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SMAD 150 Exam 1 Study Guide (Weeks 1-5)

by: Sophie Witmer

SMAD 150 Exam 1 Study Guide (Weeks 1-5) SMAD 150

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Sophie Witmer

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This study guide covers all of the lectures and PowerPoints that we have done so far this semester!
SMAD 150 Mediated Communication: Issues and Skills
Dr. Leidholdt
Study Guide
SMAD, Media, effects, Gender, race, audience, Literacy, Technology
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Witmer on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SMAD 150 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Leidholdt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see SMAD 150 Mediated Communication: Issues and Skills in SMAD at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
SMAD 150 Exam 1 Study Guide!!!  EXAM 1 = this Monday!!! (October 3)    Topics covered:  ★ Media Literacy  ★ Media Technology  ★ Media Effects  ★ Audiences  ★ Gender / Race                    Study the following notes to prepare for our first SMAD 150 exam!    ↓  ↓  ↓  ↓  ↓  ↓  ↓  SMAD 150 Notes, Week 1   Sophie Witmer  8/29/16    What is Media Literacy???  *the ability to understand, analyze, use words, images, sound, and multimedia formats    ● Media messages are EVERYWHERE  ○ Vending machines, ads, clothing, video games, internet, music, etc…       How does it make sense???    ● Sets of perspectives (how do YOU interpret media?)      ***In order to be media literate, be ACTIVE, not PASSIVE; use media to get further in life!      Four Dimensions of Analysis:  1. Communication Technologies  a. means understanding how new media changes and are changed by the cultures  that adopt them  i. Video: Microsoft “What is Technology?”  2. Economics of Mediated Communication  a. involves knowing how ownership and profit influence who gets a say (and sell)  what to whom  b. Powerful Media Corporations:  i. CBS  ii. Disney  iii. 20th Century FOX  1. Video: 60 Minutes Tobacco Story  3. Functions of Media in Everyday Life  a. entails becoming aware of how you use media and their contents to satisfy your  personal and social needs  i. entertainment vs. personal identity  ii. music, TV, internet, newspapers  1. Video: Uses of Music in “Diner”  4. Meaning of Messages in the Media  a. means questioning how others select and shape the “stories” that validate (or  negate) your life.  i. What does media offer to us? (messages)  ii. When we receive the “text,” what is the meaning?  iii. encoding vs. decoding (interpreting by questioning  1. Video: Mini USA “Defy Labels”    Chapter 1 key ideas:    ➔ We live in an incredibly information­saturated world  ➔ Try to figure out how to access info that will help YOU, not powerful corporations                                                                      SMAD 150 Notes, Week 2  Sophie Witmer  9/6/2016    Media Technology    *key terms*  ● Media (derived from Latin, meaning middle)​ in the middle of a communication process,  between the sender and receiver of a message  ● Traditional Mass Media ​​ echnologies that allow communication from one place to be  received in many places by a large audience   ○ print, magazine, radio, newspapers  ○ People are unable to immediately respond to traditional mass media  ● Characteristics of traditional mass media (print and broadcast) ­­   ○ Known sender/anonymous receivers  ○ One­way communication (not interactive)  ○ Clear distinction between producers and receivers     Media Characteristics  ● Mass Media  ○ Senders are known  ○ Receivers are anonymous  ○ Primarily a one­way     ● “New” Media (Internet)  ○ Notion of known senders and anonymous receivers ­­ problematic  ■ Senders can remain anonymous (Yik Yak, phishing)  ■ Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, etc. require registration so that the  receivers are NOT anonymous  ■ Search history can be found easily, making Internet receivers NOT  anonymous  ○ Often very interactive  ■ Communication can go BOTH ways (liking/disliking something on  YouTube, writing on someone’s Facebook wall)    Technological Determinism  ● An approach that identifies technology, or technological advances, as the central causal  element in processes of social change  ● “To understand the relationship between media and society, the most important question  is not ‘What does a new technology do to people?’ but, inst​ ow do people use the  new technology?’​ ” ​­­ Croteau & Hoynes, p. 300  ○ Social construction and technology determinism do NOT agree  ○ Technology dictates what humans can do  ○ Technology sets the boundaries for humans and how we use it (which is a  problem)  ○ People can find unexpected adoptions through technology (both problematic and  not)    ** the OTHER side of the argument: **    Social Construction of Media   Media technologies may have inherent capabilities that predispose them toward certain uses,  but ultimately those uses are determined by s ​ ocial forces ​ and​ uman agency.    ● Social forces include legal regulations (government), social norms (cultural values), and  market pressures (corporate interests)    ● Human agency focuses on individuals’ ability to influence the development and  application of media technologies    More to do with Social Construction of Media  ➢ Media are socially constructive  ➢ Forces are currently shaping the INTERNET (just like in the past with other technologies)  ➢ We tend to regulate the media very loosely (the US government)  ➢ Social norms and values shape our views  ➢ We tend to value immediate gratification (consumerism, entertainment, spending lots of  $)  ➢ We tend to value the individual over the good  ➢ Media reflects these norms and values  ➢ Huge media and technology companies have increasing power in the world (driven by  profits and capitalism)  ➢ Corporations value profits most of all  ➢ Strong personal LOCUS (we have initiative, free will; we help shape the media)  ➢ We are OBSESSED with social media right now (and continue to become more addicted  every day)  ➢ We are giving “free labor” to social media companies (by surrendering our privacy to the  internet)                Social Construction of Radio  ● After W. W. I  ○ Many nonprofit station owners  ○ Educational  institutions owned many stations  ○ Diverse content (educational, cultural, political)  ○ Much localism  ○ No advertising  ● Late 1920s  ○ Powerful radio networks  seize control  ○ Influence government regulators  ○ Nonprofit broadcasters lose stations  ○ Little diversity (entertainment)  ○ Little localism  ○ Much advertising    **MORE about the Social Construction of Radio**  ❖ All old communication technologies were new at one point (printing press, telegraph,  telephone, radio, tv, etc…)  ❖ Ultimately, they were all socially constructive  ❖ Commercial radio is formatted now (talk, sports, music; owned by HUGE corporations)  ❖ There is little diversity in radio today, little localism  ❖ Radio used to be different ­­ different businesses, religious groups, colleges/universities,  labor unions, etc...all used to own radio stations  ❖ Social forces (capitalism, suspicious of regulation, etc., combined to turn radio into what  it is today)  ❖ Early radio networks (BIG corporations) influenced the government to change the radio  systems in many different ways  ❖ Radio stations had different missions (to inform, educate)  ❖ BBC tried to elevate the cultural and education standards (which was successful in  Europe); however, the US made it more about entertainment than anything else    Social Construction of the Internet   ● Conceptualized in 1960s/70s as technology to facilitate:  ○ Military and government communication  ○ Computer sharing  ● Use required great technical expertise  ● Commercialism eschewed  ● Culture of openness    ● In early 1990s development of WWW (hypertext & browsers) encourage  mass adoption  ○ Businesses adopt, monetize  & seek to dominate  ○ Result of a complex social process involving commercial interests, users &  regulators to shape Internet  ● Web 2.0 coined in 2004  ○ Interactivity and content creation  ○ Participation inequality    **More about the Social Construction of the Internet**  ● What are the social forces shaping the internet??   ○ Government  ○ Commercial interests  ○ Users of the internet  ● We tend to take a very optimistic view BUT participation inequality says that people use  some social media more than others    Medium Theorists and Traditional Media   ● Meyrowitz  ○ Medium Theory  ○ “Situational Geography”  ● McLuhan  ○ “The medium is the message”  ○ Global village  ● Postman  ○ Print vs. Image  ○ Loss of context    **More about Medium Theorists and Traditional Media  ● These theorists lean more towards technology determinism  ● They believe that the technology can shape our environment  ● Meyrowitz ­­ the way tv and electronic media break the connection between physical and  social space (blurs the distinction between age, gender, and authority)  ○ Reality shows (what are the social values of these shows?) ­­ “situational  geography  ● McLuhan ­­ the whole world would be a single community (global village); does  technology create a single community? No, that is too optimistic  ● Postman ­­ with the decline of the printed world, the tv presents everything as  entertainment (weather, murder, politics...all seen as entertainment now)  ● Tv gives shorter soundbites (you can fit more into your computer ­­ loss of context)    New Media Theorists/Critics  ● Many writers today remain focused on technolog​ er se  ● utopian/uncritical visions of early internet  ● Give way to contemporary concerns  ○ Discourage reading and rigorous thinking  ○ Promote an “attention deficit culture”  ○ Alter brain development  ○ Encourage a “Generation Me”    **More about New Media Theorists/Critics  ● These people focus on the technology mainly  ● Newer generation of scholars are becoming more critical of the internet  ● They were overly optimistic when the internet first became a “thing” (they thought that  people would become more educated and it would end international strike and we would  be able to become a more peaceful world)  ● Media can be good AND bad  ● New media creates constant stimulation and multi­tasking (not always a good thing)  ● Alter brain development by stimulating one side of the brain more than the other ­­  discourages us to follow complex ideas  ● Makes us fixate on ourselves and how we present ourselves on social media (facebook,  instagram, twitter, etc.)    New Media and Social Forces  ● Factors to weigh:  ○ Technical capabilities  ○ Commercial interests  ○ User habits  ○ Government regulation  ○ Human agency    ● “A miniscule number of sites dominate web traffic.” These sites are owned by powerful  traditional media companies with “roots that predate the web” and “new internet­based  corporate giants.”​ ­­Croteau and Hoynes p.322    **More about New Media and Social Forces  ● Will new media technology alone usher in a new utopian era?  ● Will the technology itself have the opposite effect and undo our culture?  ● The authors of the reading dismiss the notion of technology determinism; they believe  that new technology cannot stand on its own  ● Commercial media companies are in the best position to steer us to content that glorifies  consumption and immediate gratification  ● Google, Facebook, YouTube, Amazon, Yahoo ­­ top 5 websites in the world  ● The government’s lack of action shapes the internet  ● Should government regulators act to end the level playing field (for the internet) and limit  our contact?    New Media and the Janus Principle  ​   SMAD 150 Notes, Week 3  Sophie Witmer  9/14    Media Effects  (Potter, Chapters 14, 13, and Appendix B)    Key Ideas:  ● Media effects are constantly occurring  ● Media work with other factors  ● You can control the effects process  ● When we take a four­dimensional perspective (timing, type, valence, intentionality), we  can better appreciate the broad range of media effects    More to do with Key Ideas  ● We refuse to accept that media exert a range of effects on audiences  ● Variation: we believe media affect other people, but not ourselves (“3rd person effect”)  ● We check our phones 150+ times each day (go to bed/wake up with our phones; spend  at least 9 hours a day exposed to media)  ● Lifetime consumption of media patterns    Factors Influencing Media Effects:  ● Baseline Factors  ○ Developmental Maturities  ○ Cognitive Abilities  ○ Knowledge Structures  ○ Sociological Factors  ○ Lifestyle  ○ Personal Locus  ○ Media Exposure Habits  ● Fluctuation Factors  ○ Content of the Messages  ○ Context of Portrayals  ○ Cognitive Complexity of Content  ○ Motivations  ○ States  ○ Degree of Identification    Four­dimensional Perspective of Media Effects  ● Timing  ○ Immediate   ○ Long­term  ● Type  ○ Cognitive  ○ Attitudinal  ○ Belief  ○ Emotional  ○ Physiological  ○ Behavioral  ○ Macro  ● Valence  ○ Positive  ○ Negative  ● Intentionality  ○ Intentional  ○ Unintentional    Cognitive Effects  ● Long­term  ○ Learning agendas  ○ Generalization  ○ Continuous partial attention    Attitudinal Effects  ● Immediate  ○ Contrast effect  ○ Inoculation  ● Long­term  ○ Cultivation  ○ Socialization    Emotional Effects  ● Long­term  ○ Desensitization    Physiological Effects  ● Immediate  ○ Arousal  ● Long­term  ○ Shifting Brain Activity    Behavioral Effects  ● Immediate  ○ Imitation  ○ Activation  ● Long­term  ○ Displacement  ○ Internet Addiction Disorder    Macro­level Effects  ● On Society  ● On Politics  ● On Religion    Media Effects in Everyday Life  ● Video: ​Consuming Kids                                                              ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ➢ “Interpretive communities”  ■ Shared interests bring audiences together  ➢ Media texts are able to allow audiences to reflect on themselves  Summary    ❖ Bullet Theory  ➢ Audience is passive / media are powerful  ❖ Uses and Gratifications  ➢ Audience is motivated and selective  ❖ Reception Analysis  ➢ Audience produces meaning                                                                ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​


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