Study Guide for Chapters 27 and 6 - Quiz 2
Study Guide for Chapters 27 and 6 - Quiz 2 BI 211
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Palmer Antoniou on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BI 211 at Oregon State University taught by Anne Petersen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of biology in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
BIOLOGY 211 PETERSEN QUIZ 2 STUDY GUIDE - CHAPTERS 27 AND 6 Remember, this is a study guide – not an answer guide! Please use it to study and learn the concepts for yourself. Also study your Group Chapter Questions for 6 and 27 that were handed out on Wednesday the 28 . th Chapter 27: Key terms: Archaea Bacteria Autotroph - Plants Heterotroph - Animals Chemoautotroph Photoautotroph Photoheterotroph Chemoheterotroph Exotoxins Endotoxins Nitrogen fixation - a great benefit for plants at the roots Biofilms –metabolic cooperation with cells that are prokaryotes Genetic diversity Mutations Molecular systematics Obligate aerobes – need oxygen for survival Obligate anaerobes – opposite, oxygen kills them Facultative anaerobes – both, can live with or without oxygen Gram negative and Gram positive walls Recombination Transformation Transduction Concepts: 1. Bacteria populations can experience genetic variation through recombination, but not through meiosis. 2. Sunlight is an energy source for photoautotrophs, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is a carbon source for them. (yes, carbon out of thin air!) 3. Archaea differs from bacteria due to different lipids in their membranes, but they both usually do not have their organelles encased in membranes. 4. Peptidoglycan is not found in the cell walls of archaea. 5. Some, but not all archaea oxidize hydrogen (h2) using carbon dioxide, which in creates methane gas. 6. Bacteria are in our everyday lives in many way and interact with other organisms through symbiotic relationships: they are skin commensalisms, pathogens, digestive commensalisms and decomposers (this is an important job but not a symbiotic relationship). 7. Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis much like plants and other autotrophs, and release oxygen (o2) in this process. 8. Actinomycetes are nitrogen fixing bacteria. Chapter 6: Key terms: Define the function of and Label Parts of a cell – Nucleus, nuclear envelope, nuclear lamina, chromosomes, chromatin, nucleolus, mitochondria, transport vesicles, lumen, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, chloroplasts. There is a great diagram at the end of Chapter six that neatly breaks it down with pictures. Light microscopy, electron microscopy Cell fractionation Plasma membrane Organelles Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cytoskelleton Microtubules Cillia Flagella Microfilaments Concepts: 1. The endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope, cholorplasts, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. 2. Plant and animal cells are similar and different. Only plant cells have a cell wall of cellulose, but both plant and animal cells contain chloroplasts. 3. Prokaryotes contain ribosomes which work to build proteins for the cell. 4. Lysosomes function with intracellular digestion. 5. The Golgi apparatus works as a protein transporter. 6. Microtubule is used in muscle contraction. 7. When a cell is exposed to the chemical cyanide, it will be found within the ribosome(s) as ribosomes are involved with ATP and their functions in protein synthesis. 8. A newly made protein will leave the cell by first leaving the nucleus, then going to the endoplasmic reticulum then the Golgi apparatus. 9. Cells taken from the leaves of plants are the best cells to looks at when studying lysosomes.
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