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PSYC 2210, Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Rosemarie Pacitto

PSYC 2210, Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 2210

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 2210 > PSYC 2210 Exam 1 Study Guide
Rosemarie Pacitto
GPA 3.52

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Detailed Study Guide of key concepts that you will come across on Exam 1.
Research Methods in Psychology
Dr. Lyndon
Study Guide
Psychology, #researchmethods
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rosemarie Pacitto on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2210 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Lyndon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Study Guide for Exam I Research Methods in Psychology PSYC 2210 Fall 2014 Scientific Thinking 1. What is the confirmation bias? 2. What is the availability heuristic? 3. What does empirical mean? 4. Know the procedure of the scientific method (e.g., theory, hypothesis, design, etc.) 5. What can we say about proof in science? What can’t we say? If a hypothesis is  supported, what does that mean for the theory? 6. Know the principles of scientific thinking (e.g., testability, etc.) 7. Be able to recognize the differences between basic and applied research. 8. What are the strengths of peer­reviewed research? 9. Be able to recognize the difference between science and pseudoscience by  understanding the 10 (or 9, without holism) characteristics of pseudoscience. You  should be able to think of examples of pseudosciences that match many of these  characteristics. 10.  Know many of the ways to detect the baloney science out there with the Baloney  Detection Kit.  Sources of Information  1. Experience vs. science ­ know why are these problems and you should be able to  recognize examples of all of these  a. Experience doesn't have a comparison group b.Experience has confounds  c. Even though personal experience is valid for you, why is it not valid for everyone? 2. Thinking the easy way know why are these problems and you should be able to  recognize examples of all of these a. The good story b.The present/present bias c. The availability heuristic (also called the pop up principle in your text) 3. Asking biased questions  4. Compared with Google, why is PsycINFO a better way to find accurate information? 5. Know where to find information in an empirical journal article (abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion).  Three Claims, Four Validities 1. Be able to identify variables in a study a. Whether those variables are manipulated or measured b. How those variables are operationalized 2. Know how to identify the three claims (frequency, association, and causal) a. And be able to recognize which pattern of association exists (positive,  negative, or zero) b. Know what makes something a valid causal claim (i.e., it’s an experiment; experiments manipulate variables – independent variables ­ to measure its  effect on other variables – dependent variables). c. Thus, you should also be able to recognize independent variables from  dependent variables – and know that unless it’s an experiment, they’re just “variables”, not IV or DV. 3. Know the four types of validity (construct, statistical, internal, and external) a. And be able to know and recognize some of the questions we use to  critique these forms of validity (see page 71, and Table 3.7 on pg 80­81 in  your textbook) Variable  Core unit of psychological research  Something that varies, so must have 2 levels, or values Measured variable­ one whose levels are simply observed and recorded. (height, IQ)­ as  it occurs naturally Manipulated variable­ a variable a researcher controls, usually assigning participants to  the different levels of that variable  Constant  Something that could potentially vary but that has only one level in the study in  question  Conceptual variable= dictionary definition, sometimes called a construct.  Operational definition= to turn a concept of interest into a measured or manipulated  variable (how do you measure construct…how does it operate in the real world) Frewuency claims­ descriptive studies, percentages of people who have the experience.   1 in 25 us teens attempt suicide  44% of americans struggle to stay happy *Focus on only 1 variable * Variables are always measured, not manipulated  Association Claims­ experimental claims, argues that one level of a variable is likely to  be associated with a particular level of another variable. Correlation does not cause  causation  shy people are better at reading facial expressions  people who multitask that most are worst at it  screen time not linked to physical activity in kids ** 2 variables **Variables measured, not manipulated 3 basic types of associations among variables:  positive: high goes with high and low goes with low  negative: high goes with low and low goes with high  zero association: no association b/w variables (cannot help us make predictions) Causal Claims: Must do an experiment where you manipulate an independent variable on the effect (to measure the of dependent variable.  One variable is responsible for  changing the other.  3 rules for causation: 1. covariance= correlation does not cause causation.. very causual relationship must  be correlated 2. temporal precedence= cause must happen before the effect 3. internal validity= there is no alternative explanation with results independent variable­ the variable that is manipulated dependent variable­ variable that is measured validity­ refers to the appropriateness of a conclusion or decision, and in general, a valid  claim is reasonable, accurate, and justifiable construct validity= how well a study measured or manipulated a variable external validity­ how well the results of a study generalize to, or represent, people or  contexts besides those in the study itself.  Statistical validity­is the extent to which a study’s statistical conclusions are accurate and  reasonable.


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