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Biology 1020

by: Lonnie E hammond IV

Biology 1020 BIOL1020

Lonnie E hammond IV

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Princibles of Biology 1
Thomas Sasek
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lonnie E hammond IV on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Thomas Sasek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Princibles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Exam Date 10/3/2016 Chapter 6, The endomembrane system and the organelles of the cytoskeleton  Endomembrane system 1. Nucleus: includes nuclear envelope, chromatin, and nucleolus (center of nucleus). Nuclear envelope has pore that allows certain things to pass through it. Chromatin is DNA in its unraveled form. 2. ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum): rough ER is Responsible for moving proteins around the cell in vesicles. Named for the Ribosomes that are on the ER. Smooth ER makes lipids, breaks don carbohydrates and Detoxifies cells. 3. Ribosomes: found in ER, and Nuclear Envelope, makes proteins. 4. Golgi apparatus: Stores proteins and other substances of the cell in an environment where they won’t be denatured. Moves things around the cell and to the Cell membrane. 5. Lysosomes: Digest food from outside the cell. 6. Vacuoles: in plants, holds water, very large. Some bacteria use it to push water out.  Organelles And the cytoskeleton 1. Mitochondria: makes useable energy for cell. Originally a separate organism, has own DNA 2. Chloroplast: Found in plant cells Turns light into energy that the plant can use. Originally a separate organism has own DNA. 3. Peroxisome: help detoxify cell by removing hydrogen’s and giving them to oxygen. 4. Cytoskeleton: made up of microtubules Help form structure of cell and move organelles around with motor proteins. 5. Motor proteins: moves organelles around cell with energy from ATP. 6. Microfilaments: Made of two Actin fibers, responsible for muscle movement and movement of cell. 7. Intermediate filaments: made of proteins like keratin and act as suspension cords holding tension. 8. Centrioles: In centrosomes, come in pairs, made of microtubules, they organize microtubules. 9. Flagella: long tales on cells made of microtubules connected with actin filaments, usually one or three tales some cells, move in wave like motion. 10.Cilia: short tails that move like paddle boat paddles, hundreds of cilia. 11.Cell wall: only in plants give it ridges structure, connected to each other through middle lamina. 12.Extra cellular matrix: layer of carbohydrates and glycoproteins outside the cell. 13.Tight junctions, desmosomes, Gap Junctions: connects two animal cells, Tight junctions are two proteins connecting, desmosomes are microfilaments connecting, gap junctions are channel proteins connecting. Chapter 11, The cell cycle  Interphase 1. G1 phase: the cell grows and prepares for mitosis. 2. S phase: the cell makes copies of chromosomes 3. G2 phase: Cell prepares for division and grows more. Centrioles appear.  Metaphase 1. Prophase: chromosomes pair up, spindles from centrioles appear. 2. Prometaphase: Nuclear envelope disappears, Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes. 3. Metaphase: Chromosomes line up in the center. 4. Anaphase: chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell. 5. Telophase: cleavage furrow forms. ( a crease in the cell membrane). 6. Cytokinesis: the chromosome divides, nuclear envelope reappears, and chromosomes unravel. 7. Cell plate: plant cells don preform don’t have a cleavage furrow that separates the cell, a piece of the cell wall splits the cell in half called the cell plate. Chapter 8 ,Energy Enzymes and Metabolism  Catabolic path ways : the give off energy  Anabolic pathways: use energy  Thermal energy: kinetic that is perceived as heat when transferred from one object to another.  Chemical Energy: potential energy released in a chemical reaction.  Thermodynamics: the study of energy transformations in mater.  First law of thermodynamics: Energy of the universe is constant, energy cannot be destroyed or created.  Second law of dynamics: Every transformation increases the entropy of the universe.  Spontaneous process: when a reaction increases entropy without the input of energy.  Catalyst: a substance that speeds up reactions  Enzyme: a substance that acts as a catalyst in organisms. They also lower the activation energy.  Activation energy: the amount of energy that it takes for a chemical reaction to take place.  Substrate: a substance that binds to the active site of an enzyme  Active site: the area where substrates bind to enzymes.  Enzyme –substrate complex: The state when the substrate bind to the active site.  Inhibitor: a substance that doesn’t let substrates bind to the active site. 


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