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CHEM1212: Test 2 Study Guide

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

CHEM1212: Test 2 Study Guide CHEM1212

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Chemistry > CHEM1212 > CHEM1212 Test 2 Study Guide
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

comprehensive review of information that the second exam will cover, includes formulas and conceptual explanations
Freshman Chemistry II
Donald Wayne Suggs
Study Guide
Chemistry, General Chemistry
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM1212 at University of Georgia taught by Donald Wayne Suggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Freshman Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Boiling Point Elevation  When a solute is dissolved in a liquid, the solute lowers the vapor pressure of the liquid o Causes an increase in the boiling point of a liquid Tb=K b Freezing Point Depression  When a solute is dissolved in a liquid, the solute interrupts the ability of liquid molecules to interact o Causes a decrease in the freezing point of the liquid Tf=K f Vapor Pressure Lowering  vapor pressure of a pure solvent is greater than the vapor pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile liquid because the solute blocks solvent molecules from interacting and entering the gas phase P = i Xsolutesolvent van’t Hoff Factor, i  Measure of the effect that a solute has on the colligative properties of a solution  Ration between the actual concentration of particles produced when the substance is dissolves and the concentration of a substance as calculated from its molality  Nonelectrolytes have a factor of 1  In an ionic solution the molality of the solute with increase as the ionic compound dissociates o Ionic solute will depend on the effective concentration of ions in the solution  Purpose is to account for the fact that some solutes have the ability to ionize in solution Osmotic Pressure  = nRT = MRT V Colloids  Intermediate between solution and suspension  Compounds which form colloids generally have high molar masses  The particles of the colloid are relatively large  Colloid particles do not settle out of solution  exhibit Tyndall effect o scatter light CHEMICAL KINETICS  the rate of chemical reactions and how the speed of a chemical reaction changes under certain conditions Factors Affecting Rates  as the concentration of reactants change, the rate of a chemical reaction will also change  rate law describes how the rate of reaction changes based on concentration Collision Theory  concentration of reactants will have an effect on the rate of reaction o increase in concentration increases the initial rate of reaction  the rate of a chemical reaction is dependent on the number of collisions that the reactants make with one another and whether the reactants have appropriate energy to react during the progression of the reactant o as the temperature of the reaction increases, the number of reactant molecules which have the sufficient energy to undergo chemical reactions will also increase o activation energy  if A is low, the energy required for the reactants to react is low and a high proportion of reactant molecules in the sample may have sufficient energy to react in a chemical reaction at any given time and temperature  if A is high, the energy required for the reactant to react is high and a low proportion of reactant molecules in the sample will have sufficient energy to react in a chemical reaction at any given time and temperature  molecular orientation o reactant molecules must react in the correct orientation in order for the reaction to proceed to completion Reaction Mechanism  provide information regarding how a reaction proceeds based on the elementary steps of a chemical reaction  the balanced equation is given by the summation of individual elementary steps including any that follows the rate-determining step  determining rate law of a chemical equation based on mechanism o slowest step determines the rate law o any preceding fast equilibrium steps are included in the determination of the rate law CHEMICAL REACTIVITY Chemical Equilibria  when the forward reaction is equal to the reverse reaction of a chemical equation  reactants and products are present in a state where there is no net change in concentration  chemicals continue reacting, just at equal rates  equilibrium constant can be represented by concentration (K ) orcpressure in the event of a gaseous reaction (K )p  liquids and solids are not present in chemical equilibrium expressions  when the equilibrium constant is greater than 1 the reaction is product favored  when the equilibrium constant is less than 1 the reaction is reactant favored Manipulating Equilibrium Constant  reverse reaction o inverse value of K  multiplying by a constant o raise the equilibrium constant to the power that the equation was multiplied by  adding reactions o multiply the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions Good ICE Chart Tutorials constant/v/reactions-in-equilibrium


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