Study Guide 1 part 1
Study Guide 1 part 1 ASTR-161
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Kollar on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR-161 at Towson University taught by Christian J. Ready in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see GENERAL ASTRONOMY I in Astronomy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
ASTR 161.101 Test 1 - Study Guide Quiz Chapter 1.1, 1.3 1. Daily motion of the Sun, Moon, & other celestial bodies is diurnal mo- tion 2. At 0° latitude, Earth rotates East to West. 3. At 90° latitude (South Pole), all stars are circumpolar - they don’t rise nor set. 4. An observer at mid-latitude in Southern Hemisphere will observe sun & & celestial bodies moving East to West. 5. The celestial equator is the projection of Earth’s equator on the celes- tial sphere. 6. The ecliptic is the projection of the Sun’s path throughout the year on the celestial sphere. 7. The vernal equinox is an intersection of te ecliptic and celestial equa- tor, and marks the osition of the sun on March 20. 8. Looking at the night sky and noticing a star rising exactly East, the azimuth of the star is 90°. 9. At 8pm a star rises east on the horizon. One hour later, it’s higher East. (It rose straight upward). Your latitude on Earth is 0° - Equator. 10. From Baltimore (lat +39°) a star rising east will appear to move up▯- ward and toward southeast. Lab Chapter 1.1, 1.3 1. The apparent motion of the sun and stars over a 24hr period goes from east to west. 2. To us, Polaris never seems to move. 3. From Baltimore, 3 constellations that never set include: Ursa Minor, Draco, and Cassiopeia. 4. Polaris’ altitude is 90°. Lab Chapter 1.1, 1.3 5. The stars’ highest altitude is at the meridian. 6. From the North Pole, Polaris’ altitude is 90°. 7. All stars are circumpolar from the North Pole. None of them set. 8. As you move farther south from the North Pole, less stars become circumpolar. 9. From Baltimore, some stars are not viewable. We would need to move farther south to see more stars. 10. From the equator, the celestial equator passes directly over Earth’s equator at 270° W 90° N. It passes through the zenith and the me- ridian. 11. From the equator, stars move east to west. There are no circumpolar stars like in Baltimore but you still see some of the same constella- tions. 12. From the equator, Polaris is not visible because it is at 0° on the horizon. 13 There are no circumpolar stars visible at the equator. 14.Ignoring sunlight, all of the celestial sphere is visible from te equato▯r over 24hrs. 16. There are circumpolar stars visible from Rio, Brazil. Two circumpolar constellaitons include Atria and V Oct. 17. From Baltimore, more stars are visible north of the celestial equator because we are in the northern hemisphere. 18. The sun appears to be in Leo’s constellation “today.” 19. The new constellation in which the sun entered is Virgo, on Septem- ber 18. 20. Over the course of a year, the Sun passes through 13 constellations: Libra, Scorpius, Ochiuchus, Saggitarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo. Lab Chapter 1.1, 1.3 21. June 18 - Summer December 18 - Winter March 19 - Spring September 24 - Fall 17. The sun is at the vernal (fall) equinox during Constellation Pisces. 18. The sun is at the summer Solstice during constellation Taurus. 19. Winter is not a good time to observe constellation sagittarius be- cause the sun is in that constellation during the wintersolstice, so the constellation will set with the sun. Vertical lines on the celestial sphere represent hours in a 24hr day and ▯ are called Right Ascension (RA). Horizontal lines are called parallels of Declination (DEC). 20. Star located at RA = 5h 55m and DEC = +7° 24’ is Betelgeuse. 21. North Celestial Pole has a declination of +89° 20’ 22. Equatorial coordinates of the following stars: Sirius — RA = 6h 45m and DEC = -16° 43’ Vega — RA = 18h 27m and DEC = 30° 48’ Antares — RA = 16h 30m and DEC = -26° 27’ Quiz Chapter 2.2, 2.3, 2.5 1. If Earth were tilted more on its axis (60° rather than 23.5▯ r ou location would have colder winters. 2. When the moon is on the meridian at sunrise, it’s phase is 3rd quarter. 3. The moon appears reddish during a lunar ecplise because Earth’s atmosphere absorbs most sunlight but bends orange and red sunlight into Earth’s umbral shadow. 4. Throughout the year, the Sun’s path is called the Ecliptic. 5. Seasons are caused by Earth’s tilt. When thr northern hemisphere tilts toward the Sun, it’s summer. When tilted away, it’s winter. Quiz Chapter 2.2, 2.3, 2.5 6. The two places on Earth where you can see 24hr Sun are north of the Arctic Circle and South of the Antarctic Circle. 7. Standing on Earth in the Moon’s shadow when the moon is in perigee, it is a total solar eclipse. 8. Solar ecplises occur 2-3 times a year, but are seldom visible from Baltimore because the moon’s shadow projects on a small portion of the Earth’s surface. 9. Lunar eclipses only occur when the moon is full. 10. Solar and lunar eclipses don’t occur exactly every 6 months because the 19.4° of annual regression of the moon’s line of nodes. Quiz Chapter 3.1-3.5 1. Galileo’s observations that showed objects in the heavens aren’t perfect spheres is due to the moon’s jagged terminator (region where the daylight side of the moon crosses into the darkened side). 2. Galileo’s observations that showed objects in the heavens don’t orbit Earth is because of changes on Venus and changing positions of Jupiter’s satellites. 3. Galileo’s observations that showed the Church’s teachings about gravity were incorrect because objects dropped from the Tower of Pisa struck the ground at the same time. 4. What direction does a superior planet appear to move from one night to t▯he next while not in retrograde motion? Eastward 5. While in retrograde motion? Westward 6. Where would you look to see a planet rise when it is in retrograde motio▯n? Near the East horizon 7. Newton’s First Law states that objects will remain moving or at rest until an external foce acts on it. 8. Newton’s Second Law states that the force acting on a mass will produce a change in velocity. 9. Your car can be accelerated by a gas pedal, steering wheel, & break petal▯. 10. Kepler’s Second Law implies that an object moves fastest in orbit around the Sun near perihelion and slowest near aphelion. Quiz Chapter 4.1-4.4 1. If Earth were moved to a distance from the Sun twice that of what it is ▯now, the gravitational force would be one fourth as strong. 2. Your weight equals the force between you and Earth. If you weigh 150 lbs,▯ the force you exert on Earth is 150 lbs. 3. Earth and Moon have a gravitational force between them. The mass of the Moon is 1.2% the mass of Earth. This means the moon has a larger acceleration than Earth, the gravitatio▯nal force of Earth on the Moon is in the opposite direction of the gravitational force of t▯he Moon on Earth, and the forces are equal, even though the masses are different. 4. Tides are predominantly caused by the difference between the Moon’s gravity on different parts of Earth. 5. If the mass of the Moon were to double, the gravitational force between ▯the Earth and Moon will be twice as strong. 6. As you get farther from the surface of the Earth, the acceleration due t▯o gravity decreases. 7. To escape velocity from Earth, a spacecraft must change its orbit from an▯ elliptical to a hyperbolic orbit. 8. Newton showed that Kepler’s Second Law of Planetary Motion works because the acceleration due to gravity is strongest at perihelion and weakest at aphelion. 9. You can lower your weight by reducing your mass, reducing the Earth’s mass, and relocating to a lower-mass celestial body, such as the Moon or Mars. 10. A planet in a perfectly circular orbit around the Sun is accelerating tow▯ard the Sun because its direction constantly changes.
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