INR Exam 1 Study Guide
INR Exam 1 Study Guide INR 2002
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Scrivner on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INR 2002 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Meachum in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
INR Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction: Why do we study international relations? People everywhere fight each other in several different ways. o Interstate conflict (two or more states) has gone down over time o Intrastate conflict (one state) has gone up and is quite common now Ex. Syrian refugees Because of the problem of nuclear weapons. (15,000 nuclear weapons in total today, 9 countries have them) GDP: Gross Domestic Product (How a country’s economy is doing?) o GDP per Capital: meaning the individual’s wealth in a country o United States has the highest GDP and highest energy consumption: Population, GDP, Infant mortality rate The tasks of a researcher of international relations is to explain and not argue. o Ex. Regime: How are they governed? o Explain why countries are different by Describing it and then maybe one day Prescribing to make the world a better place o Ex. Kardashians: Armenian (Genocide), Cuba (Visitation) Peloponnesian War: o Used as an ancient parallel to WWII o Athens being U.S. due to huge Navy o Sparta being Germany due to Sparta having a huge Army A Realist Approach: o The state is the most important actor o The state is a unitary and rational actor o International relations are inherently conflictual o Security is the paramount concern of the state A Liberal Approach: Both state and non-state actors are important. The State us not necessarily a unitary and rational actor. Natural Condition is one of conflict and cooperation. A variety of issues dominate the agenda Realist: the actor will do what they have to for self-preservation which will further escalate the “game” Constructionists: Interested in the Ideas of Norm instead, believe there are something that the actors will not or will do since they have their own compass of right or wrong Chapter 1: What Shaped Our World? A Historical Introduction. Europeans were the ones mostly sailing around conquering new lands. Mercantilism: a system by which imperial governments used military power to enrich themselves and their supporters, then used those riches to enhance their military power. “Wealth is power, and power is wealth” France, England, Spain went going around as much as they can to build their economy and even political means because it feeds itself, also brining social and society with religion. (Colony Virginia tobacco and Britain’s manufactured goods) Sovereignty: the expectation that states have legal and political supremacy Hegemony: the predominance of one nation-state over others. (Britain pg.8) Gold Standard: the monetary system that prevailed between about 1870-1914where countries tied their currencies to gold at a legally fixed price. (1oz= 1dollar) Intersection of political, economic, and social are dependent on the solution of political outcome. League of Nations: a collective security organization founded after WWI 1914 and switched to the U.N. after 1946. NATO: military alliance: Attack on one is an attack on all. Bretton Woods System: the economic order involving a commitment to relatively low barriers to international trade and investment. Warsaw Pact: a military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the Soviet Union and their European alliances. Decolonization: colonial subjects fought to leave the colonial empires from Europeans in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. Polarity: Multi: blends itself to balance power. Bipolar like Cold War with U.S. and Russia, they say bipolar is safer and offset each other. 1517: Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldryuch Zwingli o Three guys who didn’t like what the Church was doing so they wanted change by creating Lutheran, C1alvinist, and Anglican created by Henry VIII. 1555: The Hapsburg in Europe: Charles V conquers land but splits the Empire 1618: Thirty Years War- Defenestration of Prague o They didn’t want to practice Calm so Catholics were thrown out of the window. Protestants Vs. Catholics or Holy Roman Empire Vs. Spain 1648: Peace of Westphalia: the ending of the Thirty Years War. Put up borders around counties 1754: Boom! Taking their modes of political discourse, huge influence Latin American Revolution: 1800-1822:Spain no longer in control American Revolution: 1754-1800: Britain no longer in control French Revolution: 1775: Rise of Napoleon 1815: Congress of Vienna: End of the War where they agreed to never do that again… 1815-1914: Pax Britannica: began after the defeat of Napoleon and ended after the outbreak of the WWI during which Britain’s economic and diplomatic influence contributed to economic openness and relative peace by trying to stop supremacy in a country. Britain came out great after the war with the Austrian Empire, Russian Empire, and Prussia. Europe in 1800- Latin Revolution, Greece fought for their independence o Russia wanted more land to have warmer areas to be able to ship their goods because during winter their oceans freeze over. o Otto von Bismarck: 1862 Prime Minister for Prussia Empire, created alliances to have a plan for anything Prussia went to war with Austria: Prussia won o 1871 Germany was created -Europe in 1900- Germany went against France for land o 1914: Germany, Italy, Austria= Triple Alliance. Italy made it Triple Alliance in 1881. Triple alliance was an alliance with each other but if were attacked the other country would stay neutral. If France attacked Italy then Germany and Austria would help. If France attacked Germany then Italy and Austria would help. But if Austria was attacked by Russia, Italy would stay neutral. o Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia were in alliance with each other. o -Gavrilo Princip: most influential person in the 20 century world history. o Franz Ferdinand went to Serbia where Princip went through several trail and errors to assassinate Ferdinand till he got his opportunity because Ferdinand’s driver took a wrong turn causing WWI. o WWI went directly into WWII. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles which is why WWII happened because Germany was in a Depression where Hitler was able to influence the people to bring them together in some sense of nationalism. o WWII went directly into the Cold War o 1914: flexible agreements multipolar to bipolar wasn’t stable which allowed the chain reaction of wars o Germany and Russia knew there was going to be a war so they both planned for it by moving their troops out so the war wouldn’t be fought at home and laid railroad tracks(Germany) Levels of Analysis: Domestic (States) International (Units) Transnational (Multi Nation Corporations) -Three Images: Individual State System -Transparent trading opportunities, Before WWI it was considered the Old World. Rise of fascism was a domestic problem: Italy, Germany Hyperinflation: where the paper of money doesn’t worth anything anymore(Germany) Middle Class hits the hardest in the economy -Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles where Germany had to pay France but Germany’s money had fell so it wasn’t worth anything. Hitler made that his way to the top because he wanted the German people feel proud that others will remember Germany. Following WWI, the United States was isolated, League of Nations by President Wilson. 1920-1935USA retreated from the world, Russia did the same. -Cold War: nuclear weapon countries wanted to fight. Communism vs. Democracy split the world to pick sides of either the U.S. or the Soviet Union. o NATO, Warsaw Pac, and Proxy Wars: little wars to help the little countries from being swallowed up by the big guys. o Fall of Berlin Wall, Collapse of the Soviet Union: globalization. Chapter 2: Understanding Interests, Interactions, and Institutions Why is it so hard to cooperate? Interests: The goals that actors have, the outcomes they hope to obtain through political action. What do the relevant actors want? Interactions: Interactions are the ways in which two or more actors choices combine to produce political outcomes. Between the relevant actors and why it is important? Ex. Bargaining and Cooperation, International Trade, Why can’t actors always get what the want? Ex. Saddam Hussein Institution: A set of rules- World Trade Federation: Everyone who is in the organization agrees to treat everyone and their trade equally to each and every country. Norms: the things that shape relationships and interactions between the actors. Understand GAME MATRIX or Game Theory! Page 82 Actors: the basic unit for the analysis of international politics; can be individuals or groups of people with common interests. State: A central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws, rules, and decisions within a specified territory. Sovereignty: the expectation that states have legal and political supremacy or ultimate authority within their territorial boundaries. Anarchy: the absence of a central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws that bind all actors. (means that states must fight preventative wars or because of security dilemma) National interests: interests attributed to the state itself, usually security and power. Cooperation: an interaction in which two or more actors adopt policies that makes at least one actor better off relative to the status quo without making others worse off. Bargaining: an interaction in which actors must choose outcome that make one better off at the expense of another. Bargaining is redistributive: it involves allocating a fixed sum of value between different actors. Coordination: a type of cooperative interaction in which actors benefit from all making the same choices and subsequently have no incentive to not comply. Collaboration: a type of cooperative interaction in which actors gain from working together but nonetheless have incentives to not comply with any agreement. Public goods: products that are nonexcludable and nonrival in consumption like national defense. Collective Action problems: obstacles to cooperation that occur when actors have incentives to collaborate but each acts in anticipation that others will pay the costs of cooperation. Ex. Shopping carts in the Game Matrix Free ride: to fail to contribute to a public good while benefiting from the contributing of others. Iteration: repeated interactions with the same partners. Linkage: the linking of cooperation on one issue to interactions on a second issue. Power: the ability of Actor A to get Actor B to do something that B would otherwise not do, the ability to get the other side to make concessions and to avoid having to make concessions oneself. Coercion: A strategy of imposing or threatening to impose costs on other actors in order to induce a change in their behavior Outside options: the alternatives to bargaining with a specific actor. Agenda-setting power: a first mover advantage that helps an actor to secure a more favorable bargain. Institution: a set of rules that structure interactions in specific ways. Chapter 3: What is the Purpose of Wars? Ex. Dr. Seuss The Butter Battle Book War should not happen when two rational actors cam bargain out. In a perfect world, there is always an agreement before war. COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND THE BARGAINING MODEL Page 98 Bargaining Failures 1. Incomplete information: a situation in which actors in a strategic interaction lack information about other actors’ interests and or capabilities, resolve, and misrepresentation and credibility. (When they didn’t know the outcome. Never know what the other player has.) 2. Commitment Problems: goods that are a source of future bargaining power, changing of power, and first strike capability. 3. Issue Indivisibility: something that cannot be divided. Ex. Jerusalem War: an event involving the organized use of military force by at least two parties that reaches a minimum threshold of severity. Interstate war: a war in which the main participants are states. Civil War: a war which the main participants are within the same state, such as the government and a rebel group. Security Dilemma: a dilemma that arises when efforts that states make to defend themselves cause other states to feel less secure. Crisis bargaining: a bargaining interaction in which at least one actor threatens to use force in the event that its demands are not met. Coercive diplomacy: the use of threats to influence the outcome of a bargaining interaction. Bargaining range: the set of deals that both parties in a bargaining interaction prefer to the reversion outcome is war, the bargaining range is the set of deals that both sides prefer to war. Compellence: an effort to change the status quo through threat of force. Deterrence: an effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force. Resolve:the willingness of an actor to endure costs in order to acquire some good. Risk-return trade-off: In crisis bargaining, the trade-off between trying to get a better deal and trying to avoid a war. Credibility: A credible threat is a threat that the recipient believes will be carried out. Brinksmanship: a strategy in which adversaries take actions that increase the risk of accidental war, with the hope that the other will blink or lose its nerve first and make concessions. Audience costs:negative repercussions for failing to follow through on a threat or to honor a commitment Preventive war: a war fought with the intention of preventing an adversary from becoming stronger in the future. They arise because states whose power is increasing cannot commit not to exploit that power in future bargaining interactions. First-strike Advantage: the situation that arises when military technology, military strategies and/or geography give a significant advantage to whichever state attacks first in a war. Preemptive war: a war fought with the anticipation that an attack by the other side is imminent. Indivisible good: a good that cannot be divided without diminishing its value. Status Quo Effects: move this border or else, bargaining land (Crisis bargaining) See if you are better off going to war. -Logic of the Bargaining Model: war is costly! Actors will choose an outcome with the best expected payoff. Bargaining range to prevent war. Two Conflicts: Negotiation and Crisis Bargaining: -1961: U.S. deploys missiles in Turkey and Italy causing first strike capabilities. 1962: Nuclear War 13 days came close to blowing each other up. JFK vs. Khrushchev. Khrushchev put missiles in Cuba to begin the Coercive bargaining. U.S. Naval quarantine around Cuba and not called a blockade because blockade is an act of war. They finally bargain to where the U.S. removes their missiles in Turkey and Russia removes their missiles in Cuba. Bargaining Range (war cost was too great) -1982: The Falkland Islands: Battle for these islands against Argentina and Britain. This island had no value but Margaret Thatcher Prime Minister of Britain wanted to go there because she knew she would beat Argentina since their economy was weak so Britain won and since it made her look good at that time, she called for an election and she won obviously. Parliamentary system can call for an election whenever they want. Chapter 4: Domestic Politics and War Understand the beginning of the chapter! Page 136 Bureaucracy: the collection of organizations including military, diplomatic corps, and the intelligence agencies that carry out most tasks of governance within the state. Interest groups: groups of individuals with common interests that organize to influence public policy in a manner that benefits their members. Rally effect: the tendency for people to become more supportive of their country’s government in response to dramatic international events such as crises or wars. Military industrial complex: an alliance between military leaders and the industries that benefit from international conflict, such as arms manufacturers. Democratic peace: the observation that there are few, if any, clear cases of war between mature democratic states. Democracy: a political system in which candidates compete for political office through frequent and fair elections in which a sizable portion of the adult population can vote. Autocracy: a political system in which an individual or small group exercises power with few constraints and no meaningful competition or participation by the general public Accountability: the ability to punish or reward leaders for the decisions they make as when frequent fair elections enable voters to hold elected officials responsible for their actions by granting or withholding access to political office. Second Image Expectations: 1. Leader (Margaret Thatcher) 2. Bureaucracy (CIA, Military) 3. Interest Groups (Economic: Health insurers, Banks. Ethnic: Planned Parenthood) 4. General Public (Us) Why does a dog wag its tail joke? Gambling for resurrection Ex. Thatcher Bill Clinton: Scandal covered with Operation Mega Fox: bombing Iraq 1998, Operation Infinite Reach: Al Qaeda,Operation Allied Force: NATO bombing. Context is important with leaders and how they stay in office. Bureaucracy: How do groups affect bargaining? Hawks vs Doves. Eisenhower speech about Military Industrial Complex. Oil companies having interest to ensure supply might be committed to making sure the regime are in control. Domestic Groups and War: war may serve the interests of some domestic groups. Groups may have selfish interests contrary to national interests. What makes interest groups effective? If you have smaller group you have loyalty, narrow class, biggest share of interest. Fruit companies afraid of Latin America policies so they went to Congress to create U.S. policies on fruit.
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