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Rutgers Animal Science Study Guide Exam 1 September 30

by: elodie453

Rutgers Animal Science Study Guide Exam 1 September 30 11:067:142

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Study Guide for Friday's Exam
Animal Science
Prof. Rahman
Study Guide
animal, Science, Rutgers
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by elodie453 on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 11:067:142 at Rutgers University taught by Prof. Rahman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Animal Science in Animal Science at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Intro Lecture:   Have a basic understanding how the course is run and what the Animal Science major is  like  Animal Science Major Options: Laboratory Animal Science, Equine Science,  Companion Animal Science, Pre­vet/ Research, Production Animal Science.  Have an understanding on the different faculty of the Department of Animal Science  Larry S. Katz  Carey A. Williams  Michael L. Westendorf  Karyn Malinowski   Different acts and their importance    Importance of LGU   Morrill Act ­ 1862  Signed into law by Abraham Lincoln  Grants of federal land made to each state to establish colleges  First time college education available to the general public  Hatch Act ­ 1887  Established Agricultural Experiment Stations at each Land­Grant College  Scientific research in agriculture  Distinct mission compared to other public universities:  Non­formal or continuing education through extension programs  Research undertaken by experimental stations and other university centers  Different sources of meat   Chicken  Beef  Pork  Lamb/ Mutton  Veal   Chevron  Fish/Shellfish  General knowledge of each industry and compare/contrast (poultry, pork, beef.  Lamb/mutton)   Poultry   Chicken and Turkeys are nonruminants  Age at Slaughter  Broilers: 6­ 8 weeks  Turkeys: 6 months  Chicken meat was a luxury : By product of egg production  Pork  Pigs are nonruminants  Pigs grow rapidly: 6 months from birth to the packing plant  Beef  Ruminants: time grazing pasture  Relatively long gestation time  Single calf/ dam  Lamb/ Mutton  Sheeps are ruminants   Industry is strinking  Lamb 6­8 weeks of age for religious holidays  6­ 10 months of age at other times  Mutton may be several years old  Between 166­2015 we see the:  Rise Broilers (Which was a luxury)   Cattle has stayed leveled because cattle are now raised with more product  making enough.  Hogs have risen slowly  Turkeys have stayed leveled for the most part.  Importance and concept of vertical integration   Is the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally  operated by separate companies.  Less man hours due to improved technology and larger flock sizes  A reduction in the amount of feed due to continual discoveries in genetics and  nutrition  Dairy productions and consumptions   Fluid Milk  Butter  Fermented Products  Frozen Products   Dairy product classification:  Class 1: Fluid products (milk, cream, half & half)  Class 2: Manufactured products (cheese, butter, yogurt)  Milk standards based on quality & sanitation  All milk (fluid products) must be Grade A  Grade B can only be used in manufacturing non­fluid dairy products (cheese,  butter, etc)  Cow milk the major source   Industry concentrated in two regions  Great Lakes and New England  Southeast through to California  Milk Composition  88% Water  4.8% Lactose (Milk sugar)  3.3% Protein  3.8% Fat  0.1% Ash (Minerals) Animal Domestication:   Understanding and importance of animal domestication   That process by which a population of animals becomes adapted to humans and to the captive environment by some combination of genetic changes occurring over  generations and environmentally induced developmental events recurring during  each generation  Preadaptions of animal domestication  docility  generalist feeder  social  promiscuous or polygamous mating system  non­territorial  ecologically flexible  Stages of domestication  Loose ties between humans and animals, interbreeding with wild forms was common, and animals closely resembled wild forms   Humans control the breeding and prevent interbreeding with wild forms; Selection for small size,  small weapons and docility, reduced fear of humans and tolerance of  onfinement  Limited interbreeding of wild forms to increase size for greater meat production  but limited behavioral "regression" to the wild form  Selection for desired traits intensified and breeds were developed  Wild ancestors hunted to near extinction to "protect" the artificially selected  genetic stock  Relaxation of natural selection: more pronounced with modern intensive  agricultural practices.  Different genetic mechanisms influencing the domestication process   Inbreeding   results in increased homogeneity  Genetic Drift  genes may be fixed by chance in a small population  Artificial Selection   conscious or unconscious selection­goal oriented  Natural Selection in Captivity  all of the selection that cannot be ascribed to artificial selection  Relaxation of Natural Selection  some behaviors lose their adaptive significance in the captive environment (e.g., reproductive isolating mechanisms, food­and shelter­seeking,  predator avoidance)  Favorable vs unfavorable characteristics   Difference between domestication and fertilization, feralization  Feralization:   Domestication in reverse  Animals no longer subjected to artificial selection  natural selection pressures become more intense  It should be viewed as a process, whereby animals that have undergone  feralization are now considered wild animals  domestic animals still experiencing genetic change associated with  feralization can be referred to as feral animals  Domestication:   That process by which a population of animals becomes adapted to humans and to the captive environment by some combination of genetic changes occurring over  generations and environmentally induced developmental events recurring during  each generation  Fertilization: Animal Behavior (only the slides Dr. Katz covered in class):   Importance of the study of animal behavior   Practical or Economic reasons  Ethical or Welfare concerns  Evolutionary ­ Comparative perspective  Biological Stand­ins (models of humans) ­ use care in interpretation  Search for general laws (conceptual models)  Four questions of ethology (description and importance)   What   Involves arbitrary categorization of continuous events  Identify species “typical” behaviors  How: How is the behavior accomplished?   always multiple causes, and these operate at different levels of organization   genetics,   hormonal state  age  anatomy  injury  experience  environment  hunger,  epigenetics  How Come (Ontogeny)  ONTOGENY (individual) – What is it about the past experience or history of this individual that led to a behavior pattern  How Come (Phylogeny)  PHYLOGENY (Species) – What evolutionary history of the antecedents  of this species led to a particular behavior Animal Welfare:   What is the property status of animals?   Animals are still considered property. People have advocated to change the legal  status of dogs to living property.  Description of PETA  People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the largest animal rights  organization in the world.  Document/Organization, Status, Oversight by   Document/Organization  Animal Welfare Act   Rutgers University Animal Welfare Policy   Status  Federal Law   Internal Policy   Oversight By  USDA   Animal Care and Facilities Committee (ACFC)  Rutgers University Animal Welfare Policy  On September 1, 1985, the Executive Office of the President issued an Animal  Welfare Policy Governing the Use of Animals in Research, Instruction and  Demonstration.  The University Policy requires adherence to the Animal Welfare Act, the NIH  Guide and the PHS Policy. Most importantly, the University Policy applies to all  procedures using live vertebrate animals at the University regardless of funding  source or species.   The Animal Welfare Act and Regulations (general information)  Major regulations of the Animal Welfare Act include:  Animal dealers must be licensed before they can sell animals to research  institutions. Research facilities must be registered before they can purchase  animals for research.  Research facilities must keep records regarding the purchase, sale,  transportation, identification and disposition of dogs and cats.  USDA has established standards and record keeping requirements affecting the  purchase, handling, care and use of laboratory animals. The standards include  minimum requirements for: restraint, housing, feeding, watering, sanitation,  ventilation, separation by species, veterinary care and appropriate use of  anesthetic, analgesic or tranquillizer drugs. The regulations include cage size  and space requirements that differ in some cases from PHS recommendations  (see The Guide Chapter 2 Sec 3).  Research facilities must demonstrate annually that professionally acceptable  standards governing the care, treatment and use of animals are being followed.  Rutgers must file an annual report that states the number of animals used each  year, categorized by species and the level of pain and distress the animals  experienced.  USDA inspectors (veterinarians) must inspect each registered research facility at  least annually. Inspectors are accompanied by Laboratory Animal Services  personnel when they inspect University facilities. They have access to all animal  facilities housing animals covered by the Act.  Inspectors may confiscate or destroy animals found to be suffering as a result of  failure to comply with any provisions of the Act, if the animals are not on  experiment at the time.  Inspectors may take photographs of animal facilities.  Inspection of research facilities by law enforcement agencies is permitted, at  reasonable hours, to search for lost animals. In New Jersey, state and municipal  police have such authority. Animal control officers and humane society  representatives do not.  Violations of any provisions of the Act or of any of the rules, regulations or  standards established by USDA under the Act are subject to a civil fines for each  offense and each day such violations continue.  Definitely review Dr. Rahman’s notes!  The idea of Animal Welfare began 10,000 years ago▯ if we take care of our  animals,they will take care of us  Henry Bergh: founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to  Animals (ASPCA) in 1866  ASPCA: animal welfare, non­profit organization dedicated to preventing cruelty  to animals  Animal Rights organization: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)  Believe animals should not be used by humans in ANY capacity   Food, entertainment, research, etc.  Most Rights and Welfare organizations are private, non­profit, and are run mainly by volunteers. All also need money (as indicated by Google Search Results).  Five Freedoms: core concept in Animal Welfare  Originated in a UK government report in 1965 and refined by Farm  Animal Welfare Council  Widely used by welfare professional, especially as related to farm animal  care  Animal’s welfare needs met by following the five freedoms:  Freedom from Hunger and Thirst – by ready access to fresh water  and a diet to maintain full health and vigour.  Freedom from Discomfort – by providing an appropriate  environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area.  Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease – by prevention or rapid  diagnosis and treatment.  Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour – by providing sufficient  space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind.  Freedom from Fear and Distress – by ensuring conditions and  treatment which avoid mental suffering.  What can you (the students) do?  Join on campus groups  Get trained  Volunteer  Notice animals around you  Be a responsible pet owner  Have fun! Future of Animal Rights:   Different areas of focus of the animal science department  Dr. Larry Katz: Reproductive behavior in goats  Dr. Nick Bello: Neural control of feeding  Dr. Wendie Cohick: Breast cancer and mammary gland biology  Dr. Ken McKeever: Equine exercise physiology  Dr. Carey Williams: Pasture management and equine physiology   Dr. Carol Bagnell: Nursing and piglet development     Evolution of agriculture   Over 97% of US farms owned and operated by families.  Corporate farms = small percentage  Many of the country’s largest agricultural enterprises are family owned.  Since 2000, losing about 10­15 farms/year  Production increasing  Growing Population   Importance of biotechnology   Impact food availability, cost, and production  Biotech Categories:  Genomics  Cloning  Genetic Engineering  Vaccines  Pros and cons of cloning   Artificial Insemination – PERRY   Enos J. Perry▯ worked for RU  First observed AI in Denmark  1st U.S. Cooperative Breeding Org. in NJ in 1938  Published book in 1945  “Father of Artificial Insemination in US”  Increases the rate of genetic improvement of herd, breed, species  Select genetics of mating animals  Disease/injury management  Commonly used: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs  Almost exclusively in turkeys  Overall understanding of Progeny Testing – problems   Progeny Testing: Determine value of genotype by evaluating progeny produced  by different matings.  Process: Select animals with desired traits and mate  Problems: Slow (3­5yrs), costly, and may get undesirable traits  Advantages of breeding with technology   Use DNA sequencing!!  How does this work?   Look for markers in a chromosome where the DNA sequence can differ  among individuals especially when they occur on or close to a gene that  contributes to an important trait.  Advantages:  Allows breeder to ID genetically superior animals early (not sexually  mature)  Increase rate for genetic improvements Working Safely:   Dangers of working with animals – injuries, allergies, infection diseases  Injuries   Animals – bites, kicks, scratches, butts, crunched toes, etc.   Allergies   Densensitization often unsuccessful  Acute episodes  Continued exposure – chronic changes  Medical history   Infection Diseases  Brucellosis   Cat Scratch Fever  Rat Bite  Lyme  Q fever  Dog Bite Septicemia    Causes of zoonotic diseases   Bacterial  Fungal  Protozoan  Parasitic  Viral  Disease terminology   Infectious Disease – a disease caused by a biological agent (e.g. virus, bacteria,  parasite, etc.) Not all infectious diseases are contagious (e.g. tetanus)  Contagious Disease – An infectious disease that can be transmitted between hosts  Zoonotic Disease – A contagious disease that can be transmitted from humans to  animals or from animals to humans  Different types of diseases (fungal, bacterial, viral, etc.)  Fungal   Ringworm   Bactrical   Plague   E. Coli  Lyme   Dog Bite Sepsis  Viral  Ebola   Lassa fever  Measles   Rabies   Zikia   Working safely   Personal hygiene – no eating, drinking, smoking, applying makeup.  Wash your hands!  Don’t wear work clothing home  Tetanus vaccination Companion Animal (only the slides Dr. Rahman covers in class, if she does not finish the  lecture):   What is considered a companion animal?  Companion Animal: species that have a special association/interaction with  humans  Partially or completely dependent on human  Live in close proximity  Bond with their owners  Importance of companion animal   Humanizing and socializing role  Health and well­being of people  Family member  Establishes contact and communication with children and adults  Different roles/categories of companion animals   Physical   Increased exercise,  decreased blood pressure,  diversion from pain,  comfort of touch  Emotional   Unconditional love and attention  Expression of emotion  Reduction of loneliness  Decrease anxiety  Increased relaxation  Increased fun and laughter  Social  Recreation  Security  Relieving boredom and isolation  Opportunities to communicate  Cognitive   Use long­ and short­ term memories  Develop cognitive and problem solving skills  The science behind human­animal bond – oxytocin   Oxytocin  Neuropeptide  Released during labor/breast­feeding  Causes smooth muscle contractions  Stimulates bonding between mother and infant  Also released into regions of the brain involved  in emotional, cognitive, and social behaviors  u Inhibits stress axis  u Nicknamed the “love hormone”  Difference between wolves and dogs   Important steps in terms of caring for the new puppy   Diagnostic tools and description   SOAP  Wellness Exam   Adult Mature Dogs/Cats (what influences life expectancy)   General information on the different signs that indicates that something is wrong  Key Terms


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