Biology Study Guide for Exam 2
Biology Study Guide for Exam 2 Biology 101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Wilhoit on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 101 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles I in Science at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Biology Study Guide Exam 2 Chapters 6, 7, & 8 6.1 1. What is the disadvantage to using electron microscopy over a light microscope? 2. Define cell fractionation. Why is cell fractionation useful? 6.2. 1. What basic features do all cells share? 2. Where is the DNA located for each type of cell? 3. What is the function of the plasma membrane? 4. T/F a. As a cell grows, its surface area increases proportionally with its volume. b. Larger organisms don’t have larger cells, just more cells. c. Prokaryotic cells contain their DNA in a nucleus. 5. What are the functions of mitochondria, the nucleus, chloroplasts, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the plasma membrane? 6.3 1. What function does the nuclear envelope have and what type of membrane does it have? 2. What role does the pore complex play in the structure of the nuclear envelope? 3. The combination of the DNA and the proteins that make up chromosomes is called what? 4. What happens in the nucleolus? 5. What happens once mRNA reaches the cytoplasm? 6. What functions do ribosomes have? What are the types or ribosomes and their individual functions? 6.4 1. What structures are included in the endomembrane system? 2. What makes up the endoplasmic reticulum? 3. What are the functions of the smooth ER? 4. What function does the rough ER have? 5. What are glycoproteins? 6. What are the functions of the Golgi Apparatus? 7. Explain the differences between the two sides of the Golgi apparatus and what happens as products shift from one side to the other. 8. What is a lysosome? 9. What makes lysosomes? What are the functions lysosomes? What environment do they work best in? 10. What is phagocytosis? 11. What functions do vacuoles have? 6.5 1. What are mitochondria and chloroplasts and what are their functions? 2. What is the endosymbiont theory? 3. What are the two compartments in mitochondria and what are the composed of? 4. Explain the relationship between thylakoids, granum, and stroma. 5. What does a peroxisome contain? 6. What are the functions of peroxisomes? 6.6 1. What are all the functions of the cytoskeleton? 2. What allows for cell motility? 3. Microtubules are made of tubulin. What is each tubulin made of? What is the function of a microtubule? 4. What is the relationship between microtubules, centrosomes, and centrioles? 5. What are the differences between cilia and flagella? 6. What are microfilaments made of? What are their functions? 7. How do intermediate filaments differ from microtubules and microfilaments? 6.7 1. What are the functions of a cell wall? 2. What makes up the extracellular matrix in animal cells? 3. What is the function of the ECM? 4. How are plant cells connected? 5. What are the types of cell junctions is animal cells? 7.1 1. What are most membranes made out of? 2. What about a phospholipid bilayer makes it an ideal membrane? 3. How does temperature affect the fluidity of a membrane? 4. How do saturated and unsaturated fats affect fluidity? 5. What determines a membrane’s function? 6. What are the differences between integral proteins and peripheral proteins? 7. What are the functions of the plasma membrane? 8. What determines the sidedness of membranes? 7.2 1. How do channel proteins aid in the transport of substances across a membrane? 2. How do carrier proteins aid in the transport of substances across a membrane? 7.3 1. What is diffusion? What is the rule of diffusion? 2. What is passive transport? How does it differ from active transport? 3. What is osmosis? 4. What is tonicity? 5. What will the net movement of water be in an isotonic environment? A hypertonic environment? A hypotonic environment? 6. Why is water balance important? 7. How specifically do channel proteins and carrier proteins aid in facilitated diffusion? 7.4 1. What type of transport proteins are involved in active transport? 2. What is membrane potential? 3. What is an electrochemical gradient? 4. Describe cotransport. 7.5 1. What is exocytosis? 2. What is endocytosis? 3. Explain the three types of endocytosis. 8.1 1. Define metabolism. 2. What metabolic pathways? 3. How are catabolic and anabolic pathways different? 4. What are kinetic, potential, chemical and thermal energy? 5. What are the laws of thermodynamics? 6. What is entropy? 8.2 1. What two equations represent ????G? 2. What is free energy a measure of? 3. What is free energy? 4. What is equilibrium? 5. WHat is the relationship between ????G, spontaneity, and equilibrium? 6. What are the differences between endergonic and exergonic? 8.3 1. What three types of work does a cell perform? 2. Why is energy coupling important? What is it? 3. Why does the hydrolysis of ATP release so much energy? 4. What are phosphorylated intermediates and why are they important? What do they help facilitate? 5. How does ATP hydrolysis help motor proteins move? 6. How does ATP regenerate? 8.4 1. What is activation energy? 2. How does an enzyme catalyze a reaction? 3. Explain enzymesubstrate complexes. 4. What type of bonds hold the enzyme in the active site? 5. What conditions do not support enzymatic activity? 6. What are cofactors? How do they help enzymes? 7. What are the differences between competitive and noncompetitve inhibitors? 8. What can cause the evolution of enzymes? 8.5 1. What is allosteric regulation? 2. What is feedback inhibition? 3. What is cooperativity?
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