Exam a study Guide
Lava vs. Masma - Lava is found at Earth's surface, where as magma occur beneath the surface.
Extrusive u Intrusive Extrusive - Lowa flows coming out of wicano or. Pyroclastic, debris /
leva Plow-stream or mound of coded lava meit Pyroclastic debris-fire roch" elected from volcano
volcanic ash or volcanic roce - ntrusive-magma cools/cristallizes underground
Plutons-magma chamber that cools underground
• Magma Composision-primanally of silicate materials
It is differentiated based on amathts of silica, iron,
and magnesium.. 11. Felsic-high amounts of silicer (lighter color)
2. Intermediate between felsic & Matic 13 Matic - less silica, iRon/magnesium rich! 4. Ultramatic least amount of silica, highest amounts
of non/magnesium What is Viscosity - the resistance to flow.
We also discuss several other topics like bisc 162 ole miss
you viscosity: runny Lava (watery, syrup, mafic magna hish uscosity: thick, stiff flow of lava(tar, felsic magna
THow does Magmamove?
As its heated, bonds break It becomes less dense & byenan buoyant
• Bowen's Reaction series
Describes the sequence of mineral crystallization. in cooling magman - tells us the order in which minerals are
going to cool/crystalline - The first minerals to crystalline are the
last to meet Coline) Mafic, Hot temp the last minerals to crystallice are the
first to melt. (Quartz Felsiz, cooler temp. The melting/freezing temperatures are basically the same +/-a few degrees
Discontinuous series- Produces ferromagnesian minerals continuous senes-feldspart
Iganeous Compositions de - Classification is based on texture/composition -Based on silicer content which is reflected
in the color Felse, intermediale ,matic tramatic
• Igneous Textures Rhyolite, Andeste, Aphanific- not grainy/crystallized
Basait rapid cooling - no time for crystals, extrusive Granite, Diorite, Phanentic grainy crystals Gabbro
slower cooling, crystals have time, intrusive Porphyntic-mixes of sizes/Crystals
- complex cooling histories, extrusive ex Obsidian Glassy-cools so guidely that no crystals form ex. Pumice Nesicular trapped grosses form numerous small holes.
piroclastic- fomed from explosive volcanic activity
ex mix of 2
• Naming Igreaus Rocks
We classify Igneous Rocks by texture/ composition Don't forget about the age old question of en 10060 material
• What are Plutons? How are they classified?
Plutons are bodies of igneous poche intruded in country rock (current rock bedding) or formed in place for beneath the surface.
Concordant Plutons - boundaries parallel
to layering country rock to Discordant plutions - Boundares that
cut across layering rock.
Types of Plutons - Dines-cut across layering (discordant - Sills-injected parallel to lagening (concordant) - laceolith-sill undergrund that causes laying
rock to bow upward like a dome at the surface. Voleanic Pipes magma filled, cylindrical feeder
channels beneath volcanos (Dike) ad - volanic neek - remnant pipe whensumounelines
rock from wolcano has been erveled away (Bike - Bertholiths-plutions that have more than looken? Don't forget about the age old question of "john tuman"
in area of exposure mostly found near mountains of convergent plate boundaries.
Where does Igneous activity occur? A plate boundanes
Md Orean kages Convergent, Divergent, tot spots
Definition of a volcano
an erupting vent through which molted roce surfaces. 13 components of Magma Solid pyroclastic matenal 2 fluid lava
3 das content Where does Igneous activity occur?
Plette Boundaries! Tectonic settings convergent PACIER Mid Ocean Ridges,
Continental Rifts Iyees of Wlcanic materials:
Lava Flows Basaltic caten Andesitic, Rhyolitic Perodlastic debnis 40 Volcanic gases (water vapor Basaltic- Matic very hot now silica, low viscosity
Andesitic - higher SO2 content, viscousiaus Rhyolitic-highest sila content most vicousaus Pahoe hoe Basalt with a glassy ropy skin texture
Aa-Basalt that solidities w/ a jagged sharp texture I Pillow Basalt-round blubs of basalt coled in water
Columnar jointing - solidified flows may contract w/ Versticular fracture that are hexagonal in shape coding / contracting forms hexagonal columns)
anOSA We also discuss several other topics like two cathedrals are pictured above: the cathedral of notre dame on the left, and amiens cathedral on the right. based on the images, which of the following is the major difference between the two cathedrals? a. the windows are shaped differently. b. notre
If you want to learn more check out bsc 1085
Types of volcanic and eruption styles If you want to learn more check out uci ics 33
Quiescent - produce lava flows
Explosive - blow up Where Do Wlanos form? Mid Ocean ridges Convergent Plate boundaries, Types of volcanic hazards lava flows, ash flows, lahars
Predictina Eruptions Warning signs include changes in earthquake
pattems), expansion of magma chemberi changes in amount/composistion or gates, Increase in grund temperature. These signs can not predict exact time or style
Planning Diverting Plows (w/ Baricades or water)