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English 215: British Literature

by: BreAnna Smith

English 215: British Literature 215

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > ENGLISH (ENG) > 215 > English 215 British Literature
BreAnna Smith
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Historical dates, literary terms and text summaries and analysis on the beginning of British literature.
Honors: British Literature
Professor Kightley
Study Guide
English/Journalism, english, Study Guide, Midterm Study Guide, british literature, british, UniversityofLouisianaatLafayette, university of louisiana at lafayette, Lafayette, historical, Literary Analysis, literary, key terms, honors, lanval, marie de france, Shakespeare, Macbeth, TheDreamoftheRood, Wanderer, Caedmon, Bede, ThePoisionedApple, thomas, Mallory
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by BreAnna Smith on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 215 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Professor Kightley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Honors: British Literature in ENGLISH (ENG) at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Test 1 Study Pack: Honors British Literature Key Historical Dates  597: Re­Conversion of the Anglo­Saxons to Christianity   793: Vikings raid monasteries and churches in England and invade the country  991: Scandinavian ruler takes over  1066: Norman Conquest: William, Duke of Normandy invades 1. England becomes bilingual, but the rulers speak French => Middle English  1350: Plague  1500s: English Renaissance began, printing press arrived in Europe, renewed interest in  ancient art, poetry, drama, music, etc. = culture  1517: Martin Luther – ignites the Reformation with the “95 Thesis” (grievances). 1. Mid­ 1500th Church goes through Reformation  2. Henry 8  – made his own church = Anglican church  1611: King James Bible is completed   1640s: Restoration – civil war 1. Monarchist vs. Parliament 2. 1649: Parliament wins – King Charles is executed 3. 11 years without a king nd 4. 1660: Charles 2  became King/ Monarchy was restored.  1590s­ 1610: Shakespeare’s writing   1603: Queen Elizabeth dies => King James 1  of England and 6  of Scotland  1. Chamberlain’s Men => King’s Men Terms 1. Poetry: has a rhythmic structure and verse 2. Prose: not poetry; natural form of speech  3. Frame Narrative: one narrator begins and ends, but there’s another speaker in the middle  (story within a story).  4. Alliteration: repetition of the beginning sounds. 5. Apposition: clarifying term that could take the place of a subject. 6. Personification: giving human like qualities to an object or inhuman thing. 7. Liminality: to be two things at once, but also neither (i.e. Griffin­Lion/Eagle). 8. Elegy: poem about loss of something or someone as the subject progresses towards  consolation  9. Genre: classification of text, rules that a text follows a set of common features. 10. Romance: narratives involving the noble/courtly class (knights, ladies, royalty),  characters will be human, but have encounters with the supernatural, an adventure tale  (quest), deeds of valor, involves romantic love (but not always). 11. Irony: when there is more than one thing being said at once through the same words 12. Intertextuality: when 2 texts are in conversation with each other (i.e. LOTR to  Macbeth).  Caedmon’s Hymn  Author: Bede Date: 731 o Story about CONVERSION from secular to a holy life.  o Apposition: a. Heaven kingdom’s guardian b. Maker’s might c. Glory­father  d. Each of wonders  e. Eternal Lord f. The holy Creator  g. Middle­earth’s mankind’s guardian  h. The Lord Almighty  o Caedmon starts as an oxherd; cannot sing and leaves the party. o He has a dream and is told to sing about creation; becomes wonderful singer. o Conversion of the Country; personal miracle to cultural miracle: poetic form suitable for  holy texts. o Describes the best way to die = settling his differences is not being afraid of death. o Religion is a consolation for death. o The speaker is not afraid to die because of his faith in the Lord. o Pagans are afraid of death because death = nothing (no afterlife). o Christians have faith and death = heaven. o FORM = MEANING The Dream of the Rood Author: Unknown Date: 10  century o Thane (lord)/ Retainer relationship is based on LOYALTY o Thane provides: a. Protection and Care b. Generous (buys beer, gives money, etc.) o Retainer gives: a. By fighting and defending their lord b. Avenge their lord or die trying o Frame Narrative­ a change from the beginning to the end. Retainer = Tree/Cross and  Thane = Christ o Paradox: the cross is the killer of Christ o Liminality: “bloody cross/ bejeweled)  o The Cross does not fulfill his duty as a retainer, but he also doesn’t want to go against his  lord. o His lord’s wishes are worth more than his duties.  o Not a coward or betrayer; a hero.  o Christian Heroism: patient and suffering.  o Conversion story­ The Speaker will go on to spread the word of Christ. / Pass the  message on.  The Wanderer Author: Unknown  Date: 10  century o Frame narrative (3  p. > 1  p. > 3  p.) o Elegy: About a retainer who is without a lord. o Speaker is in exile from where he is from at sea. o Ocean = loneliness, chaotic, lost, cold o “fate is fully fixed” – creates a sense of hopelessness. o Progression towards consolation: one does not have control of fate, but you have control  of how you think about it. o (Anglo­Saxon) lord & retainer = instability // (Christian) Lord & retainer = stability  Lanval Author: Marie de France th Date: late 12  century or 1160 Genre: Romance o Gendered Power: a. Beginning – military power, manly b. Ending – magical power, womanly o Avalon; Associated with women of power/ supernatural  o Emasculation­ taking away masculinity  o Misogyny o Anger and Envy is a recurring theme with the text; emotions get a passed along: a. Queen Guinevere becomes mad/ Calls Lanval gay b. Lanval becomes angry as well/ Speaks of his fair maiden  o Fairy Queen makes a case about her power over Lanval’s masculinity  o Fairy Queen had to make herself a display for people (men) to judge her when she  wanted no one to know of her. = submitting herself to judgment  o Roles reversed: The Fairy Queen rides in front on the horse with Lanval behind her on a  woman’s horse to Avalon. o King Arthur’s kingdom is flawed; women have to leave for a solution to inequality.  The Poisoned Apple Author: Thomas Mallory Date: 1470 o Broke his promise to live a righteous (holy) life, but in the end he went back to having an  affair with Queen Guinevere.  o Lancelot: a. Outside: he wants to say that that he does fight for the Lord b. Inside: he only fights for Guinevere and worldly worship o Lancelot chooses the Queen over God. He chooses instability over stability.  o Trial by Combat­ Lancelot “wins whether he is right or wrong.” – Mallory’s thinking. o Arthur is symbolic of how the justice system should work. o Nineveh shows up to speak of the validity of the trial and reveal the truth. / Supernatural  Macbeth Author: William Shakespeare Date: 1606 or 1607 Genre: Tragedy Mode: Horror o Witches description don’t fit within a box; unsettling: a. Supernatural but natural b. Alive? or dead? c. Women, but beards o Witches don’t tell how Macbeth would become King: they equivocate.  o Macbeth/ King Duncan­ Retainer/ Thane  o Act 1 scene 5: Lady Macbeth calls on the spirits to take away her femininity.  o Act 1 scene 6:  Macbeth’s soliloquy opens the door for psychological disturbance. a. Thought process of a normal person becoming a killer. b. Creates horror the more human/ relatable that it gets c. Reasons not to kill the king = consequences  o Lady Macbeth’s definition of masculinity: someone in whom desire and action is the  same.  o Macbeth’s definition of masculinity: the best man is loyal, a good host, loved, but a man  who crosses the line he is not. o Act 2 scene 2: Irony a. Lady Macbeth talked about killing her baby, but when faced with the task she  wouldn’t do it.  o THOUGHT (desire) = ACTION  o Lady Macbeth becomes insane because of her actions but she was never that way to  begin with.  o Macbeth becomes the definition of Lady Macbeth’s masculinity.  o Act 4 scene 1:  o Macbeth seeks the witches out for more information = giving up his free will. o Personification – Macbeth is talking with Time b. Anticipation of how he will deal with these actions. c. Talking intimately with Time about fate.  o Act 4 scene 3:  a. Malcolm’s Definition of Masculinity­ a balance between thoughts and actions. b. Feel it, Think about it, the Do it.  o Act 5 scene 5:  a. Macbeth is no longer phased about people dying around him. (When he killed  Duncan he was distraught.) Lady Macbeth dies. b. Macbeth predicted that consequences would follow if he killed Duncan. c. Acknowledges that his time will end with the last of word of the play. d. Macbeth is realizing his lack of free will! o Act 5 scene 8: a. Siward’s definition of Masculinity – Fighting to death and bravely; not running  away. (Macbeth fulfills this definition in his final moments when fighting  Macduff).  b. Macbeth realizes that equivocations of the witches who have been fooling him. c. Out of all the predictions he has heard, Macbeth doesn’t listen to the one with no  equivocation.  d. Macbeth did not want to lose his masculinity at the end, he had given up his free  will, but he reclaims it by choosing his own fate/ ending.  o Interpretation: God doesn’t have a definite future; he just predicts waaaaay better. / The  witches do the same thing in this text.  Related Themes  Fate: The Wanderer, Macbeth  Power:  Lanval, The Poisoned Apple, Macbeth  Gender:  Lanval, The Poisoned Apple, Macbeth Lord/ Retainer: The Dream of the Rood, The Wanderer, Macbeth  Conversion:  Caedmon, The Dream of the Rood, The Wanderer   Free Will   The Wanderer, Macbeth  Stability/ Instabi :  The Wanderer, The Poisoned Apple 


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