure of the eye and retina: Need to know for the eye: Lens Retina Fovea Optic Disk Need to know for retina:
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