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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey N Detrick on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at Elon University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Topics in General Biology in Biology at Elon University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Review Sheet Exam 1 Ch. 1: Process of Science 1. What is science? a. Way of knowing b. Method of seeking answers on the basis of observation and experiment 2. How would you know what to trust when it comes to reading about scientific claims in the media? a. Answer these questions: i. Was it peer reviewed? ii. Is it testable? iii. Can it be falsified? iv. Is there a control? v. Is there a dependent/independent variable? vi. How large is the sample size? vii. Is there statistical significance? 3. Discuss the seven steps in the process of science, being sure to include/know the following terms: a. Peerreviewed: Expert telling you if it qualifies for publishing b. Testable: The ability to perform an experiment c. Experimental/Control groups: taking out the bias, i. double blinds studies”: 1. Neither test subject nor observer knows which “treatment” (or lack of treatment) ea. subject is receiving. d . Independent/Dependent variables: i. The variable that is being changed 1. Ex. use/no use of cellphones e . Placebo/placebo effect: i. A fake treatment given to control groups to mimic the experience of the experimental groups f . Repetition of experiment: i. The more repetition, the best the data g . Sample size: i. The more data collected in an experiment, the more you can trust the data. ii. “Statistically Significant” h . Statistical significance: i. A measure of confidence that the results obtained are “real” and not due to chance. 4. What is a scientific theory?: a. An explanation of the natural world that is supported by a large body of evidence and has never been disproved b. Strongly supported evidence. 5. What does “correlation does not prove causation” mean? Be able to explain an example. : a. Just because there was a link between the factors in an experiment, doesn’t mean that it proves that these two are linked 6. What is a clinical trial?: a. A controlled medical experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an experimental treatment or a standard treatment (placebo) Ch. 17: Life on Earth 1. How old is the Earth? What were the conditions on Earth at this point? a. Earth is at least 4.4 – 4.5 billion yearsold b. Conditions: hot ball of molten lava, no oxygen 2. How do scientists actually estimate the ages of rocks and/or fossils? a. Everything we know about the earth is due to radiometric dating. 3. What’s occurring on Earth around 3.9 billion years ago? Why are these events so important to future life on Earth? a. 3.9 billion years ago: b. Importance: 4. When did life originate on Earth (or at least is the age of the oldest fossil found thus far)? a. 3.9 Billion years ago: original life on Earth 5. What did those first fossils look like? What was the Earth like at that time? a. Unicellular prokaryotes 6. What do deep water thermal vents have to do with the origin of life? a. Minerals, compounds, and hot water were released b. Helped created early life 7. Discuss the Urey/Miller experiment and its implications for the origin of life on Earth. a. Heated water, added chemicals from what would be in thermal vents to produce amino acids and carbon b. Organic molecules can be synthesized by replicating the chemical environment of the early Earth. c. This is important because it showed that given the right conditions, organic molecules could form spontaneously from the inorganic matter. 8. What significant event occurred approximately 3.0 2.5 billion years ago? How did that change the conditions on Earth? a. oxygen began accumulating in the atmosphere 9. What are Eukaryotes? When do they appear on Earth? What did they resemble? a. Characteristics: i. Uni/multi cellular ii. Membrane bound organelles iii. Nucleus iv. Plants, animals, fungi, “protists” v. Make up the 3 main branches of life b. 2 billion yrs ago c. bacteria 10. What causes continents to crash together and tear apart over time? a. Plate tectonics, caused by the heat in the center of the earth 11. What is “Snowball Earth” and when AND how did this occur? How did Snowball Earth ever reverse? a. Ball of ice b. 365 million years ago c. volcanoes releasing carbon dioxide 12. When did the Cambrian explosion occur? What is so important about this event? What kinds of organisms evolve during this period in Earth’s history? a. 540 million years ago 13. How does ozone form in the atmosphere? Why is the ozone layer so crucial for life on Earth? a. Radiation + O 2 b. Protects against harmful amounts of uv rays c. Now things can happen on land 14. What were the first organisms to colonize land? Approximately when did this occur? a. Primitive Plants b. 450 million years ago 15. Describe the first animals to ever make it up onto land. What are they called? When do they finally make land their permanent home? a. Tetrapods, no legs, used fins to crawl around b. 360 million years ago 16. How is coal formed? a. Dead things/plants = coal 17. What was the Permian extinction? When did it occur? What do scientists think caused it? (use the resources at siberia.mit.edu to help you answer these questions). a. Massive volcanoes b. 250 million years ago 18. What is life like in the oceans and on land after the Permian extinction event? a. Not much going on, lots of pink algae 19. What is Pangaea? a. Super continent 20. What is an adaptive radiation? What group of organisms dominated the ecological niches of Earth after the Permian extinction? a. Rapid speciation b. Dinos 21. What major event occurred 65 million years ago? What was its cause? What is the evidence for this event? After this major event, what group of organisms will take the ecological niches left behind by the dinosaurs? a. Asteroid killed the Dinos b. Created a large crater 22. Discuss the process of human evolution as described in Nat Geo’s “Story of Life”. Ch. 18: Prokaryotic Diversity 1. Know the general characteristics of Prokaryotes. a. They are unicellular organisms whose single cell lacks a membrane b. ribbon DNA flows freely in the cytoplasm c. No nucleus d. Big in quantity/small in size 2. Know the general characteristics of Archaea. Which group is most closely related to Archaea? a. Archae: has a preference for harsh environments that bacteria can’t inhabit i. “Extremeophiles” because of their ability to live in harsh environments (they can also live in less extreme places) ii. Similar to bacteria iii. Simple cells that lack a nucleus iv. Has a very different genetic code v. No membrane bound organelles 3. Know the general characteristic of Bacteria? a. Bacteria: “invisible work horses” i. Commonly found in microbes ii. Most have a cell wall iii. Some are “autotrophes” (selfeating) iv. Some are “heterotrophes” (otherfeeders) 1. Plays an important role in decomposition v. Can be very harmful/disease causing aka “pathogens” 1. Attaching to the host cell wall 2. Or reproducing in the body and interfering with normal processes vi. Comes in different shapes 1. Spherical 2. Rod 3. Spiral vii. Many equipped with flagella: 1. Tiny whip like structures that project from the cell and help it move viii. Has Pili which are shorter and hair like appendages that enable bacteria to adhere to a surface ix. Others are surrounded by a capsule, a sticky outer layer that helps the cell adhere to surfaces and to avoid the defenses of the host 4. What is Lyme disease? What causes it? What is the structure of the particular bacterium? How is it spread? What are the symptoms? a. symptoms: fever, headache, fatigue, rash, arthritis, heart palpitations spread through tick bites heterotrophic 5. What is tuberculosis? What is the cause? What is the structure of the particular bacterium? How is it spread? What are the symptoms? Who is at most risk of getting tuberculosis today? Why? a. spread through the air caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteriumx risk factors: Alcohol or drug use, previous TB or HIV infection (weakened immune system) very old or very young heavy cough, fevers and night sweats, fatigue, hunger and weight loss can fester 6. Discuss the basic characteristics of E. coli. What benefits does it offer humans? In what ways can it hurt humans? a. Symptoms: i. Stomach pain ii. Vomit iii. Bloody stool iv. Fever b. Shape: i. Rod shaped c . Treatment: i. No treatment ii. Rest and fluids iii. Serious cases need blood transfusion d . Benefits: i. Lives in intestines, helps digestion e . Hurts: i. Can cause serious illness 7. Discuss the basics of the nitrogen cycle, including the source of most nitrogen, the form it occurs in, and the definition and function of nitrogenfixing and denitrifying bacteria. a. Basics: i. Building blocks for DNA ii. Found in plants and roots iii. Needed to make proteins b. Function: i. Atmosphere (as a triple bond) ii. Bacteria breaks down this bond, picked up by plants iii. Denitrified bacteria convert back into the atmosphere 8. How do we use bacteria to produce foods, medicines and even potential fuel sources? Give examples. a. lactic acid bateria to make dairy products antibiotics and vaccines scientists can use bacteria to create fossil fuel alternatives 9. How can bacteria be used to clean up environmental disasters? Know the general characteristics of the large bacterial group that is most often used in these situations. a. 10. What are the differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells? a. Prokaryotic Cell: i. No nucleus ii. No bound DNA iii. Large genetic diversity b. Eukaryote: i. Nucleus ii. Membrane bound DNA 11. What does the Lost City have to do with the origin of life on Earth? a. Deep sea hydrothermal vents home of archaea extreme seemingly inhospitable environment still has life resemble conditions of early earth 12. What is the human microbiome? What are benefits of having a healthy microbiome? a. trillions of microbes living in and on the human body maintain immune systems, help digest food, first line of defense against pathogens. many diseases that may be the result of disturbed microbiomes Ch. 19: Eukaryotic Diversity 1. What are the general characteristics of Eukaryotes? 2. Know the characteristics and examples of each of the groups listed below. a. Plants (include if the following groups have seeds, vascular tissue, pollen, flowers, fruits) i . Characteristics: 1. Move (at some point) 2. Metabolize (heterotroph) 3. Multicellular (only group that is completely multicellular) ii . Green Algae: 1. Uni/multi cellular 2. Always in water iii . Moss: 1. Requires water 2. Doesn’t have to be in water 3. “nonvascular” 4. no seeds iv . Fern and Friends: first vascular plants 1. Needs water 2. Vascular 3. No seeds v . Gymnosperm: 1. Don’t need water 2. Vascular 3. Have seeds 4. Angiosperms b. Animals i. Sponges: 1. Asymmetrical 2. Moe as larvae 3. No tissue (organs or brain) ii . Jellyfish and Friends: 1. Friends: a. See anemones b. Coral 2. Radial Symmetry iii. Invertebrates 1. Mollusca: a. Squishy // soft bodied b. Shell (oysters/muscles) c. Octopi (modified shell beak) 2. Annelida 3. Anthropods: a. 84% of all animals b. exoskeleton c. joined limbs d. invertebrates 4. Echinodermata: a. Starfish, sand dollars, sea biscuit b. Radial symmetry iv. Vertebrates 1. Fish 2. Amphibians 3. Reptiles (including birds) 4. Mammals (give the most details here) Ch. 21: Population Ecology 1. Be able to define: Ecology, Population, Community, Ecosystem i . Ecology: species interacting with each other and the environment 1. Individual: individual organisms 2. Population: group of individuals of the same species living in the same place 3. Community: two or more interacting populations of different species 4. Ecosystem: all the living organisms in an area and the nonliving organisms in an area and the nonliving components of the environment with which they interact 2. Be familiar with the conservationist/rancher debate out west. How does the wolf food web relate to this controversy? 3. What four terms determine the growth of a population (hint: the first is BIRTH)? i . Growth Rate: (Birth Rate minus Death Rate) 1. Births: increase population 2. Death: decrease population ii . Immigration: increase population iii . Emigration: decrease population 4. What is exponential growth? Logistic growth? i . Exponential growth: unlimited food ii . Logistical Growth: exponential growth before reaching a limit also known as “carrying capacity” 5. What is carrying capacity? i. The maximum population size that a given environment or habitat can support given its food supply and other natural resources. 6. What are densitydependent factors? Densityindependent? Abiotic factors? Biotic factors? i . Density Dependent Factors: 1. Change in population size depends on the number of individuals in the population ii . Density Independent Factors: 1. Change in population size regardless of the number of individuals in the population iii. Biotic Factors: Density Dependent 1. Living things iv. Abiotic Factors: Density Independent 1. Weather 7. How can the population growth of one species affect the population growth of another? Give an example. i. Food web is needs to be balanced out the ecosystem Ch. 22 Community Ecology 1. What is a community? a. two or more interacting populations of different species 2. What will happen to agriculture if bee populations decline? Why? a. No food b. No pollination 3. Know the following structures/functions: petals, stamen, filament, anther, carpel, stigma, style, fruit, flower, seed. a. Male reproductive organ b. stamen: stemlike filament topped with a pollensaturated anther c. Female reproductive organ d. pistil: topped with a sticky “landing pad” (stigma) e. style: a tubelike passage from stigma to the ovary Ch. 24: Sustainability 1. What is sustainability? a. Ability to maintain behavior indefinitely 2. What is LEED certification? a. Leadership energy environmental development 3. What are the examples of things Elon is doing to be more sustainable (be specific; there are several possible headings; water, transportation, etc.)? a. Dining: no trays b. Energy: geothermal/solar power c. Landscaping: botanical garden d. Transportation: bio bus
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