Study Guide Lecture Exam 1
Study Guide Lecture Exam 1 Bio 1101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Josie Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1101 at Ohio State University taught by Amy Stottlemyer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Bio 1101 Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter One Characteristics shared by all living things: o Order/organization o Regulation o Able to reproduce o Growth and development o Evolve o Can process energy o Respond to environment/external stimuli Three domains of life: o Archaea-prokaryotic o Bacteria-prokaryotic o Eukarya-eukaryotic Four kingdoms of Eukarya o Plantae o Fungi o Animalia o Protista Evolution- a change in genes/DNA frequency in a population overtime. Natural Selection- the traits that are suited best for the population in its environment will be passed down to the offspring. Steps of the Scientific Method o Observe o Question o Hypothesis o Prediction o Test Difference between a theory and a hypothesis o A theory is an accepted explanation supported by substantial evidence. o A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a posed question. Chapter Two Structure of an atom o Consists of subatomic particles, a nucleus and electron cloud. o Protons are positive o Neutrons are neutral o Electrons are negative o The atom number determines the type of element. Chemical Bonds o A chemical bond occurs when atoms transfer or share electrons. o Ionic bonds are strong; have attraction between oppositely charged ions. o Covalent bonds are strong and electrons are shared between atoms. o Hydrogen bonds are weak and have an attraction between hydrogen of one molecule and neighboring polar molecules. o Polar bond had opposite charges on opposite ends. o Nonpolar bond has no residual charge. Properties of water that are vital to living organisms o Strong cohesion/adhesion o Moderates heat energy o Water is more dense as a liquid than as a solid o Good solvent for solutes Chapter Three Four Major categories of biological molecules o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Lipids o Nucleic Acids Functions of each biological molecule o Carbohydrates store energy and act as structural support o Lipids store energy with some being chemical messengers. o Proteins are responsible for structural support, storage, transport, defense, signaling, regulatory, and assist in chemical reactions. o Nucleic acids determine which proteins are produced by cells. A monomer is a single unit that makes up a polymer. A polymer is a structure of monomers strung together. Monomers of four major biological molecules o Carbohydrates monomer- monosaccharides o Protein monomer- amino acids o Lipid monomer- glycerol and fatty acids o Nucleic acid monomer- nucleotide monomers Lipids are different from other macromolecules due to being nonpolar (hydrophilic). A protein’s shape is determined by the amino acid sequence. The shape of the protein is important to its function. DNA structure o Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine o Long strand of nucleotide units o Double helix o Sugar phosphate “back bone” RNA structure o Single stranded o Uracil instead of Thymine o Sugar ribose Chapter Four Modern Cell Theory o All cells come from preexisting cells. o All organisms are made up of one or more cells. Two types of Cells o Prokaryotic No nucleus Lack membrane-bound organelles Much smaller than eukaryotic cells Have a cell wall o Eukaryotic Plants, animals, fungi, and protists Have a nucleus and organelles Larger and more complex than prokaryotic Cell Membrane Structure o Phospholipid bilayer o Isolates cell contents from cell wall o Serves as communication between cells o Regulates chemical exchange between cells Nucleus o Controls everything in the cell o Structure includes chromatin, envelope, nucleolus DNA is found in chromatin Nuclear envelope is selectively permeable Ribosome production takes place in the nucleus Ribosomes o In eukaryotes, the components are made in the nucleolus then transported to the cytoplasm. o Made of proteins o Ribosomes synthesize proteins Steps in DNA directing protein production o The coded information is transported to mRNA o mRNA leaves through the nuclear pores to get to the cytoplasm and combines with a ribosome o mRNA translates the information and puts its into a protein with specific amino acid sequence Endoplasmic Reticulum o Two types Rough ER: covered in ribosomes, and is the home of protein synthesis Smooth ER: no ribosomes and is the place of lipid synthesis and degradation Each type has vesicles that bud and travel to the Golgi complex Golgi Apparatus o Receives vesicles and sorts them into functional groups o Can modify some o Modified material is packaged into vesicle for transport Lysosome o This is a specialized vesicle from the Golgi Apparatus which contains enzymes o Binds with food vacuoles or damaged organelles and digests the contents Vacuoles o Bud off from the ER or Golgi apparatus o Central vacuole In a mature plant cell, it is the largest organelle Expands and contracts the cell Stores organic nutrients, pigments, and toxins o Contractile vacuoles Pump out excess water that flows into the cell Mitochondria o Found in almost all eukaryotic cells o Where cellular respiration takes place o Enclosed by two envelopes of membrane o Mitochondrial matrix is a thick fluid found inside o Cristae are the inner foldings of membrane o Contain their own DNA o Can reproduce by themselves o Have their own proteins and ribosomes Cytoskeleton o Made up of fibrous proteins o Main function is cell division o Maintains cell shape o Structure includes: Microtubules- hollow tubes of protein Microfilaments and intermediate filaments- thinner and solid Cilia and Flagella o Flagella propel cells with a whip-like motion and often occur singly. o Cilia are generally shorter and more numerous. They move in a coordinated back-and-forth motion. o Propel many protists through water. Chapter Five Forms of energy o Potential-stored energy o Kinetic-energy in motion o Chemical energy is potential energy stored in cells. o Organelles performing their functions within the cell would be an example of kinetic energy. Enzymes o Type of protein o Speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy Passive and Active Transport o Passive transport does not require energy and moves from high to low concentration areas. o Active transport requires energy and moves from low to high concentration areas. Solutions o Hypertonic- the concentration of solutes is greater on the outside of the cell. o Hypotonic- the concentration of solutes is greater on the inside of the cell. o Isotonic- concentration of solutes is equal on the inside and outside of the cell. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane. Chapter Six Cellular respiration and Photosynthesis are opposite processes. Cellular respiration uses chemical energy to create ATP. Photosynthesis uses light energy to create chemical energy. Basic equation for each o Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 o Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O Aerobic Cellular Respiration o 1. Glycolysis- occurs in the cytoplasm o 2. Citric Acid Cycle- occurs in the mitochondrion o 3. Electron Transport Chain- occurs in the mitochondrion o Glucose is used in Glycolysis to produce pyruvate which is then used in the Citric Acid Cycle. The Citric Acid cycle produces CO2, NADH, and ATP. The Electron Transport Chain inhales O2 and exhales H2O. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration o Fermentation takes place. o Animals create lactic acid o Plants create ethanol. o Glycolysis still takes place. Chapter Seven Photosynthetic plant cells are green because the cells absorb all the light wavelengths except for green. Green is reflected back. Red and Blue wavelengths are the most useful for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast. Chloroplast structure includes a double membrane, thylakoids, and stroma. Light dependent reactions occur in the thylakoids. It produces ATP and NADPH. Calvin Cycle take place in the stroma. It takes in CO2 and produces glucose.
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