World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present Midterm Study Guide (Fall 2016)
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present Midterm Study Guide (Fall 2016) ARC 318L
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Luca Tomescu on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARC 318L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Richard Cleary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Twickenham (England): Strawberry Hill, Horace Walpole, 1749 Paris: Church of Ste. Genevieve (Pantheon), Jacques-Germain Soufflot, 1755 Nancy (France): Place Stanislas (former Place Louis XV), Here de Corny, 1755 Bath (England): Royal Crescent, John Wood the Younger, 1767 (no location) Cenotaph project for Isaac Newton, Etienne-Louis Boullee, 1784 Washington, D.C. plan, Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, 1791 Wiltshire (England): Fonthill Abbey, James Wyatt, 1795 Kolkata (Calcutta): Government House (Raj Bhavan), Charles Wyatt, 1799 New York: Commissioners’ Plan, 1811 Brighton (England): Royal Pavilion, John Nash, 1818 Berlin: Altes Museum, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1824 Potsdam (Germany): Court Gardener’s House, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1829 Philadelphia: Eastern State Penitentiary, John Haviland, 1829 London: House of Parliament, Charles Berry and A.W.N. Pugin, 1836 Paris: Bibliotheque (Library) of Ste Genevieve, Henry Labrouste, 1845 New York: Trinity Church, Richard Upjohn, 1846 Kolkata vicinity: Dakshineswar Kali Temple, 1847 Baton Rouge, LA: Old State Capitol, James Dakin, 1847 London: Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton and others, 1851 Oxford (UK): University Museum, Deane & Woodward, 1855 London: All Saints’ Margaret Street, William Butterfield, 1859 Bexleyheath (England): Red House, Philip Webb and William Morris, 1859 Paris: Palais Garnier (Opera), Charles Garnier, 1861 Mumbai (Bombay): University Convocation Hall, G. G. Scott, 1869 Boston: Trinity Church, H. H. Richardson, 1872 Quincy, MA: Thomas Crane Public Library, H. H. Richardson, 1882 Pittsburgh, PA: Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail, H. H. Richardson, 1886 Chicago: Fair Store, William Le Baron Jenney, 1890 St. Louis, MO: Wainwright Buildings, Adler & Sullivan, 1890 Kyoto (Japan): National Museum, Tokuma Katayama, 1892 Mumbai: Bombay-Baroda & Central Railway offices, Frederick Stevens, 1893 Chicago: World’s Columbian Exposition (main court), Daniel Burnham, chief planner, 1893 Chicago: Reliance Building, Charles Atwood/Daniel Burnham, 1894 Tokyo: Nihon Kangyo Bank, Tsumaki Yorinaka, 1899 Helensburgh (Scotland): Hill House, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Margaret MacDonald Mackintosh, 1902 Oak Park, IL: Unity Temple, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1905 Chicago: Robie House, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1908 New Delhi: Viceroy’s House (Rashtrapati Bhavan), Edwin Lutyens, 1911 Tokyo: Imperial Hotel, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1913 Le Rainy (France): church of Notre Dame, Perret bros, 1922 New York: Seagram Building, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, 1954 Chicago: John Hancock Center, Bruce Graham (architect), Fazlur Khan (structural engineer), both of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 1965 Prompts 1. Theorists of art and architecture in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries divided aesthetic pleasure into the beautiful, the picturesque, and the sublime. Define each of these categories and explain the differences between them. Provide examples that support your explanation. 2. In what ways was the design of monumental public buildings and public spaces in eighteenth century European cities intended to transform civic life? Consider material covered in lecture, discussion section, and Barry Bergdoll’s European Architecture in preparing your answer. 3. From the Renaissance in the fifteenth century until well into the twentieth century, classicism was the dominant mode of expression for high-style architecture in the Western European sphere of influence (including European colonies and the United States). What do you think was the enduring appeal of this approach to architectural expression for architects and clients? How did the meanings of architectural features such as temple porticos and domes change as they were adapted to new building types and social contexts? 4. Renaissance theory regarded Gothic architecture as aesthetically inferior to the classicism of the ancient Greeks and Romans, yet despite the hegemony of classicism as the default mode for high-style architecture in the nineteenth century, architects and clients also found inspiration in medieval buildings. Discuss some of the different motivations for the revival of Gothic architecture and cite an example for each. 5. A number of architectural theorists in the nineteenth century, such as A. W. N. Pugin, John Ruskin, and Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, found in Gothic architecture principles applicable to architectural development in a modern age. Choose two of these authors and discuss how they related Gothic architecture to their notions of truth in architecture. How do their positions compare with Frank Lloyd Wright’s idea of architectural integrity? 6. William Butterfield’s church of All Saints’, Margaret Street (London), and H. H. Richardson’s buildings in the United States can be described in terms of historical styles, but they were recognized in their time as possessing qualities that spoke to the present and looked to the future. Why? 7. A variety of factors shaped the development of skyscrapers (such as internal organization, structural systems and materials, architectural expression) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Identify at least three factors and explain how they played a role in architects’ design decisions. Please cite examples of buildings that support your explanation. 8. Discuss the exchange or imposition of Western architectural principles, views of history, and building practices in British colonial India and Meiji Japan. 9. Based on your readings and what we've covered in lecture and the discussion sections, what do you see as driving forces for the transformation of Paris, Chicago, and Shanghai in the nineteenth century? What were some of the goals and distinguishing architectural features of these transformations? Who had the deciding voice in these new city plans: the market or the government? 10. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, iron (cast, wrought, and steel) and concrete (mass and reinforced) became increasingly common as building materials. What advantages did they offer over traditional structural materials such as stone, brick, and wood? Discuss some of the technical or aesthetic challenges architects faced in using these new materials in Europe, North America, and Japan. 11. Discuss principles associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement are reflected in the designs of the Red House by Phillip Webb and William Morris, Hill House by Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Margaret MacDonald Mackintosh, and the Robie House by Frank Lloyd Wright. What differences can you detect among the various approaches or points of emphasis taken by these designers?
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