6 Biotic Interactions
Biotic Factors (cont.)
III) Biotic Interaction limit Distributions (Other species)
a. Example Mussels Lough Ine, Ireland
b. To explain distributions transplant experiments
c. Herbivory form predation (urchins on algae marine systems) Sea urchins are at the bottom. And mussels
d. Herbivory also important tropical reefs
e. Predation from exotics can reduce range native spp. result extinction Mnaipulation exeperiment ( remove preadtor)
Australia small kangroos affected when red foxes are removed. 4Criteria consider before conclude predation mechanism
i. prey survive when transplanted when exclude predators ii. inverse correlation prey & predator (Algae vs Urchins) iii. predator able to kill prey in field and lab iv. prey shown to kill prey in transplant exp. to predator habitatWe also discuss several other topics like What will happen to the reaction rate if the concentration of a is halved?
Prey abundance can also influence distribution of predator
Can prey influence distribution of a predator?
Predator has to very specialized (seen in insects,) We also discuss several other topics like What did weeks v united states establish?
Specialist predator = monophagous
Many insect predators specialists – vertebrate not
Although specific plantinsect interaction
No clear evidence of positive correlation distribution plantanimal
2. Disease and Parasitism.
a. Pathogens may eliminate species
i. Chestnut blight Fungus introduced Asia w/ nursery stock
ii. Labyrinthula Seagrass wasting disease (slime mold; fungal pathogen)
iii. Hawaiian bird extinctions & retreat to highlands If you want to learn more check out What are the four major components of the central nervous system?
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a. Exploitation (Resource)
i. Plants Light, water, nutrients, pollinators
i. Allelopathy chemical defensestoxic secretions plants & animals
ii. Direct competition physical battles space, food, nest sites, mates etc.
c. Difficult to determine if distribution is a result of competition (>factors)
Checkerboard patterns tend to arrive from competition (fruit pigeons)
d. Competition minimized for nicheoverlap by diversification through natural selection Green 1 Chemical