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Printable Flashcards Exam 1 Psych 101

by: Cynthia Cao

Printable Flashcards Exam 1 Psych 101 PSY-101

Marketplace > San Diego State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY-101 > Printable Flashcards Exam 1 Psych 101
Cynthia Cao

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About this Document

Printable flashcards identical to the study guide covering chapters 1 and 2 for Exam 1 in Dr. Laumakis's psych 101 class
Intro to Psych
Dr. Laumakis
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
50 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cynthia Cao on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-101 at San Diego State University taught by Dr. Laumakis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at San Diego State University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
technique involved destroying parts of the brain of living animals ablation and then determining whether some functioning was lost following this surgery. Above the cerebellum is the ___________, which is divided into two regions: the subcortical forebrain structures and the cerebral cortex a neurotransmitter that relays messages from motor acetylcholine neurons to muscles, enabling movement The spike in electrical energy that passes through action potential the axon of a neuron, the purpose of which is to convey information. Part of the endocrine system involved in responses to adrenal glands stress as well as the regulation of salt balance. boost normal Agonists ex: nicotine neurotransmitter activity A neuron either fires or does all-or-none not fire; action potentials are always the same strength. A pair of almond-shaped structures in the limbic system amygdala that processes basic emotions, such as fear and aggression, as well as associated memories block normal neurotransmitter activity by blocking receptors Antagonists ex: curare- the paralyzing poison used on blowgun darts ex: botox- paralyzes facial muscles focuses on changing behaviors and outcomes- applied research often leads to real world applications Regions of the cortex that integrate information from all over association areas the brain, allowing us to learn, think in abstract terms, and carry out other intellectual tasks. type of glial cell that Astrocytes supports communication between neurons as well type of glial cell that restores astrocytes the barrier between the brain and blood which uses a chart of the heavens called a horoscope to astrology predict everything from the weather to romantic relationships. The branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary autonomic nervous system processes within the body, such as contractions in the digestive tract, and activity of glands. Skinny tubelike structure of a neuron that extends from axon the cell body, and which sends messages to other neurons. occurs in university laboratories, focusing on basic research collecting data to support (or refute) theories The scientific study of behaviorism observable behavior insisted on studying behaviors that could be observed and B.F. Skinner documented instead of looking at mental processes such as memory and emotion uses knowledge about underlying biological perspective physiology to explain behavior and mental (How do my eyes and brain processes. Psychologists who take this approach explore how biological factors, work together to sense and such as hormones, genes, and the brain, perceive this tree?) are involved in behavior and cognition. The subfield of psychology concerned with understanding biological psychology how the brain and other biological systems influence human behavior biopsychosocial perspective Explains behavior through (What biological, psychological, and social factors influence the the interaction of biological, psychological, and social way I manage my allergy to tree pollen?) factors. An area of the cortex that is Broca's Area critical for speech production. The region of the neuron that includes a nucleus containing cell body DNA, protein-producing mechanisms, and other structures that nourish the cell. Structure located behind the brain stem that is cerebellum responsible for muscle coordination and balance; Latin for "little brain." The largest part of the brain, includes virtually all parts of the cerebrum brain except primitive brain structures; has two distinct hemispheres. responding to stimuli or classical conditioning events in the environment explores physiological explanations cognitive neuroscience for mental processes, searching for connections between behavior and perspective the human nervous system, especially the brain cognitive perspective examines mental processes that direct behavior, (How am I able to remember where this tree is in the focusing on concepts such as thinking, memory, and forest?) language ability that helps us survive and adapt based on casual common sense observations; should not take place of scientific things A type of extraneous variable that changes in sync with the independent confounding variable variable, making it difficult to discern which one is causing changes in the dependent variable. The thick band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left corpus callosum cerebral hemispheres; principal structure for information shared between the two hemispheres. A type of descriptive research examining the correlational method relationships among variables. The process of weighing various pieces of evidence, synthesizing critical thinking them, and evaluating and determining the contributions of each. The relative importance of cultural influences on Culture behaviors, personality characteristics, and so on Tiny, branchlike fibers extending from the cell body that receive dendrites messages from other neurons and send information in the direction of the cell body. Research methods that describe and explore behaviors, although descriptive research the findings cannot definitively state cause-and-effect relationships Deterioration of neurons that produce dopamine is linked to _________, an incurable disorder that causes trembling Parkinson's disease of the hands, arms, legs, and face, and difficulty with movement, coordination, and balance. Dopamine also plays a key reinforcement, attention, and role in learning through regulating body movements Type of study in which neither the researchers who are administering the independent variable nor the double-blind study participants know what type of treatment is being given the body and mind interact dualism as two separate entities causes similarly charged ions to spread apart and oppositely electrostatic pressure charged ions to move toward each other (like the behavior of magnets) data from systematic empirical evidence observations or experiments we know reality through our perceptions and we learn empiricism through our sensory experiences The communication system that uses glands to convey endocrine system messages by releasing hormones into the bloodstream group of naturally produced opioids that regulate the Endorphins secretion of other neurotransmitters evolutionary perspective behaviors and mental processes are shaped by the forces of (Is my fear of heights evolution based on Charles inherited? Could it have Darwin's theory of evolution and contributed to my survival?) the principles of natural selection. helped generate behavioral examples of applied interventions for children research with sensory issues and autism -human sensory abilities Examples of basic research -trauma -memory A controlled procedure that involves careful examination through the use experiment of scientific observation and/or manipulation of variables (measurable characteristic). A variable in the environment or of the extraneous variable participants that could unintentionally influence the outcome of the study. The area of the cortex that organizes information among the other lobes of the brain and is frontal lobe responsible for higher-level cognitive functions and behavior functionalism An early school of psychology that focused on the function of thought (how does resting under this processes, feelings, and behaviors tree promote my long-term and how they help us adapt to the survival?) environment. inhibitory neurotransmitter (it GABA puts the brakes on firing) Cells that support, nourish, and protect neurons; glial cells produce myelin that covers axons. excitatory neurotransmitter, Glutamate so its main job is to kick neurons into action (make them fire) glutamate's its overactivity may be associated with strokes glutamate's underactivity is theorized to be involved in schizophrenia some of the symptoms of report what is observed goal #1: describe using the findings to help plan future research organize and understand goal #2: explain observations and behaviors; to make sense of what was observed predict behaviors and goal #3: predict outcomes of what will happen in the future use research findings to goal #4: control shape, modify, and control behavior -to describe goals of psychology -to explain -to predict -to control behavior controls most bodily functions and contains the cerebellum, the area hindbrain involved in fine motor function: Includes areas of the brain responsible for fundamental life-sustaining processes A pair of seahorse-shaped structures located in the limbic hippocampus system; primarily responsible for creating new memories. Chemical messengers released into the bloodstream that influence hormones mood, cognition, appetite, and many other processes and behaviors. humanistic perspective human nature is essentially (Will tending to and positive and people are nurturing this tree help me naturally inclined to grow reach my fullest potential?) and change for the better An approach suggesting that human nature is by and humanistic psychology large positive, and the human direction is toward growth. A small structure located below the thalamus that maintains a constant hypothalamus internal environment within a healthy range; helps regulate sleep-wake cycles, sexual behavior, and appetite allow us to make inferences and determine the inferential statistics probability of certain events occurring A type of neuron that resides exclusively in the brain and interneurons spinal cord; acts as a bridge connecting sensory and motor neurons. In the brain, norepinephrine arousal and sleep is involved in regulating introspection the examination of one's own conscious activities Known to play a role in problems with drug use. Repeated use of drugs overstimulates and damages the functioning of the neurons in the brain's reward circuit, Dopamine theoretically making it more difficult to enjoy non-drug-related activities that would otherwise be rewarding. The idea that each cerebral hemisphere processes lateralization certain types of information and excels in certain activities. A horseshoe-shaped collection of structures that regulates emotions limbic system and basic drives like hunger, and aids in the creation of memories A structure that oversees vital functions, including medulla breathing, digestion, and heart rate. The membrane is impermeable to ________________ and positive sodium ions and ______________ (it does not negative protein ions allow these ions to enter or exit) which envelop and protect meninges the brain and spinal cord type of glial cell that multiplies and secretes microglia substances to defend the brain from infection and inflammation The part of the brain stem involved in levels of arousal; midbrain responsible for generating movement patterns in response to sensory input. A band of tissue toward the rear of the frontal lobes that works motor cortex with other brain regions to plan and execute voluntary movements Neurons specialized for transmitting information from the motor neurons central nervous system to other parts of the body, such as muscles and glands. Fatty substance that insulates the axon and myelin sheath speeds the transmission of neural messages A type of descriptive research that studies participants in their naturalistic observation natural environment through systematic observation. The process through which inherited traits in a given population either Natural selection increase in frequency because they are adaptive or decrease in frequency because they are maladaptive. The relative weight of heredity and environment in relation to Nature and Nurture behaviors, personality characteristics, etc. Bundles of neurons that carry information to and from the central nerves nervous system; provide communication between the central nervous system and the muscles, glands, and sensory receptors. The generation of new neurogenesis neurons in the brain The building blocks of the nervous system that transmit neurons electrical and chemical signals in the body. The brain's ability to heal, grow neuroplasticity new connections, and reorganize in order to adapt to the environment. Chemical messengers that neurons use to neurotransmitters communicate at the synapse. Norepinephrine has a variety of effects in the help prepare the body for nervous system, but one of stressful situations. its most important functions is to free of opinions, beliefs, objective expectations, and values The area of the cortex in the occipital lobe back of the head that processes visual information. a type of learning that operant conditioning occurs when behaviors are rewarded or punished The precise manner in which operational definition a variable of interest is defined and measured The division of the autonomic parasympathetic nervous nervous system that orchestrates the "rest-and-digest" response to system bring the body back to a noncrisis mode. The area of the cortex that receives and processes sensory parietal lobe information such as touch, pressure, temperature, and spatial orientation. An early approach to explaining the functions of the brain by trying phrenology to link the physical structure of the skull with a variety of characteristics. The pea-sized gland located in the center of the brain just under the hypothalamus; secretes hormones that pituitary gland dictate the release of hormones by other glands; known as the master gland. plays a central role in Glutamate learning and memory The difference in the polarity charges inside and outside of the neuron A hindbrain structure that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and pons coordinate movement between the right and left sides of the body. allow ions to flow out of the potassium channels axon An approach to explaining and predicting behavior and events pseudopsychology that appears to be psychology, but has no empirical or objective evidence to support it. psychoanalytic perspective behavior and personality are (how do your feelings about the influenced by the conflict between size of this tree relate to your one's inner desires (such as unconscious aggression toward sexual and aggressive impulses) your father?) and the expectations of society the scientific study of Psychology behavior and mental processes the collective body of psychomythology misinformation about human nature a rare disease that causes severe swelling in one side of the brain, Rasmussen's encephalitis impairing movement and thinking and causing seizures that come as often as every few minutes The location where neurotransmitters attach on receptor sites the receiving side of the synaptic gap. An automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the "knee jerk" reaction; a simple pathway of communication from reflex arc sensory neurons through interneurons in the spinal cord back out through motor neurons. Released in response to pain, thereby blocking pain Endorphins receptor sites to prevent the pain message from being sent. reliability consistency of a measure To repeat an experiment, generally with a new sample and/or other replicate changes to the procedures, the goal of which is to provide further support for the findings of the first study The electrical potential of a resting potential cell "at rest"; the state of a cell when it is not activated. A network of neurons running through the midbrain that controls levels of arousal and quickly reticular formation analyzes sensory information on its way to the cortex. Process by which reuptake neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending terminal bud type of glial cells that makes Schwann cells the myelin that envelops axons The process scientists use to conduct research, which includes scientific method a continuing cycle of exploration, critical thinking, and systematic observation. Neurons specialized for receiving information about the environment sensory neurons from the sensory systems and transmitting this information to the brain for further processing. a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in controlling appetite, Serotonin aggression, and mood, and also regulates sleep and breathing sociocultural perspective suggests that we must (How do cultures differ in examine the influences of their attitudes toward social interactions and culture, nature?) including the roles we play allow ions to flow into the sodium channels axon restore proper ion sodium-potassium pumps concentration The branch of the parasympathetic nervous system that includes sensory somatic "related to the body" nerves and motor nerves; gathers information from sensory receptors and nervous system controls the skeletal muscles responsible for voluntary movement. A band of tissue running parallel to the motor cortex that somatosensory cortex receives and integrates sensory information from all over the body. A rare procedure used to disconnect the right and left split-brain operation hemispheres by cutting the corpus callosum. Cells responsible for stem cells producing new neurons. An early school of psychology structuralism (Describe in detail each that used introspection to determine the structure and element of this tree, including most basic elements of the color, shape, size, etc.) mind houses the limbic system, whose structures are involved The subcortical region in memory, emotion, and motivational drives The division of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic nervous system that mobilizes the "fight-or- flight" response to stressful or crisis situations. The tiny gap between a terminal bud of one axon and a synapse neighboring dendrite of the next neuron; junction between neurons where communication occurs. small membrane sacs that synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters The area of the cortex that temporal lobes processes auditory stimuli and language. A structure in the limbic system thalamus that processes and relays sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex Synthesizes observations in order to explain phenomena theories and guide predictions to be tested through research Gland of the endocrine thyroid gland system that regulates the rate of metabolism by secreting thyroxin. too little acetylcholine causes paralysis Too much acetylcholine leads to muscle spasms validity truthfullness of a measure -personality characteristics -cognitive characteristics -# of siblings in a family variable ins psychology -gender -socioeconomic status etc. A region of the cortex that Wernicke's area plays a pivotal role in language comprehension what is the resting voltage? -70 mV what is the threshold -55 mV potential? what was the first neurotransmitter acetylcholine discovered? Who is the "father of psychology?" Wilhelm Wundt


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