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Chapter 1-3 notes

by: Taylar Delisle

Chapter 1-3 notes ASOC380

Marketplace > SUNY Albany > Sociology > ASOC380 > Chapter 1 3 notes
Taylar Delisle

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About this Document

This is all the topics from the lectures for the first 3 chapters.
Sociology of Deviant Behavior
Trevor Hoppe
Study Guide
sociology, deviant, behavior
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylar Delisle on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASOC380 at SUNY Albany taught by Trevor Hoppe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Deviant Behavior in Sociology at SUNY Albany.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
** re-discussed later in unit ** Exam 1 review Topic What notes say Mass incarceration “How being locked up makes you perceive society” Functionalist method** Explains why people do not conform to social norms and conformity is good Conflict method** Explains who decides what the “norms” are and how they mobilize resources to impose them. Ex: sentencing for cocaine (powdered v crack) Juvenile Delinquency Inner city transformed Diagnosis v Prescription Behavioral model Problem: deviant behavior Solution: fix it Strategy: shake the behavior Institutional model Problem: Solution: Strategy: Margaret Atwood “Normal is not the same as average” Unspoken rules Ways to act in society that you are expected to know in accordance to society’s expectations and beliefs. Ex: door holding, saying please and thank you, etc. deviance An act that is opposed to or in contradiction with socially acceptable or “informative” ways” Ex: yelling out, drinking and driving Process of othering -”us” vs. “them” -”we vs “they” -”we are good” v “you are bad” Ex: the term homosexual predates heterosexual; ** re-discussed later in unit ** Transgender v cisgender differentiation Difference in definition of deviance across various groups. Ex: occupy wall street activists can call wall street banker’s behavior deviant and deserving of punishment but lack authority to enforce. absolutists “The absolutist believes that he knows what behavior is, what people should be, and what constitutes full and appropriate development.” -Lofland 1969, 23-24 statistical Distribution curve reactivist “The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied; deviant behavior is the behavior that people so label.” -Becker Emile Diukheim Father of deviance studies 1858-1917 Eric Erikson Studying deviance is about studying social organization- not disorganization Boundaries Deviance reinforces boundaries Crime Crime is an integrative element of society. Devaince Functional forces examples:drinking and driving, studying vs not studying, class inequality (social class) Conflict approaches v functionalist approach Conflict approaches criticize the functionalist approach. Social control Measures to ensure conformity Charles Cooley “Looking glass shelf”- michigan soc prof Todays concept Wanes into mainstream sociology, but influences in medical sociology and criminology. ** re-discussed later in unit ** Informal social control Regulation by community members horizontal in position Formal social control Regulation by authority. Vertical in position. internalization People learn to accept norms, product of socialization, spontaneous Sanctioning: Negative: discouraged Positive: encouraged Formal v informal Positive v negative FUNCTIONALIST THEORY Popular after WWII Macro level theory (large scale) Views from society as a single person- goal related, personalized roles, codependent Durkheim functionalism normal= average Deviance-exceptional, minority Not absolute Crime and deviance are universal Establish boundaries of group ideas in identity Create solidarity Allows change of time Function: Main streak stability Goal Goal is health or overall stability Lead critics to say functionalism is apolitical Merton Manifest v latent functions Deviance: manifest dysfunctional, latent dysfunctional. Talcott Parsons Organic system build of irrelevant and coordinated parts. Individuals internalize norms=social stability. Social control via conformity Socialization, incentives, persuasion through disclosure, coercion Dentler and Erikson Groups then to: induce, sustain, permit, deviant behavior, leaders exhibit normative ** re-discussed later in unit ** behaviors. Deviance maintains social deviance Sets benchmarks, makes boundaries, determines reward structure Functionalism Lost currency in 1960’s Too focused on structure Ignores subject, determanilist CONFLICT THEORY Power relations structure society -race, gender, class,etc. - shape access to resources and power. -emphasizes inequality -majors camps included: feminists (60s and 70s), criminal race theorists, marxist, all emphasize imbalance of power relations is at its root of the social construction of reality. LABELING THEORY Labels socially organized reaction to deviance, born from conflict theory, interactionism approaches can lead to secondary deviance, labeling shapes another reality, can be self fulfilling prophecy, can be a master status, over shadows rest of identity. Emphasize history- how a certain group labeled and others not, categories of deviance develop over time, those in power avoid labels. Calls into question-objectivity of crime statistics, universal application of law Labeling Theory continued Pitfalls- aims to “huminaze and normalize” reinforces This ignores: institutional deviance, upper class deviance (white collar crime) Deviant Identities Double edged sword -negatives- can promote secondary deviance, can be oppressing, stigmatizing, foster discrimination Positives- can be solidarity, subcultures, social movements. Website: “Your mother likes it bareback” ** re-discussed later in unit ** relevance: Illuminates inequality in language we use to categorize deviance. Useful thinking about secondary deviance “Quick and dirty” Deviant conditions and behaviors become labeled as deviance- treatments developed (ADD_Ritalin)- Diagnostic tools developed to identify more patients Freidson, Elliot (1970) Medicine as a professional Professional jurisdiction Freidson (1970) medicine has jurisdiction over anything labeled as “illness” zola Notices recent shifts in medicine- Specific etiology (multi-casual), treatments and primary prevention, shift towards managing chronic illness (expand medical authority into new domains of social life) Ex: plastic surgery Prescribing medications Increases numbers and types of drugs subspecialists Certain domains over certain procedures. Medical discourse People increasingly involving medical discourse: -healthy vs unhealthy -sick vs well -psychiatric labeling -self diagnosing ADHD -originally called “hyperkenesis” -bad behavior became a system -Ritalin 1950s (FDA approved 1961) -by 1975, most common psychiatric disease. McCann and Conrad’s medicalization of -forces driving medication? How has it deviance changed overtime? What are the different levels of medication? Is medicalization permanent? Engines of medicalization Pharmaceutical companies, professionals. demedicalization Lessing of medical influence over certain conditions such as mastrubation and ** re-discussed later in unit ** homosexuality. Gusfield “What is crime today may well have been goodness yesterday, what is applauded in NYC is decried on the prairies” Like medicalization Process which phenomena are labeled and controlled as a crime- labeling, legislation, and enforcement Criminal justice Institutions seeking to expand authority. The law of social product Not natural, not god given, not apolitical...formed by society Gusfeild Conflict driven approach Gusfeild LAW IN SYMBOLIC Not just “instrumental” Laws don’t just impose penalties, symbolism is an important aspect Symbolic value Does not depend on enforcement, like a literary analysis, invites consideration rather than overact action. Patterned evasion -law grants power - “the instance of laws quiets and confronts those who’s interests and sentiments it embodies” -pre roe v wade abortion still common Ex: speeding, fake ID ____ “Just because there is a law in the books, doesn't mean everyone abides by it” Ex: drinking and driving, IDs, etc Jenness: engines of criminalization -not just us v them -variety of engines: structural foundations, crime and criminal justice,triggered events (see below for structural foundations and triggered events) Connected to larger process- globalization, modernization, institutionalization ** re-discussed later in unit ** Involves both legislative and judicial enforcement Structural foundations Links african americans to aids, “Aids is god’s curse to a homosexual life” triggered events Posting of arrests with prostitutes and aids, individuals become more entrepreneurial through advocation, reform groups… Media reports sensational crimes. Jay-Z history on drugs What are the engines of criminalization at play in this story?


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